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Late in 2013, an Ariane 5 ECA will launch one of the most ambitious ESA missions ever: ExoMars, a rover that will search for traces of past or present life on and below the Mars surface. …

Late in 2013, an Ariane 5 ECA will launch one of the most ambitious ESA missions ever: ExoMars, a rover that will search for traces of past or present life on and below the Mars surface.

The presentation will briefly outline the history of previous Mars exploration. The ExoMars mission is explained in detail, covering all phases from launch through interplanetary transfer, Mars orbit insertion, waiting in Mars orbit, lander deployment, entry, descent and landing up to the surface phase.

This involves a suite of dedicated hardware: ExoMars consists of three spacecraft: the carrier, the descent module and the rover, each of which requires a significant development effort and preparation phase, in which ESOC will play a key role.

ExoMars is only one element in a chain of increasingly complex international missions. The next step is a joint ESA-NASA Mars Sample Return at the end of the next decade.

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  • 1. ExoMars Europe’s Exobiology Lab on Mars The Most Ambitious ESA Mission Ever Michael Khan OPS-GFA Mission Analysis Section Friday, April 4, 2008 OPS-G-Forum 1 ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008
  • 2. Mars – Our Neighbour Planet ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 2
  • 3. The History Spirit und Opportunity of Water on Mars ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 3
  • 4. The History of Water on Mars ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 4
  • 5. Previous Mars Missions: Viking • The first really successful Mars mission • Two orbiters, two landers • Arrival 1976, last data received: 1982 • Launch mass 2325 kg each, lander mass 576 kg each • Viking 1 lander: Chryse, Viking 2 lander: Utopia Source: NASA ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 5
  • 6. Viking Landing Sites: Utopia und Chryse Spirit und Opportunity ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 6
  • 7. Source: NASA ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 7
  • 8. Viking 2-Landestelle Source: NASA ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 8
  • 9. ESA’s First MarsSpirit und Opportunity Orbiter: Mars Express ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: ESA 9
  • 10. MEX-HRSC: Ice Crater in Far North Source: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 10
  • 11. MEX-HRSC: Reull Vallis ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin 11
  • 12. MEX-HRSC: Presumed Elysium Pack Ice Source: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin 12 ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008
  • 13. MEX-HRSC: Hourglass Crater Source: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin 13 ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008
  • 14. MEX-HRSC: Eos Vallis Source: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin 14 ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008
  • 15. Spirit und Opportunity MEX-PSF: Water Vapour, Methane (and Formaldehyde) ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 15
  • 16. Surface and Subsurface Composition ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: ESA 16
  • 17. MEX-Omega: Phyllosilicate Deposits Source: ESA/IAS 17 ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008
  • 18. MER: Spirit and Opportunity ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: NASA/JPL 18
  • 19. Die Entdeckungen derOpportunity Spirit und Rover ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 19 Source: NASA/JPL
  • 20. Spirit und Opportunity ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: NASA/JPL 20
  • 21. NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: NASA/JPL 21
  • 22. Landing in May 2008: Phoenix (NASA) Source: NASA/JPL ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 22
  • 23. MSL - Coming Soon to a Planet near Yours! Source: NASA/JPL 23 ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008
  • 24. Mars Science Laboratory Source: NASA/JPL 24 ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008
  • 25. Where Do We Stand? • Evidence that Mars surface was extensively covered by water over long periods • Evidence of sedimentary surface deposits • Extensive ice deposits on and below the surface • Subsurface liquid water not yet found • Local concentrations of methane and its decay products coincide with water vapour in atmosphere ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 25
  • 26. ExoMars Mission Objectives • Demonstration of European capabilities to target, safely land and operate a spacecraft on the Martian surface • Search for traces of extant or fossil life on and below the Martian surface by means of a mobile laboratory • Characterize the geochemical conditions, especially regarding subsurface water • Improve understanding of Mars environment in preparation of future missions ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 26
  • 27. Environmental Challenges • Cold • Thin atmosphere • Dust storms • Radiation ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 27
