Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Comets as cosmic time capsules:
Rosetta’s scientific goals
Prof...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Comet McNaught as seen from Cerro Paranal in 2007 / ESO
SCIENCE...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Comet ISON is (probably) no more

ESA-NASA SOHO / LASCO C3, C2 ...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Old ISON has fizzled away,
To many astronomers’ dismay.
But fre...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Comet 1P/Halley in 1066, as recorded on the Bayeux tapestry
SCI...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Artist’s representation of a protoplanetary disk / Hartmann
Har...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Origins of the solar system and life

SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLO...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

The Rosetta stone, discovered in 1799 at Rosetta (Rashid) in Eg...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Comet Halley in 1986, seen from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

ESA Giotto launched on an Ariane 1 on July 2, 1985
SCIENCE AND ...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Giotto at Comet 1P/Halley, March 14, 1986 / ESA
SCIENCE AND ROB...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Comet 103P/Hartley-2 taken at 700 km during EPOXI fly-by, Novem...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Comets as the origin of Earth’s water?

Hartogh et al. (2011, N...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Composite of images Comet 9P/Tempel 1 taken by NASA’s Deep Impa...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Impact on Comet 9P/Tempel 1 as seen by NASA’s Deep Impact fly-b...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Huygens lander at Titan

ESA Huygens lander deployed from NASA-...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

ESA Rosetta mission, launch 2004, arrival at Comet 67P/Churyumo...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasi...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Rosetta launch on Ariane 5G+ from Kourou, March 2, 2004 / ESA, ...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Rosetta on its first Earth fly-by, March 4, 2005 / ESA, reproce...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Rosetta at Mars, as seen at 240,000km, one day before fly-by on...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Rosetta at Mars near closest approach at 1,000km, February 25, ...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Asteroid 2867 Šteins

Fly-by on September 5, 2008
SCIENCE AND R...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Rosetta on its third Earth fly-by, November 13, 2009 / ESA
SCIE...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Rosetta’s 2010 fly-by of asteroid 21 Lutetia, released May 30, ...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Asteroid 21 Lutetia during Rosetta’s fly-by on July 10, 2010 / ...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION

27
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Target: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
Mars

Earth

67P/C-G

Venus
S...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

67P/C-G at 5.683AU, one month before aphelion, April 25, 2012 /...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Hubble Space Telescope, NASA-ESA UV-optical-near-IR astrophysic...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

What does 67P/C-G look like?

Reconstruction of Hubble Space Te...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Activity in 67P/C-G
Need to predict activity
Deployment of Phil...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Activity in 67P/C-G
Specific active regions
Analysis of ground-...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION

34
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

MIDAS
RPC

COSIMA

CONSERT

ROSINA

ROSINA

MIRO

VIRTIS
GIADA
...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

Imaging & spectroscopy in
the optical, UV, IR, millimetre
OSIRI...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

It’s time to unlock the treasure chest!

Comet Hale-Bopp in 199...
Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead
ESOC, 10 December 2013

SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION

38
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Comets as cosmic time capsules: Rosetta’s scientific goals

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Rosetta media briefing 10 Dec 2013 presented by Prof Mark McCaughrean, Senior Scientific Advisor, Science & Robotic Exploration directorate, ESA/European Space Agency

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Comets as cosmic time capsules: Rosetta’s scientific goals

