OPS-G Forum
                                 24 March 2006


                  AURORA - Operational Requirements
         ...
Aurora - ESA’s Space Exploration Programme




                                  2008   2011   2015   2017       2019     ...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

          Outline

          1. Context and Motivation:
          2. ExoMars: Ty...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

          ExoMars Objectives

              Scientific Objectives:
             ...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

          What to search for?

              Extant Life: Biomarkers, such as:

...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

          ExoMars Landing Sites




              +
            45º




        ...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration
          ExoMars Payload:
                                                      ...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

          Pasteur: Analytical Laboratory
                       Non-destructive
...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

          ExoMars Rover Mission Parameters
              Nominal mission:       ...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

          Typical Rover Design: Locomotion

              Effective locomotion s...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

            Outline

            1. Context and Motivation:
            2. ExoMa...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

            Basic Functions for Navigation & Control

                Perception...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

            N&C Example 2: MER

                Largely Direct Control
         ...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

            ExoMars Navigation & Control Requirements

                Enable au...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

            ExoMars Navigation & Control Approach

            Four Control Mode...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

            ExoMars Navigation & Control Approach (3)

                Action
  ...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

             Rover Operations Implications

                 Three players at le...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

             Ground Support Tools

                   Global high level mission ...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

             Operations Centres Requirements: P/L

                 Pasteur cont...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration

          Prepare the ground for new insights ...




The End
          RB / 200...
Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration
Contributions to ExoMars (%)


                               40
                ...
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OPS G Forum Operational Requirements for Robotic Exploration 24.03.2006

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With ESA's Aurora programme, a new class of exploration missions is coming closer to realisation, increasingly involving the use of robotic technologies in payloads and infrastructure elements. Besides the technological challenges, operating this type of missions implies specific requirements.

Autonomous operation and decision making become critical features in order to cope with the needs of on-surface mobility, the target environment, constrained mission duration, and complex payload operations.
Taking ExoMars as an example, the presentation illustrates the specifics of upcoming robotic exploration missions on planetary surfaces. It also highlights the specific requirements on mission operations for this type of missions.

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Transcript of "OPS G Forum Operational Requirements for Robotic Exploration 24.03.2006"