  • 28. A Global Dust Storm ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 28
  • 29. The 2001 Event ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 29
  • 30. The 2007 Event ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 30
  • 31. Global Dust Storm Season Exclusion zone assumed for ExoMars ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 31
  • 32. Technical Challenges • Precise targeting • Semi-soft landing • Use of vented airbags – a first on Mars • Significant rover autonomy • Deep drill • Extensive science program ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 32
  • 33. Possible Target Site: Mawrth Vallis (25N, 20E) ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Google Mars 33
  • 34. Possible Target Site: Meridiani Terra (5S, 0E) ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Google Mars 34
  • 35. Possible Target Site: Jezero Crater (19N, 78E) ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Google Mars 35
  • 36. ExoMars Mission Outline Nov./Dec. 2013 Launch with Ariane 5 10 Month Wait in Mars Orbit September 2015 Landing on Mars! Mars Transfer Large Deep Space October 2014 Manoeuvre Mars Orbit Insertion ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 36
  • 37. 2013 Transfer: Baseline ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 37
  • 38. 2016 Transfer: Backup ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 38
  • 39. Mars Orbit Phase • Wait in eccentric orbit (500 x 96,000 km) until: – Global dust storms season is over – Superior conjunction is over – Late spring in northern hemisphere, atmosphere warms up • Total waiting time around 10 months • Eclipse avoidance necessary ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 39
  • 40. Deployment and Landing! • Landing site selected prior to Mars arrival • Landing shall take place – In morning, with sufficient sunlight – With the Earth sufficiently high over the horizon • Descent module entry, descent and landing with parachute, rocket stage and vented airbag • Rover egresses from landing stages • 180-sol rover mission begins • Humboldt payload is deployed ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 40
  • 41. Descent and Landing Timeline ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 41
  • 42. Rover Egress ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 42
  • 43. Spacecraft Layout • The mission comprises several spacecraft – Carrier module – Descent module – Rover (with “Pasteur” payload) – Geophysical and environmental science package “Humboldt”, deployed from the lander ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 43
  • 44. Carrier and Descent Module ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Thales Alenia Space 44
  • 45. Lander Module in Touchdown Configuration ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Thales Alenia Space 45
  • 46. Touchdown using a Vented Airbag Source: Thales Alenia Space Italia / Aerosekur ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 46
  • 47. Touchdown using a Vented Airbag ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Thales Alenia Space/Aerosekur 47
  • 48. Lander Module Pre-Touchdown ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Thales Alenia Space 48
  • 49. The ExoMars Rover ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Thales Alenia Space 49
  • 50. Some Rover Requirements • Mass around 200 kg • Autonomous mobility: average 100 m/sol • Drill capability: 2 meters • Minimum surface mission: 180 sols ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 50
  • 51. ExoMars: Scientific Instruments • Rover Instruments: – Panoramic: Cameras, Radar, IR Mapper – Contact: Raman-LIBS External, Close-up Imager, Mössbauer, IR Spectrometer – Analytical: Raman-LIBS Internal, Microscope, XRD, MOMA, Urey • Humboldt Instruments: – Geophysics and Environment: Seismometer, electric properties, meteorology, ground- penetrating radar, physical properties, radiation, radio science, dust, humidity, UV, magnetometer ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 51
  • 52. The ExoMars Rover ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Thales Alenia Space 52
  • 53. ExoMars Rover Components: Drill ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Thales Alenia Space 53
  • 54. ExoMars Rover Components: Mast ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Thales Alenia Space 54
  • 55. ExoMars Rover Components: Arm ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Thales Alenia Space 55
  • 56. Analytical Experiment Package ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Thales Alenia Space 56
  • 57. Finding Life … How? ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 57
  • 58. ExoMars Measurement Cycle ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: Thales Alenia Space 58
  • 59. ExoMars Timeline Overview MOI ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 59
  • 60. Blues for a Blue Planet Spirit und Opportunity ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 Source: NASA/JPL 60
  • 61. Go ExoMars! mars.esa.int www.esa.int/aurora Michael.Khan@esa.int ExoMars – OPS-G-Forum, April 4, 2008 61