  1. 1. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Comets as cosmic time capsules: Rosetta’s scientific goals Prof Mark McCaughrean Senior Scientific Advisor European Space Agency SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 1
  2. 2. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Comet McNaught as seen from Cerro Paranal in 2007 / ESO SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 2
  3. 3. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Comet ISON is (probably) no more ESA-NASA SOHO / LASCO C3, C2 coronographs, 27–30 November 2013 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 3
  4. 4. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Old ISON has fizzled away, To many astronomers’ dismay. But fret not, my friends, Fresh starts follow ends, Rosetta will soon be at play. She’ll be waking in January, you see, To drop off her lander, Philae, Down onto the ice, Info in a trice, All about comet 67P. Limericks courtesy of the Frost*ies SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 4
  5. 5. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Comet 1P/Halley in 1066, as recorded on the Bayeux tapestry SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 5
  6. 6. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Artist’s representation of a protoplanetary disk / Hartmann Hartmann SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 6
  7. 7. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Origins of the solar system and life SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 7
  8. 8. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 The Rosetta stone, discovered in 1799 at Rosetta (Rashid) in Egypt; now in British Museum, London SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 8
  9. 9. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Comet Halley in 1986, seen from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 9
  10. 10. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 ESA Giotto launched on an Ariane 1 on July 2, 1985 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 10
  11. 11. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Giotto at Comet 1P/Halley, March 14, 1986 / ESA SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 11
  12. 12. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Comet 103P/Hartley-2 taken at 700 km during EPOXI fly-by, November 4, 2010 / NASA, JPL, Caltech, UMD SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 12
  13. 13. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Comets as the origin of Earth’s water? Hartogh et al. (2011, Nature, 478, 4638) ESA Herschel far-infrared astrophysics observatory, launched 2009 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 13
  14. 14. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Composite of images Comet 9P/Tempel 1 taken by NASA’s Deep Impact impactor spacecraft on 4 July 2005 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 14
  15. 15. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Impact on Comet 9P/Tempel 1 as seen by NASA’s Deep Impact fly-by spacecraft on 4 July 2005 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 15
  16. 16. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Huygens lander at Titan ESA Huygens lander deployed from NASA-ESA-ASI Cassini mission at Saturn, January 2005 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 16
  17. 17. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 ESA Rosetta mission, launch 2004, arrival at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 17
  18. 18. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 18
  19. 19. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Rosetta launch on Ariane 5G+ from Kourou, March 2, 2004 / ESA, CNES, Arianespace SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 19
  20. 20. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Rosetta on its first Earth fly-by, March 4, 2005 / ESA, reprocessed by Emily Lakdawalla SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 20
  21. 21. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Rosetta at Mars, as seen at 240,000km, one day before fly-by on February 25, 2007 / ESA SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 21
  22. 22. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Rosetta at Mars near closest approach at 1,000km, February 25, 2007 / ESA SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 22
  23. 23. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Asteroid 2867 Šteins Fly-by on September 5, 2008 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 23
  24. 24. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Rosetta on its third Earth fly-by, November 13, 2009 / ESA SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 24
  25. 25. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Rosetta’s 2010 fly-by of asteroid 21 Lutetia, released May 30, 2012 / OSIRIS, ESA SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 25
  26. 26. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Asteroid 21 Lutetia during Rosetta’s fly-by on July 10, 2010 / ESA, OSIRIS SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 26
  27. 27. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 27
  28. 28. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Target: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Mars Earth 67P/C-G Venus Sun Mercury Orbit of Jupiter Klim Churyumov, Jean-Jacques Dordain (ESA), & Svetlana Gerasimenko at Rosetta launch Discovery Perihelion Aphelion Semi-major axis Eccentricity Inclination Orbital period 1969 1.2458 AU 5.6839 AU 3.4648 AU 0.64043 7.0424° 6.45 yr Plot showing orbits of inner planets, Jupiter, and Comet 67P/C-G on February 26, 2004 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 28
  29. 29. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 67P/C-G at 5.683AU, one month before aphelion, April 25, 2012 / Faulkes Telescope North / N. Howes, E. Guido SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 29
  30. 30. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Hubble Space Telescope, NASA-ESA UV-optical-near-IR astrophysical observatory, launched 1990 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 30
  31. 31. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 What does 67P/C-G look like? Reconstruction of Hubble Space Telescope light-curve data taken in 2003 Distance from Sun: 2.5 AU Distance from Earth: 1.5 AU In 2014, we will start to see 67P/C-G in much more detail Lamy et al. 2006, A&A SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 31
  32. 32. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Activity in 67P/C-G Need to predict activity Deployment of Philae in Nov 2014 predicated on low activity state Reconstruct activity vs phase from last 3 orbits 67P/C-G period 6.45 yr Aphelion 5.6839AU Perihelion 1.2458AU Comet active earlier than previously thought Onset of activity predicted for Mar 2014 But still within operational constraints by Nov 2014 Snodgrass et al. 2013, A&A SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 32
  33. 33. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Activity in 67P/C-G Specific active regions Analysis of ground-based images from 2003–2009 Provides spin axis, locations of most active regions Model: consistent with three active regions No evidence for change in number or location of regions, or of spin orientation Activity localised to equatorial & mid-latitudes Exposed on sunlit hemisphere during perihelion Vincent et al. 2013, A&A SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 33
  34. 34. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 34
  35. 35. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 MIDAS RPC COSIMA CONSERT ROSINA ROSINA MIRO VIRTIS GIADA Philae ALICE OSIRIS SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 35
  36. 36. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 Imaging & spectroscopy in the optical, UV, IR, millimetre OSIRIS, ALICE, VIRTIS, MIRO Gas & dust mass spectroscopy ROSINA, COSIMA Imaging during descent, surface panorama, & microscopy ROLIS, ÇIVA Dust structure, distribution, sizes, & microscopy GIADA, MIDAS Plasma experiments RPC Tomography of the nucleus CONSERT Gas, dust, organics, & plasma COSAC, MODULUS PTOLEMY, APXS, ROMAP Analysis of surface & sub-surface SD2, MUPUS, SESAME Radio science RSI SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 36
  37. 37. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 It’s time to unlock the treasure chest! Comet Hale-Bopp in 1997 / Jerry Lodriguss SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 37
  38. 38. Rosetta wake-up and the year ahead ESOC, 10 December 2013 SCIENCE AND ROBOTIC EXPLORATION 38

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