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Independence Movements

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  • 1. Latin American Independence from Europe • Most of Latin America was ruled by Spain, Portugal or France for 300 years • In the 1800s, European countries such as Spain and Portugal were tightly controlling colonies and continuing their wealth • The American and French Revolutions convinced Latin Americans that European rulers could be defeated and many began to overthrow their European rulers. • They began launching the Latin America Independence Movement
  • 2. Independence Leaders • • • • Touissant L’Ouverture Simon Bolivar Jose de San Martin Miguel Hidalgo
  • 3. TouIssanT L’ouverTure • 1791 – former slave who led Haiti’s fight for independence from France • Haiti was originally known as St. Domingue • Touissant’s slave owner allowed him to read and write. Many books he read spoke of freedom. • He led a rebel group, killing colonists and burning the land.
  • 4. TouIssanT L’ouverTure • France freed the slaves in 1794. • Toussaint then had to fight the Spanish and English to keep them from taking over the island. • By 1799, Toussaint controlled the island country and named himself dictator for life. • He set up a constitution and guaranteed decent wages, housing, and medical care.
  • 5. TouIssanT L’ouverTure What qualities do you believe L’Ouverture possessed? What characteristics made people follow him into battle?
  • 6. TouissanT L’ouverTure • Napoleon Bonaparte was insulted by Toussaint’s declaration. • He sent the French Army to retake the colony. • Toussaint was captured & died in a French prison. • 1803- French gave up on the island nation after much of the army died of Yellow Fever. • 1804- Haiti became independent & was renamed the Republic of Haiti • It was the 2nd free nation in the Western Hemisphere
  • 7. simon BoLivar • In Venezuela in the early 1800’s, rebellions began to break out against Spanish rule. • Simon Bolivar, a wealthy landowner, had just returned from Europe • His goal was to free his homeland – Venezuela. • Beginning in 1810- he fought for the freedom of his homeland. • Later, he helped liberate other countries.
  • 8. simon BoLivar
  • 9. simon BoLivar • He was called “El Libertador” for his determination and power to free his country. • He helped liberate or free Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, and Bolivia • Should he have helped free other countries? Would you be willing to fight and die for the freedom of another country?
  • 10. simon BoLivar • He became the president of Gran Columbia, which includes today’s countries of Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador. • He moved farther south, liberating Bolivia, and adding it to his republic. • He is also called the “George Washington of South America” • The country of Bolivia is named for him and his birthday is a national holiday in Venezuela and Bolivia.
  • 11. Jose de san Martin • A Spanish general that led Argentina to independence from Spain in 1816 • He was the son of a mission soldier. • He also helped free Peru and Chile from Spanish rule. • He liberated Lima, Peru on July 1821 • He was the country’s leader • He helped liberate Chile in 1817 • Peru’s independence was threatened by loyalists in the mountain
  • 12. Jose de san Martin
  • 13. Jose de san Martin • San Martin needed help and looked to Bolivar. • Bolivar met up with Jose de San Martin on July 25, 1822.
  • 14. Jose de san Martin • Bolivar and San Martin couldn’t reach an agreement. • San Martin quit his post and went into exile in Europe. • A year later Bolivar and his troops enter Lima and defeat the loyalists
  • 15. Miguel Hidalgo • Most of Mexico had been under Spanish rule since Cortes invaded in the early 1500’s • 1810 – Hidalgo, a Catholic priest in the village of Delores, led an army of peasants to revolt in Mexico against Spanish rule. • He spoke out for social reform in his country. • He felt the slaves should be freed • He felt the land should be returned to Mexican farmers & wanted Spain to stop heavy taxation
  • 16. Miguel Hidalgo
  • 17. Miguel Hidalgo • 1808- France invaded Spain and Hidalgo decided it was time to revolt. • He gave a speech called Grito de Delores (Cry of Delores) to set off the independence movement. • He led a small group of protestors to Mexico City. • By the time they arrived, his army was up to 2,000. • The protesters’ farm equipment was no match for the guns of government soldiers. • The protesters were easily defeated after a few battles. Hidalgo was captured and killed.
  • 18. Miguel Hidalgo • Spanish officials executed Hidalgo, but the rebellion against Spain didn’t stop. • Mexico gained independence in 1821. Today, Hidalgo is known as the “Father of Mexican Independence” • Why do you think the
  • 19. Mural showing Hidalgo leading independence movement in Mexico