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History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power
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History of Canada- Exploration, Colonization, & Changes in Power

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  • 1. History of Canada Notes European Colonization
  • 2. The First Nations • Native tribe of Canada came from Asia 12,000 years ago. • crossed Bering Land Bridge that joined Russia to Alaska • 12 tribes made up the First Nations
  • 3. Inuit • one of the First Native tribes • still live in Canada today • 1999—Canada’s government gave the Inuit Nunavut Territory in northeast Canada
  • 4. The Europeans in Canada… • first explorers to settle Canada were Norse invaders from the Scandinavian Peninsula • In 1000 CE, they built a town on the northeast coast of Canada & established a trading relationship with the Inuit. • The Norse deserted the settlement for unknown reasons. • Europeans did not return to Canada until almost 500 years later.
  • 5. A Viking Ship
  • 6. England Claims Newfoundland • 1497- Italian explorer John Cabot, sailed to Canada’s east coast • He was looking for a sea route to Asia. • His tales about Canada brought other explorers • Cabot claimed an area of land for England (his sponsor) & named it Newfoundland
  • 7. John Cabot
  • 8. New France • Jacques Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence River in 1534. • claimed the land for France • French colonists named the area New France
  • 9. New France (Quebec) • 1608--Samuel de Champlain built the first permanent French settlement-later called Quebec. • population grew slowly • Many people moved inland to trap animals—hats made of beaver fur were in high demand in Europe. • Trade with Natives became profitable and more settled on the St. Lawrence River
  • 10. Samuel de Champlain
  • 11. New France (Quebec) • European fur traders were joined by French farmers, merchants, and missionaries from the Catholic Church • brought with them French laws, traditions, & religion • France wouldn’t let anyone move to New France who was not Catholic.
  • 12. Became an important part of the French empireprovided valuable furs, fish, timber, and other products.
  • 13. The British in Canada… • British colonized region south of New France • Saw New France’s success in fur trapping & wanted to take control of the fur trade • France built forts on British land which led to the French and Indian War in 1754.
  • 14. French and Indian War (1754) • Great Britain and Iroquois Indians versus France and Huron Indians • Great Britain fought for control of Canadian territory & the fur trade. • British conquered Quebec in 1754 and forced France to sign the Treaty of Paris in 1763
  • 15. Treaty of Paris (1763) • Great Britain controls all lands east of the Mississippi River, except for two islands off of Newfoundland • French gave up land in Canada • British forced Nova Scotia’s Frenchspeaking people to leave • Nova Scotia’s French went to another French colony(New Orleans, Louisiana— descendants of these people are the Cajuns)
  • 16. Quebec Act--1774 • British allowed French to stay in Quebec, but continued to control the region • Problems arose between the two groups due to cultural differences • Quebec Act guaranteed the French the right to maintain their culture (language, religion, traditions)
  • 17. Quebec Act (1774) • Loyalists- people who supported the British in America who did not want independence. • Loyalists moved into Canada to avoid war in America. • Cultural difference between the English speakers & French speakers sparked many conflicts. • 1774—The British government passed the Quebec Act.
  • 18. Quebec Act’s Results • Gave French Canadians in Quebec the right to continue practicing the Catholic religion & and allowed French civil law • Loyalists were irritated with the new political & cultural power of the French • The differences among the two groups eventually led to a re-division of the country.
  • 19. American Revolution • 1776—Americans gained independence from Great Britain • This initiated a huge cultural change in Canada. • Americans who did not believe in independence left America and moved to Quebec. • These people were called “Loyalists” because they were loyal to Great Britain. • Result—Quebec began to have people who spoke English as well as French.
  • 20. Division of CanadaBritish Solution • Most English speaking citizens lived in Upper Canada (Ontario). • Most French speaking citizens lived in Lower Canada (Quebec).
  • 21. After the War of 1812 • War of 1812 – French and British worked together against the US who tried to invade Canada • French Canadians and British Canadians hated British rule. • They felt that Great Britain was too far away to understand their needs. • So…1837 – Louis Papineau organized a revolt to establish Quebec as a separate country. • result of revolt: British easily defeated Papineau
  • 22. Road to Independence • Britain sends Earl of Durham • Canadians want: 1. more control over government 2. all Provinces to unite • The British only wanted Quebec and Ontario to unite. All provinces together could create a successful rebellion.
  • 23. British/North American Act • • • • • • July 1, 1867- Dominion of Canada Created New country had four providences Ontario (formerly Upper Canada) Quebec (formerly Lower Canada) Nova Scotia Brunswick *Results 1. Canada was still part of the British empire 2. Canada had their own central government 3. Now they could solve their own problems(Except in regards to defense, treaties, and foreign trade) 4. Happened without a war
  • 24. 20 Century Problems th • 1931: Statue of Westminster gave Canada independence from Great Britain • Canada became part of the British Commonwealth of Nations. • WWII – built factories for war supplies (clothes, shoes, etc.) • Immigrants poured in from Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Caribbean.
  • 25. 20 Century Problems th • Industrialization brought old conflicts: 1. British wanted factories in Quebec, French didn’t 2. 1976 – French were tired of being part of Canada – wanted independence 3. 1982 – new constitution – in response to French wanting a bilingual country – two official languages: French and English 4. Canadian government modeled after British parliament – constitutional monarchy

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