Characterisation of zulu (Nguni) sheep for utilization, improvement and conservation

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Presentation by Kunene NW, Bezuidenhout CC, Nesamvuni EA, Nsahlai IV at the 5th All Africa conference on animal production, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-28 October 2010.

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Characterisation of zulu (Nguni) sheep for utilization, improvement and conservation

  1. 1. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icuA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i c Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. CHARACTERISATION OF ZULU (NGUNI) SHEEP FOR UTILIZATION, IMPROVEMENT AND CONSERVATION
  2. 2. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icuA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i c Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. Kunene NW, Bezuidenhout CC, Nesamvuni EA, Nsahlai IV University of Zululand North-West University, Potchefstroom Limpopo Department of Agriculture University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg
  3. 3. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icuA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i c Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. INTRODUCTION ZULU SHEEP
  4. 4. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icuA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i c Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. INTRODUCTION • Between the third and second centuries, migrators brought early Iron Age communities into the eastern parts of South Africa • One group of the Iron Age people came down the east coast to Natal. • Brought sheep and cattle which are suspected to be the ancestors of the Nguni breeds
  5. 5. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icuA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i c Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. INTRODUCTION • The Nguni sheep of Zululand are called Zulu sheep • Swaziland: Swazi sheep • Zulu sheep are found in the communal areas of KwaZulu- Natal • Research flocks: Makhathini Research Station and at the University of Zululand
  6. 6. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icuA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i c Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. INTRODUCTION • For many decades, indigenous genetic resources have been perceived as unproductive and inherently inferior to high performance or improved breeds • Consequently: subjected to cross- breeding or even replacement with exotic breeds • Rapid decline in numbers of the indigenous breeds
  7. 7. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icuA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i c Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. INTRODUCTION Reports: Zulu sheep numbers are declining due to replacement and crossbreeding with exotic breeds
  8. 8. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. INTRODUCTION Not enough information available on characteristics of Zulu sheep Need to document Zulu sheep genetic and phenotypic resources and to design and implement strategies for their sustainable conservation. Traditional farmers in developing countries manage their livestock according to their indigenous knowledge.
  9. 9. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. INTRODUCTION Maintenance of the remaining livestock diversity in communal farming require: • Support for research on indigenous knowledge and • Capacity building at grassroots and at national level
  10. 10. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. INTRODUCTION The objectives of the present study were: • To obtain information on the utilization, socio- economic and cultural values by the farmers using the Zulu sheep breed; • To preliminary characterise and estimate phenotypic variation within the Zulu sheep breed using six morphological characteristics; • To estimate the live weight prediction equations of the Zulu sheep breed using some body linear measurements and; • To assess the genetic variation within this breed.
  11. 11. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. INTRODUCTION The aim: • Preliminary characterisation for utilization, improvement and conservation.
  12. 12. A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1. Interviewed 76 farmers in the rural north of KwaZulu-Natal: • Utilization • Socio economic status on keeping livestock including Zulu sheep • Management patterns including indigenous knowledge
  13. 13. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2. Three populations of Zulu sheep under extensive management • Two populations from research stations (250 km apart) 1. UNIZULU 2. Makhathini Research Station • One population from the community at Enqutshini-KwaMthethwa: 40km from UNIZULU
  14. 14. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS Measurements of heart girth (HG) wither height (WH), live weight (LW) , Scrotum circumference (SC) for 2½ years Some parameters of reproductive performance: birth weight, parity and litter size Ear length (El) and Colour The age of sheep was estimated using dentition.
  15. 15. The 5The 5 A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3. Random amplified polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis was carried out using DNA of 52 Zulu sheep from the three populations.
  16. 16. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1. Intra and inter- population phenotypic and genetic diversity was expressed as dendograms using complete linkage of Minitab (1998) 2. The regression and Pearson coefficients procedures of Minitab Inc. (1998) were used for the analysis 3. ANOVA: GLM of Minitab (1998)
