Cold War, Super Powers, & SpaceRaceMrs. SampleSocial Studies
After WWII• During World War II, the United States and theSoviet Union set aside their differences.• As they moved toward victory in 1945 (nearthe end of the war), these two powerfulnations began to disagree about what theworld was to be like after the war.
WWII• At the end of the war, Allied helped to free allnations formerly conquered by Germany.• The Allied Forces helped the countries formnew governments• Allies gave countries in Europe money torebuild their infrastructure and buildings.• Then... They left!
Super Powers• The U.S. and Soviet Union emerged as theworld’s two Superpowers.• Both had the military and the politicalstrength to influence worldwide events.• Distrust developed between the twocountries.
Different Positions• The United States took the position ofspreading democracy and promoting growththrough world trade by way of a free marketeconomy or free enterprise.• Soviet leaders wanted to spread communism.• Soviet Union moved into countries likePoland, Romania, Hungry, & East Germanyafter WWII (Creation of the U.S.S.R.- UnitedSoviet Socialist Republic)
Cold War• The U.S. didn’t like the way in which theSoviets were expanding their territory.• Both countries began to stockpile weapons incase of war.• The distrust began to grow into tension calledthe “Cold War”• The Cold War never involved actual fighting.• Tensions rose even higher when Cuba allowedthe Soviet Union to place Nuclear Missiles inCuba and point them at the U.S.
Space Race• In addition to military might, the Cold Waralso involved competition in science.• The Soviet Union and the United States racedto be the first country to explore space.• Both countries also raced to put the firstperson on the moon.• Soviets were the first in space with Sputnik- aSatellite.• The U.S. put the first man on the moon, NeilArmstrong
Iron Curtain• “Iron Curtain” – a name referring to the dividebetween communist Europe & democraticEurope.• The eastern half of Germany was run as acommunist state tied to the Soviet Union.• Many east Germans would try to flee to westGermany. (Most were educated workers)• To prevent people leaving, the Soviets built awall separating East and West Berlin.• Armed guards watched over the borders.
Iron Curtain• The term “Iron Curtain” was not used until1946 during a speech by Winston Churchill.• Churchill was considered a hero to the Britishfor his leadership during WWII.• Churchill stated, “An Iron curtain has fallenacross the continent of Europe, meaning adivided line now existed between Eastern &Western Europe.• For more than 40 years, the Berlin Wall was animportant symbol of the Cold War struggle.
Military Alliances• NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization• joined the United States, Canada, andWestern European countries as allies – Theywould defend one another if attacked.• Containment- policy held that the UnitedStates would try to “contain” (stop the spread)of communism.• Warsaw Pact – created by the Soviets inresponse to NATO.• Military alliance among the Communistgovernments of Eastern Europe.
Marshall Plan• The Marshall Plan – also known as EconomicCooperation Act• created by United States Secretary of State,George C. Marshall in June 1947• United States gave aid to Western Europeancountries.• The aid was in the form of supplies, machinery,and food worth $13 billion!• The economic recovery (success) that followed,weakened the appeal of communism!
Troubles??• Weapons buildup, space race, and continuedsupport of its Communist countries cost theSoviet Union a lot of money.• With the drain in money, the economy beganto falter and stale with little growth(command)• Too often, government planning left manyCommunist countries with barely enough foodand goods to meet their citizens’ needs.
Mikhail Gorbachev• New Soviet leader who came to power in 1985• Wanted to modernize the economy and agreed todecrease military spending to ease internationaltensions.• However, economies in Eastern Europe did notimprove and protests from the people grewlouder.• 1989- Gorbachev states that Soviets will nolonger help Eastern European governments putdown domestic protests.• Poland & Czechoslovakia break away from Sovietrule.
Reunification of Germany• When Germany was divided so was the City ofBerlin.• Soviets controlled the Eastern half, while theallies controlled the west.• In 1989, after weeks of protest, East Germanyrelaxed its borders and allowed citizens totravel to West Berlin and West Germany.• The people of Germany climbed on top andbegan to tear the wall apart.• 1990- New government was elected andGermany was reunited
Reagan Speech- Tear down Wall• http://www.safeshare.tv/w/RzxssUbKuc
End of the Cold War• 1991- group of Soviet leaders tried to takeover the government.• They failed and the Soviet republics declaredindependence.• The Soviet Union came to an end and officiallysplit into 15 republics.• The Cold War was Over!• The U.S.S.R. is over and the majority of land isrenamed Russia.