Unit 1 - From prehistory to the middle ages
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Unit 1 - From prehistory to the middle ages

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Unit 1- From prehistory to the middle ages. Done by student Sandra Esteve from Ramiro de Maeztu highschool (Spain)

Unit 1- From prehistory to the middle ages. Done by student Sandra Esteve from Ramiro de Maeztu highschool (Spain)

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Unit 1 - From prehistory to the middle ages Unit 1 - From prehistory to the middle ages Document Transcript

  • UNIT 1 FROM PREHISTORY TO THE MIDDLE AGES Sandra Esteve Gimeno 4ºESO C
  • 1- HISTORICAL PERIODS The historical periods refer to the people's changes in their ways of thinking, acting and living together in society. They begin and end with events that mark important changes in human development. There are five main periods of human history:  Prehistory: This period started with the appearance of the first human beings and ended with the invention of writing. (5000000 B.C - 3000 B.C)  Antiquity: This period began with the invention of writing and ended with the fall of the Roman Empire (3000 B.C – 476 A.D)  The Middle Ages: This period began with the fall of the Roman Empire and ended with the European discovery of America. (476 A.D – 1492 B.C)  The Early Modern Age: This period began with the European discovery of America and ended with the french revolution (1492 – 1789)  The Modern Age: The period began with the french revolution and continues to the present day. (1789 – nowadays) 2 – PREHISTORY Prehistory is divided into different periods that are defined by the tools that prehistoric people used. STONE AGE  The Palaeolithic period: A group of hominids evolved into human beings. They had intelligence and could walk as we do nowadays. They lived in nomads.  The Neolithic period: Agriculture appeared. Human beings began to keep farming and livestock. People became sedentary and lived in small villages. They invented new techniques for making tools.
  • During the stone age the first artistic works appeared. They made portable art, that is, they used to make small art objects that they could carry with them. They also did cave paintings, that means that some people painted on the walls of caves. They evolved from realistic images to abstract images. BRONZE AND IRON AGES In these ages, people started to use metal to make tools and weapons. These objects became symbols of social status in many cultures. They invented vehicles with wheels, which improved trade and were more aggressive. 3 – ANTIQUITY URBAN CIVILISATIONS (3000 B.C. - 30 B.C.) Urban civilizations emerged in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. They are called “urban” because they built the first cities. The rulers were monarchs, who had absolute power over its people. These rulers used their power to create irrigation canals, this created an increase in agriculture. Writing was discovered and the first writings appeared. They were closed societies, and art was used to celebrate religious and political power. CLASSICAL CIVILISATIONS (2000 B.C. - 476 A.D.) Ancient Greece and Rome were the first classical civilizations, and therefore, classical models for Western Culture. The first participative governments appeared in these regions. Greece and Rome were closed societies in which citizens had more rights, and slavery was legal. Ancient Greece was the first civilization to use metal coins as a form of money. Ancient Greece and Rome made many contributions to western culture, with philosophy, art and architecture, Latin, Roman and Christianity. View slide
  • 4 – THE MIDDLE AGES THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE The Byzantine empire emerged in the Eastern Roman Empire. The name of the empire came from the name of its capital city, Byzantium. In politics, the highest authority in the empire was the emperor. In economy, the empire became very prosperous, especially in terms of agriculture and craft production. Trade was a very important part of the economy, as the empire had a strategic location. In religion, the byzantine empire was christian, but it didn't accept the authority of the pope. In art and architecture, Byzantine emperors, promoted the construction of churches and basilicas. ISLAMIC CIVILISATION This civilization began on the Arabian peninsula, and then expanded among other countries. The word “Islamic” comes from the civilization's religion, Islam. This religion was founded by the prophet Mohammed, and its followers are called Muslims. In politics, the highest authority was the caliph, who governed its territories trough officials. In economy, Islamic civilization produced many technological innovations. In religion, Islam is a monotheistic religion, that means, people only believe in one god, Allah. Their holy book is the Koran. In culture, Islamic civilizations brought cultural innovations from Asia. In art and architecture, Muslim architects designed many impressive buildings, such as palaces. CHRISTIAN EUROPE Christian civilization developed in the Western Roman Empire. The three main stages were:  The rise of feudalism: Feudalism was a social system in which members of the nobility had authority over large rural properties called fiefdoms. The feudal lords had complete control over their lands. The estates system appeared during this period. View slide
  •  The decline of feudalism: The 13th century was a period of transition in which the feudal system began to disintegrate. New agricultural techniques were developed. The population began to grow and there wasn't enough things for everyone.  Economic crisis: During the 14th and 15th centuries, Europe suffered an economic crisis caused by wars and poor harvests. There were also deadly epidemics. Feudal lords raised taxes to maintain their wealth, and as a result, there were protests and violent confrontations against nobility.  European art in the Middle Ages: Two new styles emerged during this age: The Romanesque Style and the Gothic Style. The Romanesque style was often used for churches and monasteries, while the Gothic Style was often used in cathedrals.
  •  The decline of feudalism: The 13th century was a period of transition in which the feudal system began to disintegrate. New agricultural techniques were developed. The population began to grow and there wasn't enough things for everyone.  Economic crisis: During the 14th and 15th centuries, Europe suffered an economic crisis caused by wars and poor harvests. There were also deadly epidemics. Feudal lords raised taxes to maintain their wealth, and as a result, there were protests and violent confrontations against nobility.  European art in the Middle Ages: Two new styles emerged during this age: The Romanesque Style and the Gothic Style. The Romanesque style was often used for churches and monasteries, while the Gothic Style was often used in cathedrals.