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Risk Factors Associated with Porcine Cysticercosis Prevalence in Smallholder Pig Production Systems In Mbeya Region, Southern Highland Of Tanzania.

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Presentation by E.C. Kimbi1, S.M. Thamsborg, F.P. Lekule, J. Mlangwa and E. Komba at the 5th All Africa conference on animal production, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-28 October 2010.

Presentation by E.C. Kimbi1, S.M. Thamsborg, F.P. Lekule, J. Mlangwa and E. Komba at the 5th All Africa conference on animal production, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-28 October 2010.

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  • 1. Risk Factors Associated with Porcine Cysticercosis Prevalence in Smallholder Pig Production Systems In Mbeya Region, Southern Highland Of Tanzania
    • By
    • E.C. Kimbi1 , S.M. Thamsborg, F.P. Lekule, J. Mlangwa and E. Komba
    • October 25-28, 2010
  • 2. Background Information
    • Pig production trend in Africa (FAOSTAT, 2009)
      • Pig production has shown a considerable growing trend across different African regions, with exception of Northern Africa
  • 3. Pork production trend in Tanzania (FASTAT, 2009)
    • It is fastest growing livestock sub-sector in Tanzania
  • 4. Pig production in Tanzania
    • Pig production in Tanzania is predominantly (94%) carried out by smallholder farmers under low input-output production systems
    • It involve over 7 % of the smallholder farmers and 18 % of livestock keeping households
    • Consequently, the sub-sector has increased the availability and consumption of pork in rural and urban families
  • 5.
    • However, the predominance of smallholder systems, and increased pork consumption have resulted to emergency and widening of diseases, particularly porcine cysticercosis (PC)
    • Limited studies in TZ have indicated alarming state for PC prevalence
      • i.e. Mbulu (17 %), Chunya (5.5%,), Mbozi (32%), Mbeya rural (30.7%)
      • Human cysticercosis Mbozi 16.7 & 45.3 % for active and exposure respectively
    • PC is an important parasitic zoonosis, affecting human and pigs, caused by the infection with the larval (metacestode) stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium
  • 6.
    • PC in Tanzania has become a barrier to local, regional, and international trading of pigs and pork
    • However, there was no adequate information on the risk factors associated to the prevalence of this disease for developing effective control strategies
    • Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine risk factors for PC in order to develop sustainable strategies for control
  • 7. MATERIALS AND METHODS
    • Study area:
      • Mbeya and Mbozi districts located in Mbeya region in Southern Highlands of Tanzania (SHT)
    • Study design and sampling procedures
      • Cross sectional survey design was conducted between Nov 2007 and Jan 2008
      • A multistage sampling technique was used to sample villages, households, and pigs
      • 30 villages were randomly sampled from sample frame of villages keeping pigs in the study districts
      • 300 pig-keeping households were randomly sampled from the selected villages
  • 8.
    • Sequentially, 300 pigs per district were sampled based on Martin et al . (1987) formula
    • Data collection
      • Data at household level were collected using structured questionnaire
      • Concurrently, pig blood samples for serology were collected from respective households
      • An ELISA detecting circulating T. solium antigens (Ag-ELISA) was performed as described by Brandt et al . (1992) and modified by Dorny et al . (2004)
  • 9. Statistical analysis
    • Data on pig seroprevalence and risk factors were analysed using STATA version 10
    • A multivariate logistic regression analysis was then done, calculating OR and CI (95%) risk factors
    • A household was considered PC prevalence +ve when at least one pig was found infected using Ag-ELISA
  • 10. RESULTS
    • Household level PC prevalence
      • Ag-ELISA results showed that all study villages were PC infected with varying magnitude
      • Households PC prevalence across villages varied between 10 and 90% with mean of 45.3%
  • 11. Risk factors for PC in pig keepers’ households
    • Pig management systems and practices
      • Semi confinement (SC) and Total Confinement (TC) were the dominant pig management systems practised by 49.3 and 42.0 % of pig keepers’ households, respectively
      • Few (8.7 %) pig keepers practiced Free range and or herding (FRH)
      • PC prev were significantly (OR = 2.1, P < 0.01) higher in both households practicing SC and FRH systems than those practising TC.
  • 12.
      • Three main types of pig shelters were used by pig keepers; slatted raised floor, earthen floor and concrete floor
      • PC prev. was significantly (OR = 8.4, P < 0.05) higher for households with slatted raised floor than those with earthed floor and concrete floor
    • pig keeping experience and past experience of PC in the pig herd
      • Past experience of PC in the pig herd was a significant risk factor (OR = 2.6, P< 0.01)
      • However, long or short experience in pig keeping had no significant influence on PC prevalence in the household (P>0.05)
  • 13.
    • Hygienic factors: Latrine and water use
      • Presence or absence of latrine had no significant effects on PC prevalence in the households (P > 0.05)
      • PC prev. were significantly higher for households sourcing water from rivers than their counterparts sourcing from tap water, borehole and springs (OR = 3.1, P < 0.001)
      • Similarly, use of water from ponds significantly increased the risk for PC as compared to tap water, water from springs and boreholes (OR = 5.0, P < 0.05)
  • 14. Conclusion and recommendations
    • The study revealed clearly that PC is endemic in the study area.
    • This observation validates the existence of T. solium carriers in the study area who have contaminated the environment with T. solium eggs.
    • Integrated approaches and cost-effective combination of simple interventions are recommended for effective control of PC/taeniosis i.e.
      • Health education campaign
      • Promotion of suitable pig management systems
      • development of suitable and hygiene pig marketing system
  • 15. Acknowledgements
    • We greatly thank the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), through the Cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa (CESA) - project for funding this study.