  17. 17. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION • 20% total income per annum: generated from livestock • 3.5 % of the total income from livestock was obtained from sheep sales Use of sheep: i) Source of food ii) Sometimes given to relatives as presents iii) Payments of penalties iv) Sales when there is need
  18. 18. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION • 30 % of farmers keep sheep • Sheep are 3% of total livestock • All sheep owners reported to keep Zulu sheep Different survey in four districts of KZN: 4031 Zulu goats, 2424 cattle and 433 Zulu sheep
  19. 19. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Adaptability traits reported: i) Resistance to diseases ii) Good meat quality iii) Ability to flourish in the hot and humid climate of KZN No dipping in these areas Dewormed only if there is sign of internal parasite i.e. mucus
  20. 20. The 5The 5 A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Supplements: Groundnuts and some leaves of certain species like Sarcostemma viminale, Crinum macowanii which increase milk production
  21. 21. The 5The 5 A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Main constraint mentioned: • Lack of knowledge on animal husbandry Solution: • Government could intervene with more extension officers
  22. 22. A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS Dominant colours: • Brown and a white colour combination Brown or dark brown are born as black lambs and gradually change to brown or dark brown as the lambs grow
  23. 23. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  24. 24. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. 32 kg for females and 38 kg for males 2. LW and LBM of Zulu sheep were significantly affected by change of season 3. Similar for summer and autumn and for winter and spring 4. Differences of 2.58 kg, 3.90 cm and 1.52 cm for LW, HG and WH, respectively were realized
  25. 25. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Another study under extensive environment: • Zulu sheep did not lose weight between wet (29.1 ± 1.21kg) and dry seasons (27.9 ± 0.79 kg) • Increase forage time and bite size in the dry season
  26. 26. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. Effect of area UNIZULU KwaMthethwa Makhathini Live weight 22.76a ± 0.44 N=843 28.54b ± 0.50 N=874 34.28c ± 0.44 N=652 Heart girth 68.67a ± 0.50 N=843 72.58b ± 0.57 N=874 75.48c ± 0.51 N=652 Wither height 58.04a ± 0.34 N=843 59.84b ± 0.42 N=874 64.58c ± 0.42 N=652 Scrotum circumference 22.11a ± 0.54 N=156 26.32b ± 0.59 N=186 27.35b ± 0.58 N=181 Ear length size % Ear buds ( % Small (3> <6 cm) % Medium (6> <9cm) % Large(9> up to14 cm) N=86 11.63 15.12 30.23 43.02 N=89 2.25 10.11 23.60 64.05 N=253 7.12 13.83 27.67 51.38
  27. 27. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION • No control of a breeding season • Lambing throughout the year • 36% in autumn; 33% in winter; 27% in summer, 11% in spring • Birth weight: 2.5 ± .42 kg male 2.1 ± .53 kg female • Average litter size = 1.09 • Highest litter size = 1.45 at fourth parity
  28. 28. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION • In community, mortality high = 30% • 55% lambs died in winter • Weaning weight = 12.72 ± 1.52 kg for males and 11.29 ± 1.35 kg for females
  29. 29. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION • Best predictor of the live weight at different sex and age groups was computed from combination of both wither height and heart girth • Range: R2 = 0.54 - 0.81 • SC best predictor of LW for rams aged below 22 months • Range: R2 = 0.61- 0.78
  30. 30. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Phenotypic diversity: Considering: LW, WH, HG, EL, SC • 45.37% at Makhathini • 41.25 % at UNIZULU • 32.53% at KwaMthethwa • Between three populations = 46.20%
  31. 31. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010.
  32. 32. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Genetic Diversity using RAPDs • 11% at Makhathini • 9% at KwaMthethwa • 5 % at UNIZULU • Between populations = 22%
  33. 33. The 5The 5thth A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010.
  34. 34. A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. CONCLUSION • Farmers appreciate the value of the Nguni sheep • Not aware of how the breed can be utilized to bring sustained income • Interested to learn
  35. 35. A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. CONCLUSION • Zulu sheep: not a large breed but have good characteristics which make them suitable for rural farming • There is good indication of genetic diversity between populations
  36. 36. A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010.
  37. 37. A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RECOMMENDATION • Improvement and conservation program • To include training that builds on indigenous knowledge concepts as well as appropriate relevant modern technologies • Animals may improve in LW if a supplementary program is applied
  38. 38. A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RECOMMENDATION • Open nucleus: three tier system of flocks with three phases: • nucleus, sub-nucleus and village flocks is recommended. • A nucleus flock would have to be established within the governmental ranches
  39. 39. A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010. RECOMMENDATION • Genetic research using appropriate genetic markers especially mtDNA and microsatellites between more populations in KZN • Possibly SNPs • Phenotypic characterisation for populations across KZN
  40. 40. A l l A fr ica Confer ence onA l l A fr ica Confer ence on A nim al A gr icu l tu r eA nim al A gr icu l tu r e Com m er ci al i zati on of L i v estock A gr i cu l tu r e i n A fr i ca: Chal l enges and oppor tu ni ti es October 25-28, 2010.

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