Shakespeare's Language


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Shakespeare's Language

  1. 1. Shakespeare’s Language<br />Romeo & Juliet<br />By Erin Salona<br />
  2. 2. Shakespeare’s English <br /><ul><li>Shakespeare did not write in Old English or Middle English.
  3. 3. Shakespeare wrote in Early Modern English.
  4. 4. Early Modern English is only one generation of language from the English you speak today!</li></li></ul><li>Shakespeare’s Contributions<br /><ul><li>Shakespeare only had an 8th grade education.
  5. 5. There were no dictionaries.
  6. 6. Shakespeare is credited by the Oxford English Dictionary with the introduction of nearly 3,000 words into the language.
  7. 7. His vocabulary numbers upward of 17,000 words (quadruple that of an average, well-educated conversationalist in the language)</li></li></ul><li>A Few Words By Shakespeare<br /><ul><li>Accused
  8. 8. Addiction
  9. 9. Admirable
  10. 10. Assassination
  11. 11. Bloodstained
  12. 12. Cold-blooded
  13. 13. Coldhearted
  14. 14. Deafening
  15. 15. Disgraceful
  16. 16. To drug
  17. 17. Excitement
  18. 18. Fashionable
  19. 19. Fortune-teller
  20. 20. Gloomy
  21. 21. Mimic
  22. 22. Obscene</li></li></ul><li>Phrases Coined by Shakespeare<br /><ul><li>As good luck would have it
  23. 23. Be-all and the end-all
  24. 24. Break the ice
  25. 25. Eaten me out of house and home
  26. 26. Elbow room
  27. 27. Fool's paradise
  28. 28. For goodness' sake
  29. 29. Full circle
  30. 30. Good riddance
  31. 31. It was Greek to me
  32. 32. Heart of gold
  33. 33. In a pickle
  34. 34. Kill with kindness
  35. 35. Lie low
  36. 36. Love is blind
  37. 37. Not slept one wink </li></li></ul><li>Shakespeare’s English <br /><ul><li>In the England of Shakespeare's time, English was a lot more flexible as a language.
  38. 38. The most common simple sentence in modern English follows a familiar pattern: Subject (S), Verb (V), Object (O). (Will caught the ball).
  39. 39. However, Shakespeare was much more at liberty to switch these three basic components
  40. 40. Shakespeare used a great deal of SOV inversion (Will the ball caught).</li></li></ul><li>Shakespeare’s English<br /><ul><li>Switching the S-V-O order to S-O-V made it easier for Shakespeare to rhyme and to manipulate his words to flow easily in poems and plays.
  41. 41. Shakespeare could effectively place the metrical stress wherever he needed it most by switching word order
  42. 42. Shakespeare also used an O-S-V construction (The ball Will caught) for the same reasons.</li></li></ul><li>Inverted Word Order<br />Lady Montague: <br />O where is Romeo, saw you him today?<br />Right glad I am he was not at this fray.<br />Translation:<br />O where is Romeo; did you see him today? <br />I am very glad he was not in this fight.<br />
  43. 43. Inverted Word Order<br />“Thou hast by moonlight at her window sung.”<br />Translation:<br />You have sung at her window in the moonlight.<br />From A Midsummer Night’s Dream<br />
  44. 44. Shakespeare’s Language in Plays<br /><ul><li>The language used by Shakespeare in his plays is in one of three forms
  45. 45. Prose
  46. 46. Rhymed Verse
  47. 47. Blank Verse</li></li></ul><li>Prose<br /><ul><li>Prose is writing which resembles everyday speech
  48. 48. Prose is often used by Shakespeare for lower-class characters in his plays
  49. 49. Prose lacks meter and rhyme and is informal
  50. 50. Shakespeare blends prose with poetry in his plays</li></li></ul><li>Rhymed Verse<br /><ul><li>The majority of Shakespeare’s plays contain rhymed verse which looks like poetry
  51. 51. Characters– especially of the higher classes--speak in poetic form
  52. 52. Their words have form, meter, and rhyme
  53. 53. Rhymed verse in Shakespeare's plays is usually in rhymed couplets, i.e. two successive lines of verse of which the final words rhyme with another.</li></li></ul><li>Iambic Pentameter<br /><ul><li>Iambic pentameter is meter that Shakespeare nearly always when writing in verse. Most of his plays were written in iambic pentameter.