  1. 1. OPS-G Forum 24 March 2006 AURORA - Operational Requirements for Robotic Exploration Reinhold Bertrand OPS-GTM RB / 2006-03-24 1 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Outline 1. Context and Motivation: 2. ExoMars: Typical Mission and System Requirements 3. Rover Navigation & Control 4. Operational Requirements 5. Conclusions RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 2
  2. 2. Aurora - ESA’s Space Exploration Programme 2008 2011 2015 2017 2019 2021 2026 2030 2033 OPS-G Forum, 2006-03-24 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Exploration Performance Drivers Perception capabilities: – Recognise / understand environment and targets – “see”, process, analyse targets / samples Mobility capabilities: – Reach targets – Access, touch, grasp, collect samples (digging, drilling, etc.) Operational capabilities: – Autonomy (signal delays, hard real-time requirements, mission duration constraints, ground interaction needs) – Unstructured / unknown environment: autonomous decision making, unexpected situations, contingencies – Adaptability / flexibility of operations – Exploration System Approach (P/L↔Rover) 1. Robotic Systems Context & Motivation RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 4
  3. 3. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Outline 1. Context and Motivation: 2. ExoMars: Typical Mission and System Requirements 3. Rover Navigation & Control 4. Operational Requirements 5. Conclusions RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 5 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration What is ExoMars? ExoMars? Search for traces of past and present life on Mars: – Where does life come from – How/where did it evolve – Is Earth a normal case or a singularity Deploy on the Martian surface a Rover carrying a suitable analytical P/L (Pasteur) 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 6
  4. 4. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration ExoMars Objectives Scientific Objectives: – To search for traces of past and present life on Mars – characterise, in the shallow subsurface, vertical distribution profiles for water and geochemical composition – measure planetary geophysics parameters – study the surface environment and identify hazards to human missions Technology Objectives – Land large payloads on Mars – Demonstrate high surface mobility and subsurface access – Prepare technologies for MSR 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 7 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Looking for signs of life: Life is cells: – Need water – Requires sugars (energy source and backbone for nucleic acids) – Cell menbranes are built with phospholipids Life has Homochirality – 2 mirror forms of biomolecules (enantiomers) – Life uses only one enantiomer, e.g. Left handed (L) amino acids Right handed (R) sugars 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 8
  5. 5. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration What to search for? Extant Life: Biomarkers, such as: ••• Amino acids Nucleotides Sugars Phospholipids Pigments Extinct Life: – Organic residues of biological origin; (chemical, chiral, spectroscopic, and isotopic information) – Images of groups of fossil organisms and their structure; (morphological evidence) – Geochemical and mineralogical effects of biology on the environment. (second order) 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 9 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Where to search? Liquid water is presently unstable on the Martian surface The solar UV dose is harmful to unprotected life and organic compounds. the search for extant life will focus on the subsurface. warm spots with evidence of water deposits at accessible depths, as identified from remote sensing satellites, i.e. Mars Express & MRO. For extinct life, the search strategy relies on looking for well-preserved biosignatures, i.e. encased in the geological record as microfossils. the search for extinct life will also focus on the subsurface. On sites occupied by bodies of water over extended time periods: – Sedimentary deposits in ancient lake beds, – Remains of hydrothermal systems; – Outflow regions of past water channel systems. 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 10
  6. 6. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration ExoMars Landing Sites + 45º – 15º 2. ExoMars Latitude Landing Band ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 11 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration How to look for signs of life: PASTEUR Panoramic Stereo Camera Infrared Spectrometer Ground-Penetrating Radar Close-up Imager Moessbauer Spectrometer Combined Laser Plasma / Raman Spectrometer Microscope XRD Life Marker Chip Mars Organic Detector (MOD/MOI) Gas Chromatograph / Mass Spectrometer Drilling system (2 m) Sample preparation and handling subsystem 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 12
  7. 7. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration ExoMars Payload: CONTEXT Pasteur PanCam Remote IR Spectr. SUPPORT GPR INSTRUMENTS Neutron Scatt. Close-up Imager Contact Mössbauer Suite APXS Drill System Raman & LIBS (2-m depth & surface) Microscope IR incl. Borehole IR XRD Analytical Lab. ORGANICS/LIFE Manipulator Arm MOD/MOI GC-MS Life Marker Chip Sample Preparation & Distribution System ENVIRONMENT Dust & H2O Ionising Rad. Accommodated UV Rad. in GEP 2. P, T, Wind ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 13 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Pasteur: Drill System 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 14
