OPS Forum Tracking debris: ESA's optical ground station 18.01.2008
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OPS Forum Tracking debris: ESA's optical ground station 18.01.2008

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ESA operates an Optical Ground Station in Tenerife, Spain. The 1m telescope can detect objects as small as 10-20 centimetre is size - most of which are not otherwise discovered or catalogued....

ESA operates an Optical Ground Station in Tenerife, Spain. The 1m telescope can detect objects as small as 10-20 centimetre is size - most of which are not otherwise discovered or catalogued.

ESA's 1-metre Optical Ground Station (OGS) operates on the island of Tenerife, about 12 km east of the Teide, which is in Spain's Canary islands. Currently, nearly 50 percent of the observation time is used to observe space debris. The OGS can detect objects in geosynchronous orbit fainter than a visual magnitude of 20. This corresponds to objects as small as about 10 to 20 cm.

Given the fact that the US catalogue of space objects has a size threshold of 1 m in geosynchronous orbit, ESA's telescope continuously detects 'unknown' objects. It even detected a new class of debris with very high area-to-mass ratios, which was previously not known to exist. With this unique telescope, ESA is at the forefront of space debris research.

In this Forum presentation, ESOC's R. Jehn will cover the telescope, the CCD camera and recent results of sky surveys; a remote-control simulation will also be presented.

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OPS Forum Tracking debris: ESA's optical ground station 18.01.2008 OPS Forum Tracking debris: ESA's optical ground station 18.01.2008 Presentation Transcript