  54. 54. Iambic Pentameter has:
  55. 55. Ten syllables in each line
  56. 56. Five pairs of alternating unstressed and stressed syllables
  57. 57. The rhythm in each line sounds like: ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM</li></li></ul><li>Iambic Pentameter Example<br /><ul><li>Examples of Iambic Pentameter:
  58. 58. If mu- / -sic be / the food / of love, / play on
  59. 59. Is this / a dag- / -gerI / see be- / fore me?
  60. 60. Each pair of syllables is called an iamb. You’ll notice that each iamb is made up of one unstressed and one stressed beat (ba-BUM).</li></li></ul><li>Rhymed Verse in Iambic Pentameter<br /><ul><li>Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind</li></ul>And therefore is winged Cupid painted blind.<br />Nor hath Love's mind of any judgment taste;<br />Wings, and no eyes, figure unheedyhaste:<br />And therefore is Love said to be a child,<br />Because in choice he is so oft beguiled.<br />- from A Midsummer Night’s Dream<br />
  61. 61. Blank Verse<br /><ul><li>Blank verse refers to unrhymed iambic pentameter.
  62. 62. resembles prose in that the final words of the lines do not rhyme in any regular pattern
  63. 63. There is meter: a recognizable rhythm in a line of verse consisting of a pattern of regularly recurring stressed and unstressed syllables. 
  64. 64. Most lines are in iambic pentameter. </li></li></ul><li>Blank Verse<br /><ul><li>BLANK VERSE is employed in a wide range of situations because it comes close to the natural speaking rhythms of English but raises it above the ordinary without sounding artificial
  65. 65. Rather than prose, blank verse may suggest a refinement of character.
  66. 66. Many of Shakespeare's most famous speeches are written in blank verse.</li></li></ul><li>Blank Verse Example<br />ROMEO: But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks?<br />It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. <br /> Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, <br />Who is already sick and pale with grief, <br /> That thou, her maid, art far more fair than she. <br /> Be not her maid, since she is envious; <br />Her vestal livery is but sick and green<br />And none but fools do wear it; cast it off. from Romeo and Juliet <br />
  67. 67. Prose, Rhymed Verse or Blank Verse?<br />Juliet: Wilt thou be gone? It is not yet near day.<br />It was the nightingale, and not the lark,<br />That pierced the fearful hollow of thine ear;<br />Nightly she sings on yond pomegranate tree<br />Believe me, love, it was the nightingale.<br />
  68. 68. Blank Verse<br />
  69. 69. Prose, Rhymed Verse or Blank Verse?<br />Abraham: Do you bite your thumb at us, sir?<br />Sampson: No, sir, I do not bite my thumb at you, sir, but I bite my thumb, sir.<br />Gregory: Do you quarrel, sir?<br />Abraham: Quarrel, sir? No, sir.<br />
  70. 70. Prose<br />
  71. 71. Prose, Rhymed Verse or Blank Verse?<br />Full fathom five thy father lies<br />Of his bones are coral made<br />Those are pearls that were his eyes<br />Nothing of him that doth fade <br />But doth suffer a sea change <br />Into something rich and strange.<br />
  72. 72. Rhymed Verse<br />
  73. 73. Prose, Rhymed Verse or Blank Verse?<br />NURSE: He was a merry man—took up the child.<br />“Yea,” quoth he, “Dost thou fall upon thy face?<br />Thou wilt fall backward when thou hast more wit,<br />Wilt thou not, Jule?” and, by my holy dame,<br />The pretty wretch left crying and said “ay.”<br />
  74. 74. Blank Verse<br />
  75. 75. Prose, Rhymed Verse or Blank Verse?<br />ROMEO:<br />Oh, she doth teach the torches to burn bright!<br />It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night<br />Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope's ear,<br />Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear.<br />
  76. 76. Rhymed Verse<br />
  77. 77. Prose, Rhymed Verse or Blank Verse?<br />ROMEO<br />Have not saints lips, and holy palmers too?<br />JULIET<br />Ay, pilgrim, lips that they must use in prayer.<br />ROMEO<br />O, then, dear saint, let lips do what hands do.<br />They pray; grant thou, lest faith turn to despair.<br />
  78. 78. Rhymed Verse<br />
  79. 79. Prose, Rhymed Verse or Blank Verse?<br />ROMEO<br />Here's goodly gear.<br />BENVOLIO<br />A sail, a sail!<br />MERCUTIO<br />Two, two—a shirt and a smock.<br />
  80. 80. Prose<br />