  8. 8. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Pasteur: Analytical Laboratory Non-destructive analysis Microscope Raman / LIBS Sample Destructive analysis Rock Analyte Drill System Crusher Extraction Dust MOD MO Extraction & D GC-MS Cruscible Oxidants Fluorescamine Nominal mission: XRD Life Marker 10 surface + CE 2. Chip 20 subsurface samples ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 15 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration ExoMars Top-Level Requirements Top- Transport, deploy and operate the Pasteur payload, in particular: – Collect material samples at the surface and from the sub-surface (2 m) – Store, process, and analyse samples „in-situ“ Implement at least 10 experiment cycles, composed of: – Locomotion to next sampling site (500-2000 m) – Sample collection (drilling) and processing – Data processing and transmission One command cycle per day (Sol) only Compatible with Environmental Conditions/Requirements for – Launch, interplanetary transfer, re-entry, landing – Mars environment (10 ... 45° latitude North or South), VL2 landing site conditions – Planetary Protection 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 16
  9. 9. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration ExoMars Rover Mission Parameters Nominal mission: 180 sols; Nominal science: 10 Experiment Cycles + 2 Vertical Surveys; Extended mission: 10 additional Experiment Cycles; Experiment Cycle length: 6 – 18 sols Sandy slopes of up to: 25 deg; 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 17 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Typical Rover Design Total mass (including 48 kg P/L) 253 kg Body Dimensions (l x w x h) 1500 x 630 x 580 mm Wheels Ø300 x 100 mm Track distance (c-c) 1070 mm Ground clearance 310 mm Solar Array InGa/GaAs/Ge, 1.5 m2 Batteries Li-Ion, 1500 Wh Thermal RHU, 2 x 15 W, loop heat pipes Data: 680 Mbits per exp. cycle Communications: X-band DTE, UHF to orbiter relay 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 18
  10. 10. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Typical Rover Design: Locomotion Effective locomotion speed: 100 m/sol (72 m/h nominal) Max. slope climbing: 25 Deg. Tip-over limit 40 Deg. Max. obstacle height: 300 mm 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 19 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration ExoMars vs. MER Mars Exploration Rovers (2004) – Rover 185 kg – P/L 14.8 kg – Mobility: 10-40 m/d; < 1 km total – Instruments: distributed, miniaturised – Regional exploration ExoMars (projected), 2011 – Rover 254 kg – 48 kg complex P/L facility – Mobility: ~100 m/d; 5 - 20 km total – Regional exploration – Multiple drilling/sampling, sub-surface sampling 2. ExoMars RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 20
  11. 11. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Outline 1. Context and Motivation: 2. ExoMars: Typical Mission and System Requirements 3. Rover Navigation & Control 4. Operational Requirements 5. Conclusions RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 21 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration How to navigate through an unknown environment ??? Action locomotion monitoring & control Perception e.g. Stereo Vision Decision Localisation Modelling 3. path, trajectories position, orientation Digital Terrain Model Rover N&C RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 22
  12. 12. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Basic Functions for Navigation & Control Perception: Data Acquisition (surrounding environment, stereo vision) Environmental Modeling: Digital Terrain Model (DTM) Localisation: position and orientation in the DTM Decision: path / trajectory planning, based on DTM, obstacles, rover state, current objective, resource/risk considerations Action: locomotion monitoring and control 3. Rover N&C RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 23 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration N&C Example 1: Sojourner “classical” approach: Direct Control (all planning on ground) Earth Mars Perception (stereo vision) DTM on Ground localisation Decision pre-planned sequence Action Minimised risk, max. control Time consuming Limited performance in rough terrain Not usable for “long” trajectories 3. Rover N&C RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 24
  13. 13. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration N&C Example 2: MER Largely Direct Control Autonomous local navigation: AutoNav “Obstacle Avoidance Scheme” Earth Mars Perception (stereo vision) DTM localisation Decision: elementary trajectory evaluation Action: Trajectory execution (short distance) 3. Rover N&C RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 25 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration MER Operations: Lessons learned Localisation is critical in some situations (ground slippage) Better locomotion abilities required (slip detection) Higher autonomy required to traverse “cluttered” areas (reach a given target through some sort of itinerary) Several ground interactions required to place instruments End of autonomous motions may leave rover in bad attitude (w.r.t. antenna, solar panel) 3. Rover N&C RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 26
  14. 14. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration ExoMars Navigation & Control Requirements Enable autonomous operations for one sol (one comms session per sol) Traverse > 100 m per sol Reach a target location – at a distance up to 100m with an accuracy of 10m – distance up to 20m with an accuracy of 0.5m – 2m with an accuracy of 0.05m Path planning and execution functions: – Autonomously advance along a sequence of way points pre-planned on Ground – Autonomous path planning (goal tracking, obstacle avoidance, minimisation of risk and resource consumption) Autonomously classify and negotiate obstacles: – Ignore / overcome / avoid / stop 3. Rover N&C RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 27 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration N&C Key Trade-Offs Trade- Degree of autonomy on the planetary surface Distribution of functions, models, processing capabilities decision authority. Efficiency / feasiblility versus safety, reliability, risk Control Autonomy / role of human operator to be scaled according to the control task: – Type of environment – Length of trajectories – Motions w.r.t. a target 3. Rover N&C RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 28
