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CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE           Module 5. Network analysis for supporting    the Case Manager‟s work
Working in the Case Management perspective            CM uses a pro-active approach               (and not a reactive one)...
The community        The COMMUNITY can be defined as a “group of human beings with a common history”,where continuous rela...
The dimensions of a community culture (1)The Community Culture is characterized by six dimensions:1.   Technological2.   E...
The dimensions of a community culture (2)The Technological Dimension of Community:The technological dimension of community...
The dimensions of a community culture (3)The Political Dimension of Community:The political dimension of community is its ...
The dimensions of a community culture (4)The Aesthetic-Values Dimension of Community:The aesthetic-values dimension of com...
Another way to describe the community:the different layers of the relationships of help                              FORMA...
Two different policies in the development of           social protection services                                         ...
Reactive (clinical) approach:  This provides services to individual cases when the situation has already become an emergen...
What is a social network? Social and Cultural    Environment                                                         Thing...
What is a coping network?The coping network includes all the persons of a social network who are involved in fulfilling a ...
The coping networkThe coping network is composed of all the persons who    interact with the person/family in need, and ca...
Main characteristics of the networking methodology There is a problem (social, health, protection); the social network sur...
How does the network guide do this? The guide: - facilitates the communication within the network; - mediates different po...
A map for describing the social network of a person:                                     Todd‟s diagram                   ...
The social network of Judith when the taking in charge has begun                                                          ...
First network evaluation                                                                                                  ...
The social network of Judith when the taking in charge is established                                                     ...
Establishednetwork evaluation                                                                                             ...
POLICE                                                 LEGAL SERVICES                                     Case            ...
A multilevel description of social network:                     the “bubble” model (1)                                    ...
A multilevel description of social network:                     the “bubble” model (2)The “bubble” model offers someimport...
A small dictionary of the social networkPrimary network: this is constituted by the members of the family(who cannot be ch...
Main variables describing social relations               in a social networkPlexity: describes the type of a relationship ...
Main variables describing the structure               of a social networkHomogeneity and Heterogeneity: a social network c...
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Integrated Social Services: Reaching the Most Vulnerable. Training package for case managers

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Transcript of "Integrated Social Services: Reaching the Most Vulnerable. Training package for case managers"

  1. 1. CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE Module 5. Network analysis for supporting the Case Manager‟s work
  2. 2. Working in the Case Management perspective CM uses a pro-active approach (and not a reactive one) An approach is action- That is: an action- oriented when it is oriented approach community-based But… what is COMMUNITY? Case Management – module 5 – slide 2
  3. 3. The community The COMMUNITY can be defined as a “group of human beings with a common history”,where continuous relationships and exchanges take place based on economical, material, social and cultural resources.This group of people bases its relationship on trust, and can cooperate to create groups and networks to reach common goals. Case Management – module 5 – slide 3
  4. 4. The dimensions of a community culture (1)The Community Culture is characterized by six dimensions:1. Technological2. Economic3. Political4. Institutional (social)5. Aesthetic-value, and6. Belief-conceptual.• Each of these dimensions of culture is transmitted by symbols (not genes) and consists of systems of learned ideas and behaviour.• All of these are elements within every social (or cultural) system. They are based on learned behaviour, which transcends the individuals who learned each part. If any dimension of culture is missing, by definition, all are missing. Case Management – module 5 – slide 4