  • ESA’s Optical Ground Station at Tenerife ESA’s Optical Ground Station at Tenerife R. Jehn, H. Klinkrad, H. Krag, T. Flohrer and R. Choc Space Debris Office ESOC, Darmstadt, Germany OPS-G Forum, 18 January 2008 1
  • Observatorio del Teide in Izaña, Tenerife, Spain OGS 2
  • ESA’s Optical Ground Station at Tenerife Overview • History and Principal Objective • Technical description • Observations • Other interesting applications • Remote Control (Demonstration by Tim) OPS-G Forum, 18 January 2008 3
  • ESA’s Optical Ground Station at Tenerife History Idea in the late eighties Decision to build taken in 1993 MOU between ESA and IAC signed in Dec 1993 Construction completed in 1996 Inauguration by Spanish royals and former ESA director of Telecommunications (R. Collette) on 30 June 1996 First light in 1997 OPS-G Forum, 18 January 2008 4
  • SILEX Experiment between SPOT4 and ARTEMIS 50 Mbps laser link 5
  • First Image Transmitted by SILEX 30 November 2001 17:45 Lanzarote, Canary Islands, in the Atlantic ocean west of Africa, the first image trans- mitted via optical intersatellite link from SPOT4 to ARTEMIS and then to SPOTIMAGE in Toulouse, France via ARTEMIS’ Ka-band feeder link 6
  • The Optical Ground Station (OGS) 7
  • 1-Meter Zeiss Telescope of the OGS 8
  • Schematic Drawing of the Zeiss-Telescope Telescope mounting: English mount parallactic • Primary mirror: ∅ 1016 mm, f/4 Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) system: • Focal length: 13.3 m, f/13 • Field-of-view: ∅ 45 arcmin Space debris system plus CCD camera mounted in Cassegrain focus: • Focal length: 4.474 m, f/4.4 • Field-of-view: 41 x 41 arcmin Coudé system: • Focal length: 39.1 m, f/38 • Field-of-view: ∅ 8 arcmin 9
  • ESA 1-m Telescope 10
  • Optical Observations • ESA CCD Mosaic: – Mosaic of 4 CCDs – 2048 x 2048 Pixel CCDs – 2 amplifiers/CCD – total 8 readout channels 12s readout time – <5 e- readout noise – Liquid nitrogen cooled (few e-/h dark current) 11
  • Needles in the Haystack • Two GEO Objects – 19 mag – ~ 15 cm diameter – Automated on-line processing (>120 frames per hour) 12
  • Simultaneous Scanning of 2 Declination Stripes tracking repositioning sidereal rate 13
  • OGS Observation Statistics Repartition of Observation Time 800 Follow-up Observations 700 GTO Surveys GEO Surveys 600 Observation Hours 500 400 300 200 100 0 Slide 14 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Years Astronomical Institute University of Bern AIUB
  • ESA 2006 GEO/GTO Survey Continuous program, ~80 nights per year Detections (Jan 2006 - Dec 2006) 200 2 correlated 180 1.8 uncorrelated 40 cm 160 Sensitivity 99 15 cm 1.6 140 1.4 Frequency Sensitivity 120 60 cm 1.2 100 1 80 0.8 60 correlated 10 cm 0.6 40 0.4 20 uncorrelated 0.2 0 0 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Magnitude 15
  • ESA 2006 Survey - i vs Ω Orbital Elements (Jan 2006 - Dec 2006) 22 20 correlated 18 uncorrelated 16 Inclination [°] 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -180 -120 -60 0 60 120 180 R.A. of Ascending Node [°] 16
  • i vs Ω 2001 17
  • i vs Ω 2002 18
  • i vs Ω 2003 19
  • i vs Ω 2004 20
  • i vs Ω 2005 21
  • New Debris Class Eccentricity vs Mean Motion (Jan 2002 - Dec 2006; elliptical orbits) 0.8 0.7 0.6 UCT: 621 CT: 100 Eccentricity 0.5 0.4 uncorrelated 0.3 correlated vapo = 15"/s 0.2 vapo = 10.5"/s vapo = 7.5"/s 0.1 vapo = 5"/s 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Mean Motion Slide 22 Astronomical Institute University of Bern AIUB
  • Area-to-Mass Ratios Area-to-Mass Ratio (134 Uncorrelated Objects) 60 2 A /m for GEO s/c ~ 0.015 m /kg 50 40 Frequency 30 20 10 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 Area to Mass Ratio [m2/kg] Slide 23 Astronomical Institute University of Bern AIUB
  • Results of the optical observations of the GEO ring with the ESA Telescope Aug/Sept Jan – Jul Jan – Dec Jan – Dec Jan – Dec Jan – Dec Jan – Dec 1999 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 GEO GEO GEO/GTO GEO/GTO GEO/GTO GEO/GTO GEO/GTO Frames 5’400 65’000 81’800 66’000 49’500 59’500 70’000 Scanned Area 895 deg2 11'200 deg2 13'700 deg2 10'600 deg2 7’800 deg2 8’800 deg2 9’800 deg2 Total Obser- 13 nights 82 nights / 96 nights / 88 nights / 70 nights / 85 nights / 95 nights / vation Time / 49 h 548 h 691 h 559 h 417 h 495 h 580 h GTO / Follow –/– – / 18 h 200 h / 71 h 245 h/103 h 145 h / 93 h 205 h/141 h 234 h/216 h Correlated 180 2’023 1738 1121 599 708 808 detections Correlated 56 448 392 337 266 443 288 objects Uncorrelated 348 1’587 1676 1195 896 922 1040 detections 24
  • The Space Debris Problem 1121 known objects in GEO (Dec 2006): tip of the iceberg 25
  • Reorbiting practices from 1997 to 2007 ‘97 ‘98 ‘99 ‘00 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05 ‘06 ‘07 Total Left at L1 1 7 5 3 5 1 - 2 1 2 - 27 Left at L2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 13 Left at L1/L2 - - - 2 - - - - 1 - - 3 Drift orbit (too low) 6 6 4 2 6 5 7 5 5 7 1 54 Drift orbit (marginal) 1 1 2 3 3 10 Drift orbit (above 275 6 6 4 3 2 3 6 5 8 9 8 60 km) Total 15 22 15 11 14 11 16 13 19 19 12 167 26
  • ESA’s Optical Ground Station at Tenerife Other Interesting Applications of the OGS OPS-G Forum, 18 January 2008 27
  • 28
  • QIPS Inter-Island Experiment 29
  • ESA’s Optical Ground Station at Tenerife Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km R. Ursin1, F. Tiefenbacher1,2, T. Schmitt-Manderbach3,4, H. Weier4, T. Scheidl1,2, M. Lindenthal2, B. Blauensteiner1, T. Jennewein2, J. Perdigues5, P. Trojek3,4, B. Ömer6, M. Fürst4, M. Meyenburg6, J. Rarity7, Z. Sodnik5, C. Barbieri8, H. Weinfurter3,4 and A. Zeilinger1,2 Quantum entanglement is the main resource to endow the field of quantum information processing with powers that exceed those of classical communication and computation. In view of applications such as quantum cryptography or quantum teleportation, extension of quantum-entanglement-based protocols to global distances is of considerable practical interest. Here we experimentally demonstrate entanglement- based quantum key distribution over 144 km. One photon is measured locally at the Canary Island of La Palma, whereas the other is sent over an optical free-space link to Tenerife, where the Optical Ground Station of the European Space Agency acts as the receiver. This exceeds previous free-space experiments by more than an order of magnitude in distance, and is an essential step towards future satellite-based quantum communication and experimental tests on quantum physics in space. 1 Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria 2 Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-1090 Vienna, Austria 3 Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching, Germany 4 Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians University, D-80799 Munich, Germany 5 European Space Agency, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands 6 Business Unit Quantum Technology, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, A-1220 Vienna, Austria 7 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1UB, UK 8 Department of Astronomy, University of Padova, I-35122, Italy OPS-G Forum, 18 January 2008 30
  • ESA’s Optical Ground Station at Tenerife High-Precision Tracking Calibration with the ESA Tenerife Telescope S. Pallaschke J. of the Braz. Soc. Mechanical Sciences, 1999 “The ESA Tenerife telescope with its accurate CCD camera provides a good mechanism to verify the performance of single station systems and to re-calibrate them, if necessary” For MARECS positional accuracy of 180 m instead of previously 500 m could be obtained. OPS-G Forum, 18 January 2008 31
  • SD-Observations at OGS seen from software point of view • Old environment (Sun/Solaris) currently being replaced by PC/Linux • Key components: Level-1 Short Term Plans Controls telescope, Planning Tool camera, meteo, data Off-line planning of acquisition and storage space debris surveys Interfacing to On-line planning of hardware components immediate follow-ups Time synchronization by operator GUI (also for non-SD users) Ob se Processing System r Un vati Off-line at AIUB, Orbits its on determination of orbits and object properties On-line at OGS, identification of follow- up candidates 32
  • Level-1 Architecture L1GUI L1C Image Viewer Telescope Server Camera Server Storage Server User Planning Tool Adv. User / STP Parser Remote link: Sequence ModeCommands Remote link: High Priority Commands User Interaction File / Pipe link 33 Shared Memory link
  • ESA’s Optical Ground Station at Tenerife OPS-G Forum, 18 January 2008 34
  • ESA’s Optical Ground Station at Tenerife OPS-G Forum, 18 January 2008 35
  • ESA’s Optical Ground Station at Tenerife Acknowledgements Walter Flury Zoran Sodnik Thomas Schildknecht Jyri Kuusela Andrea Kerruish OPS-G Forum, 18 January 2008 36