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Cuban Revolution
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  • 1. The Cuban Revolution
  • 2. Cuba  Cuba is an island nation located 90 miles south of Florida. For this reason, the US has always been interested in what happens in Cuba.
  • 3. Changes for Cuba  Spanish-American War of 1898 led to changes for Spain.  The U.S. declared war on Spain to help people gain freedom from Spanish rule.  The U.S. wanted to protect American businesses in the sugarcane plantations.  The U.S. won the war and Spain gave up Puerto Rico and Cuba.  Puerto Rico is a territory under the U.S. (dependency)
  • 4. Changes for Cuba  Cuba became independent from Spain, but remained under U.S. control until 1902.  The U.S. established a new government  The U.S. set up a military base on Guantanamo Bay, which is still in operation today.  For the next 50 years, Cuba had a series of leaders.  Some were elected and some took over as dictators.
  • 5. Fulgencio Batista  Even though the country of Cuba was very wealthy, most of the people were extremely poor.  Cubans were continually angry with their government.  In the late 1950’s the leader was Fulgencio Batista.
  • 6.   The USA liked Batista because American businesses traded a lot with Cuba. We bought most of Cuba’s sugar cane. Also, Americans owned a lot of land in Cuba.   Cubans hated Batista because he was a dictator, so he had no controls on his power. Education and health care were very bad, and a lot of people in Cuba were poor.
  • 7. Summarizing Questions:  Who was Fulgencio Batista?  Who liked Batista? Why did they like him?  Who disliked Batista? Why didn’t they like him?
  • 8. Fidel Castro  In the late 1950s, a young lawyer named Fidel Castro led a group of rebels against the corrupt government of dictator Fulgencio Batista.  This is known as the Cuban Revolution  The rebels defeated Batista’s army, and took over the government early in 1959.
  • 9. Fidel Castro  Because so many people hated Batista, it was easy for Castro to find supporters.  Fidel Castro came to power during the Cold War.  This was a period of conflict between two superpowers- The U.S. and the Soviet Union.
  • 10. Communist Cuba  Castro admired Josef Stalin and started making a communist government, where he controlled everything and all property was taken by the government.
  • 11. Castro took American property, as well as farms, factories, and businesses owned by Cubans.  Castro had anyone who disagreed with him executed by firing squad or they were imprisoned.  Newspapers, radio, and TV were shut down.  Churches were closed and their land and property taken by Castro. 
  • 12. Frenemies?!?!  The United States placed an embargo on Cuban goods, meaning that Cuban sugar was not sold.  Meanwhile, the Soviet Union became friends with Cuba. They bought sugar, sold weapons, helped with education, and trained the Cuban army.
  • 13. Good and Bad   Hospitals and schools were improved. Women and blacks were educated and got better jobs.    Christians were discriminated against. People had a very low incomes. People’s lives were controlled by the government.
  • 14. The USA and Cuba  The relationship between Cuba and the USA was very tense because Cuba wanted to spread communism in Latin America.  In 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis happened when Cuba let the Soviet Union bring in nuclear missiles that were close enough to hit US cities. Eventually, the Soviet Union agreed to move them out.  In 1991, Castro lost an important ally and trading partner when the Soviet Union broke apart.
  • 15. Summarizing Questions:  Why didn’t the United States like Cuba?  Why did the Soviet Union like Cuba?  What did the Soviet Union do for Cuba?
  • 16. We almost had a nuclear war between the Soviet Union and the U.S.A!
  • 17. Now…  There is still an embargo on Cuba.  Food shortages occur in Cuba.  Often, people escape from Cuba to Florida on boats. America allows 20,000 people a year to escape to the US.
  • 18. Summarizing Questions:  Why was there almost a Nuclear War between the Soviet Union and the United States?  How did the United States try to hurt Cuba after Castro came to power?
  • 19. Quick 1. Who became leader of Cuba in 1959? 2. What did the United States do about what was happening in Cuba? 3. Why did we almost have a nuclear war in 1962?