  5. 5. The dimensions of a community culture (2)The Technological Dimension of Community:The technological dimension of community is its capital,its tools and skills, and ways of dealing with the physicalenvironment. It is the interface between humanity andnature.The Economic Dimension of Community:The economic dimension of community is its various waysand means of production and allocation of scarce anduseful goods and services (wealth), whether that isthrough gift giving, obligations, barter, market trade, orstate allocations. Case Management – module 5 – slide 5
  6. 6. The dimensions of a community culture (3)The Political Dimension of Community:The political dimension of community is its various ways andmeans of allocating power, influence and decision making. It isnot the same as ideology, which belongs to the values dimension.It includes, but is not limited to, types of governments andmanagement systems. It also includes how people in small bandsor informal groups make decisions when they do not have arecognized leader.The Institutional Dimension of Community:The social or institutional dimension of community is composedof the ways people act, interact between each other, react, andexpect each other to act and interact. It includes suchinstitutions as marriage or friendship, roles such as mother orpolice officer, status or class, and other patterns of humanbehaviour. Case Management – module 5 – slide 6
  7. 7. The dimensions of a community culture (4)The Aesthetic-Values Dimension of Community:The aesthetic-values dimension of community is thestructure of ideas, sometimes paradoxical, inconsistent,or contradictory, that people have about good and bad,about beautiful and ugly, and about right and wrong,which are the justifications that people cite to explaintheir actions.The Beliefs-Conceptual Dimension of Community:The beliefs-conceptual dimension of community isanother structure of ideas, also sometimescontradictory, that people have about the nature of theuniverse, the world around them, their role in it, causeand effect, and the nature of time, matter, andbehaviour. Case Management – module 5 – slide 7
  8. 8. Another way to describe the community:the different layers of the relationships of help FORMAL SERVICES Professional service providers INFORMAL SERVICES Citizens organised to a certain extent (volunteers) INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL NETWORKS Family members and friends linked through emotional and personal relationships Case Management – module 5 – slide 8
  9. 9. Two different policies in the development of social protection services The more complex and developed a community is, the more developed are the top levels of our “help-pyramid”. In a very ! re he e ar simple and primitive community, the level at s er ag an FORMAL m the base of the pyramid is usually enough to se SERVICES Ca Professional service providers ensure social safety. When a society begins INFORMAL SERVICES Citizens organised to a certain to specialize the production system and extent (volunteers) increase its social complexity, the other INDI VIDUAL SOCIAL NETWORKS levels become more and more important. Family members and friends linked through In this process there is a danger or an opportunity: it depends on what emotional and personal relationships kind social policies the society (institutions) adopts. There are two alternatives:1. When an upper level is developed, it tends to impoverish and then replace the lower ones (RE-ACTIVE APPROACH – traditional social work)2. When an upper level is developed, it empowers and makes more effective the lower ones (PRO-ACTIVE APPROACH – Case Management) Case Management – module 5 – slide 9
  10. 10. Reactive (clinical) approach: This provides services to individual cases when the situation has already become an emergency and the possibilities to get help from the community are inadequate or no longer exist. Proactive (community based) approach: This starts before a social problem becomes anemergency that cannot be handled by the community; qualified roles are given to the community members involved (teachers, community and religious leaders)and other persons informally providing a social service are involved. Case Management – module 5 – slide 10
  11. 11. What is a social network? Social and Cultural Environment Things to do to survive Cognitive abilities, behavioural skills Things to do Emotions, Tasks to feel goodidentity, self-esteem about ourselves Health Things to do to feel accepted by othersPhysical Environment Case Management – module 5 – slide 11
  12. 12. What is a coping network?The coping network includes all the persons of a social network who are involved in fulfilling a specific need (for example, assisting a child victim of abuse in the family). When the network is not strong enough to fulfil the need, there is a “social problem”. Case Management – module 5 – slide 12
  13. 13. The coping networkThe coping network is composed of all the persons who interact with the person/family in need, and can positively contribute to provide protection and careIt is composed of public officers (local administrators, police, magistrates) professionals (doctors, teachers, counselors, sports trainers, NGOs operators) andcommon people sharing their daily life with the individual (family members, relatives, neighbours, friends, members of religious groups)All these people have to be involved in decision making, until they are able to take care of the social case without the guidance of the Case Manager Case Management – module 5 – slide 13