  15. 15. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration ExoMars Navigation & Control Approach Four Control Modes: Direct Control For short motions, easy traverses, difficult situations No on-board decisions, trajectories planned on ground Safeguarded Mode For easy traverses beyond the “3D view” of the operators Local autonomous navigation (MER - AutoNav) Target reaching Trajectory defined w.r.t. a locomotion target mode Long Range Mode Long traverses, difficult terrain Define itinerary to follow, specification of goal and sub-goals Operator selects and configures a suitable operational mode 3. Rover N&C RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 29 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration ExoMars Navigation & Control Approach (2) 4 operational modes reflecting different levels of autonomy / direct operator control Perception through stereo vision Localisation through multiple sensors: – 3D Odometry (wheel encoders, steering angles, chassis angular config.) – Inertial navigation (gyrometer, IMU) – Visual odometry (motion tracking in images) – Sun Sensor Decision: – Local DTM with traversability assessment per cell – Merging into a global navigation map, maintained over long ranges – Target tracking in visual model / DTM – Definition of sub-goals (“path planner”) and associated perception tasks – Definition of trajectories (“trajectory planner”) 3. Rover N&C RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 30
  16. 16. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration ExoMars Navigation & Control Approach (3) Action – Several nested loops individual wheel control rover body speed control navigation control – Wheel walking control – Locomotion monitoring Position tracking Attitude / chassis internal angles Wheel slippage Localisation algorithm monitoring 3. Rover N&C RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 31 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Outline 1. Context and Motivation: 2. ExoMars: Typical Mission and System Requirements 3. Rover Navigation & Control 4. Operational Requirements 5. Conclusions RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 32
  17. 17. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Rover Operations Implications Three players at least: Mission Control – Overall mission control – Rover navigation & control – Payload control Rover Control Payload Control Strong interrelationships Overall exploration performance is “end to end”: Mission – Rover – Pasteur Strict separation MOC-SOC not suitable Scientific Users interface with rover and P/L control Regional distribution of control centres is critical, for rover and payload control a separation is unsuitable 4. Ops. Requ. RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 33 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Operations Centres Requirements: Rover Methods and tools to cover all operational modes from direct control to long range mode Specifics (besides “usual” M&C): – DTM (local, regional, global), to be updated constantly – 3D Monitoring / Visualisation techniques – All related processing capabilities (imaging, sensor filtering / fusion) – Path and trajectory planners, optimisation tools – Simulators: S/W Rover test benches including H/W models – Needs link to P/L control for both, planning and verification – Public outreach issues 4. Ops. Requ. RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 34
  18. 18. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Ground Support Tools Global high level mission planning tools (time / ressource constraints, overall rover activities) Functional navigation tools – 3D environment modeling – Complex trajectory planner – Rover simulator Situation analysis Debriefing tools – Localisation (w.r.t. skyline, orbiter map, panoramas) Rough terrain traj. planner 4. Ops. Requ. RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 35 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Operations Centres Requirements: P/L earth earth earth traverse wac gpr traverse wac gpr environmental / hazard sensors earth earth AUTOMATIC ANALYSIS SEQUENCE traverse wac gpr hrc drill lowmagmic raman libs mod gc-ms moi lmc spds environmental / hazard sensors earth DETAILED ANALYSIS SEQUENCE himagmic raman libs mod gc-ms moi lmc spds environmental / hazard sensors 4. Ops. Requ. RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 36
  19. 19. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Operations Centres Requirements: P/L Pasteur contains classical science instruments as well as robotic systems (drill, robotic arm, PanCam, SPDS) Strongly depends / interacts with rover vehicle as carrying platform Needs DTM in high resolution (mm range) Similar planning / verification tools for robotic components 4. Ops. Requ. RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 37 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Conclusions Operation of a robotic exploration mission on planetary surfaces (ExoMars) is characterised by – Unknown and unstructured environment – Control needs under hard real time conditions – Complex rover and P/L operations – Restricted communications access (frequency, delays, as usual) “classical” direct control schemes and automation of operations can not do the job Change in culture: Operational Autonomy “let the child walk on its own” A third block of operational functions protrudes: Mission – Rover Control – Payload Control Operations concept must be truly interdisciplinary, location/distribution of control centres is critical for performance RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 38
  20. 20. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Prepare the ground for new insights ... The End RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 39 Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Acknowledgments Many Thanks for viewgraph and video contributions as well as for reviewing support to Michael McKay, OPS-OSC Jorge Vago, HME-GAP RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 40
  21. 21. Op. Requirements for Robotic Exploration Contributions to ExoMars (%) 40 France Germany Italy 14.51 7 Spain Switzerland 5.47 United Kingdom Canada 16.02 17.04 Others < 3% 8.74 1.01 Total Subscription 109.79% = 650.8 MEUROs RB / 2006-03-24 ESOC OPS-G Forum 41

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