  14. 14. Main characteristics of the networking methodology There is a problem (social, health, protection); the social network surrounding the person with the problem cannot cope with the need in an adequate way Thus this is not only a problem for the single beneficiary, but first and foremost a problem of his/her social networkWith the networking methodology the case manager(expert) intervenes to strengthen the network,helping and guiding it with the involvement of other„informal‟ resources, and not only of professionalservices The goal for the case manager, or GUIDE of the network, is to help the network to improve and become self-sufficient in dealing with a problem Case Management – module 5 – slide 14
  15. 15. How does the network guide do this? The guide: - facilitates the communication within the network; - mediates different points of view; - takes into consideration the possibilities and the expectations of everyone involvedThe guide acts as a „resource centre‟ forinformation sharing: he/she has to know thecommunity, and to share his/her knowledge tohelp the network to strengthen itself The guide mediates between the network and other resources, without (never!) giving „directions‟; his/her role is based on trust Case Management – module 5 – slide 15
  16. 16. A map for describing the social network of a person: Todd‟s diagram TODD‟s diagram is a method for describing the Practitioner of the whole social network of a NGOs‟ members public services volunteers person/family. The plots of the network are putFivedifferent into the diagram dividedsocial areas client into 5 categories and located at a distance from the subject proportional School or job mates to closeness with him/her. A social network has points of strength and Neighbours and friends weakness, both qualitative and quantitative. There can be a reciprocal relatives knowledge between two plots, or not. In the first case this relationship can be mutual (neither positive or negative), or not. Case Management – module 5 – slide 16
  17. 17. The social network of Judith when the taking in charge has begun NGO’s members volunteers Practitioner of the public services 7 9 8 6 Judith School or job mates 10 1 2 Plots list: 1. mother 3 2. father 4 3. sister 4. aunt Neighbours 5. Other aunt and friends 6. Dr Marcus 7. Case manager 5 8. First teacher relatives 9. Second teacher 10. neighbour Case Management – module 5 – slide 17
  18. 18. First network evaluation NGO’s members volunteers Practitioner of the public services 7 Within the red circle have been 9 placed the network plots involved in 8 6 the problem of Judith’s homework Judith (the coping network). Some of 1 School or job mates these plots have a very negative 10 2 Plots list: perception of the problem (i.e. the 1. mother 3 2. father 4 3. sister teachers), someone is too involved 4. aunt Neighbours 5. Other aunt and friends 6. Dr Marcus (the mother), and someone too little 5 relatives 7. Case manager 8. First teacher (the aunt). 9. Second teacher 10. neighbour Some plots of the network do not know each other and others probably have reciprocal negative relations (parents vs. teachers). Furthermore, the network is very weak, both because there are not many members for such a difficult task, and because there is no member belonging to three social areas out of the five who participate to the coping network. At the beginning, the task of Judith’s homework is only a question between parents and some discouraged practitioners. Case Management – module 5 – slide 18
  19. 19. The social network of Judith when the taking in charge is established NGO’s members volunteers Practitioner of the public services 7 9 14 12 8 11 6 13 16 15 Plots list: Friends of Judith 1. mother Recreation 2. father School or job centre mates 3. sister 10 1 4 4. aunt 5. Other aunt 2 6. Dr Marcus 3 7. Case manager 8. First teacher 9. Second teacher 10. Neighbour Neighbours 11. Monica and friends 12. Cleric 5 13. Special teacher 14. Headmaster relatives 15. Pedagogue 16. psychologist Case Management – module 5 – slide 19
  20. 20. Establishednetwork evaluation NGO’s members volunteers Practitioner of the Within the red circle have been public services 7 9 14 12 placed the plots involved in the 8 6 13 11 problem of Judith’s homework and 16 15 Plots list: socialisation (the coping network). Friends of Judith 1. mother Recreation centre 2. father School or job mates 3. sister 10 1 All of the people involved have a 4 4. aunt 5. Other aunt 2 6. Dr Marcus more positive perception of the 3 7. Case manager 8. First teacher 9. Second teacher 10. Neighbour problem compared with the Neighbours and friends 11. Monica 12. Cleric 5 13. Special teacher beginning of the project. 14. Headmaster relatives 15. Pedagogue 16. psychologist The number of the involved members is much higher, they are more cooperative amongst each other, belong to four social areas out of five (but we can consider that the improvement of the school relational climate has promoted new friendships in the school setting as well), and everyone is closer to Judith than in the past. The enlargement of the coping network (before involving other informal members, and then other formal ones) has not only allowed the first task (Judiths homework) to be better addressed, but also to take further into consideration the following: socialisation, sport, improvement of school climate, psychological well-being of Judith and her parents. Case Management – module 5 – slide 20
  21. 21. POLICE LEGAL SERVICES Case Manager NEIGHBOURS TEACHERS Family RELATIVESWRONG NETWORKING! SOCIAL SERVICES COMMUNITY RELATIVES LEADERS Family HEALTH SERVICES NEIGHBOURSLEGAL SERVICES COMMUNITY RESOURCES Case Manager RELATIVESPOLICE RIGHT NETWORKING! EDUCATION SERVICES HEALTH SERVICES COMMUNITY RESOURCES Case Management – module 5 – slide 21
  22. 22. A multilevel description of social network: the “bubble” model (1) ? Home care ServiceAbroad ? Hospital ? Family Doctor Anne Nelson’s psychiatrist ? School Nelson Rose ? Social Activities Centre English teacher Peter Lisa Maria ……………………….. John Luis Sylvie Bureaucratic offices Families network Association Case Management – module 5 – slide 22
  23. 23. A multilevel description of social network: the “bubble” model (2)The “bubble” model offers someimportant advantages compared toTodd’s Diagram.First, it is easily drawn by pencil on asheet, during a meeting or aninterview.Secondly, it allows the creation of amap of the community around thecase before building the copingnetwork.The model can be enriched step by step, and it becomes not only ageographic map of the network, but also a historical representation of theproject. The example illustrates the case of Nelson, a family father, whohas problems of mental health and alcohol dependence. The model tells us,for example, that Nelson’s wife (Rose) was adopted by Anne, while Nelson’sparents are likely abroad.This model also shows the second level networks, i.e. the partial network ofa member of the coping network (for example, the friends of Nelson’s son,Luis). The representation of this network can significantly help the CM’swork. Case Management – module 5 – slide 23
  24. 24. A small dictionary of the social networkPrimary network: this is constituted by the members of the family(who cannot be chosen) and by friends (who can instead be chosen).The primary network is characterized by affective relationshipswhich provide safety and the sense of belonging and identity.Secondary formal network: this is constituted by the public/privateinstitutions which have been created for providing eligible services.The relationships with them and their practitioners are onlyprofessional.Secondary informal network: this is constituted by NGOs,associations, social groups, volunteers; all these subjects have beencreated for reaching specific goals of public utility, but it is usualthat some members of this network become members of the primarynetwork. Case Management – module 5 – slide 24
  25. 25. Main variables describing social relations in a social networkPlexity: describes the type of a relationship (friendship, relationship,neighbourliness, work, professional). A relation is called Uniplex if itbelongs to only one kind, and Multiplex if belongs to more than one(e.g. a colleague who is also a friend or a relative).Symmetry: a relationship is symmetric if it is described in the sameway by both the subjects of the relationship itself (for example, agood or bad relationship); otherwise it is asymmetric.Intensity, Intimacy, Lasting : although these variables describedifferent aspects of a relationship, they are usually directlyproportional: the more the intensity, the more intimacy and longevitythere is, and so on.The second level networks: these are constituted by people who thesubject does not know (or knows slightly), but who can be a potentialsource of help and/or information (for example, own friends’ friendsor colleagues or relatives). Case Management – module 5 – slide 25
  26. 26. Main variables describing the structure of a social networkHomogeneity and Heterogeneity: a social network can beconstituted by people, relatives excluded, having (or not) in commonsome features: the same age, sex, policy or religious beliefs,behavioural habits, and so on.Density: this variable measures how many dyadic relationships themembers of the network have, on average, by comparison with theother members: the higher the density is, the higher is the chanceto build shared projects.Cluster: a network can be constituted by some sub-networks (calledclusters) which can be very strong, but which have no relationshipwith each other, sometimes for distance reasons, sometimesbecause the clusters belongs to very different cultural worlds.Typically, this is the situation of immigrant people, or people whohave had an important experience elsewhere (for example, in arecovery community for drugs abusers). Case Management – module 5 – slide 26
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