Minnesota Forestry 101

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Presentation to Minnesota Conservation Corps during their 2006 summer retreat, Hinckley MN.

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  • Minnesota Forestry 101

    1. 1. Forestry 101 Eli Sagor [email_address] (612) 624-6948 MCC mid-year retreat, July 2006
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>About forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
    3. 3. About forestry
    4. 4. Outline <ul><li>About forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
    5. 5. Sound forestry is… <ul><li>… production of a renewable resource </li></ul><ul><li>… a $7 billion industry in Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>… beneficial to wildlife and water </li></ul><ul><li>… conducted by professional foresters and loggers </li></ul>
    6. 6. Sound forestry is… <ul><li>… not necessarily timber-focused </li></ul><ul><li>… a responsible way to make money from the land </li></ul><ul><li>… a way to keep forest land forested </li></ul><ul><li>… a way to restore lost habitat elements </li></ul>
    7. 10. Sound forestry is NOT… <ul><li>… clearing land to build shopping malls </li></ul><ul><li>… a “cut & run” extractive industry </li></ul>
    8. 11. Some important concepts
    9. 12. Kraft Crown Classification <ul><li>Dominant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crowns extending above main canopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receiving direct sunlight from above and from sides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Codominant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crowns at general level of crown cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receiving direct sunlight from above but little from the sides </li></ul></ul>
    10. 13. Kraft Crown Classification <ul><li>Intermediate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shorter but with crowns extending into the main canopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receiving direct sunlight from above but not from the sides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suppressed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crowns entirely below the main canopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receiving no direct light from above or from the sides </li></ul></ul>
    11. 15. Shade Tolerance <ul><li>A tree species’ ability to grow and thrive under low light conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Some trees need full sun, others can grow under a dense canopy. </li></ul>
    12. 16. Outline <ul><li>About forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
    13. 17. Source: J. Tester, 1995. Fig. 1.6
    14. 18. Minnesota’s 3 biomes <ul><li>Northeast: Coniferous </li></ul><ul><li>Central: Deciduous </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast: Prairie </li></ul>Source: MN DNR
    15. 19. Source: J. Tester, 1995. Fig. 1.22
    16. 20. Common Forest types Photo by Firth Photo-Bank, Mpls, from Tester 1995
    17. 21. Aspen-birch <ul><li>Early successional </li></ul><ul><li>Generalist </li></ul><ul><li>Short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent seed dispersal </li></ul>
    18. 22. Aspen-birch <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this type: severe fire or extensive windthrow </li></ul><ul><li>Transition to white-red pine or fir-spruce, depending on site </li></ul>
    19. 23. White & red pine <ul><li>Mid-successional </li></ul><ul><li>Red, white, jack pine and birch </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around on drier, more fire prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived </li></ul>
    20. 24. White & red pine <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this type: Severe fire / extensive windthrow </li></ul>
    21. 25. Black spruce <ul><li>Found on wet, low areas </li></ul><ul><li>Not much competition… </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant boreal forest type </li></ul>
    22. 26. Fir-spruce <ul><li>Late successional type </li></ul><ul><li>Balsam fir, white spruce, birch, black spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Can exist on many soil types but not driest </li></ul>Photo: UGA online photo library
    23. 27. Fir-spruce <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this type: small or larger gaps from windthrow, insects, or tree death </li></ul>
    24. 28. Oaks <ul><li>Mid-successional type </li></ul><ul><li>Fire dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Likes drier, fire-prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy seeds, seedlings and stump sprouts </li></ul>
    25. 29. Oaks <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this forest type: Fire </li></ul>
    26. 30. Northern Hardwoods <ul><li>Late successional </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow birch, red oak, maples, white pine, fir </li></ul><ul><li>Rich, moist northern MN sites (cold) </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived type </li></ul>
    27. 31. Northern Hardwoods <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this forest type: small gaps, windthrow </li></ul>
    28. 32. Maple-Basswood <ul><li>Climax type </li></ul><ul><li>Moist, rich sites </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t like disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively heavy seeds, stump sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>Likes low-intensity (gap) disturbance </li></ul>
    29. 33. Maple-Basswood <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this forest type: small gaps from windthrow or tree death </li></ul><ul><li>Small gap disturbance every 40-150 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophic disturbance 400-1000 yrs </li></ul>MN DNR
    30. 34. Outline <ul><li>About forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
    31. 35. Silviculture <ul><li>The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and health of forests and woodlands to meet the landowner’s objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>(Modified from J. Helms 1998) </li></ul>
    32. 36. The toolbox <ul><li>Clearcut harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>“ Selective” or partial harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribed burning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to control understory competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to prepare a cleared site for planting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to favor natural regeneration of desired species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to reduce fuel loads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planting of desired species and/or genetically improved stock </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting stands from damage from wildlife (deer!) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning at various times in the rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Pruning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to improve log quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to reduce disease effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spraying herbicides or pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting to reduce insect threats </li></ul><ul><li>Salvage cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Fire suppression </li></ul><ul><li>And more… </li></ul>
    33. 37. Forest management systems <ul><li>Clearcutting </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-tree selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermediate treatments </li></ul>
    34. 38. Clearcutting <ul><li>Clear all vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the site </li></ul><ul><li>Plant trees (generally) </li></ul><ul><li>Spray herbicide to control competition </li></ul><ul><li>Thin (generally) </li></ul><ul><li>Clearcut, and start over </li></ul>
    35. 39. (Wisconsin DNR image)
    36. 40. (Ontario Extension image)
    37. 43. Shelterwood Method <ul><li>Start with a mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Partial harvest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New seedlings are established </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remove canopy, “release the advance regeneration” </li></ul>
    38. 44. Shelterwood: mature hardwood stand before any treatment (Wisconsin DNR image)
    39. 45. Shelterwood: After first cut (Wisconsin DNR image)
    40. 46. Shelterwood: After first cut, 5 years later (Wisconsin DNR image)
    41. 47. Shelterwood: After overstory removal (Wisconsin DNR image)
    42. 48. (Ontario Extension image)
    43. 51. Selection System <ul><li>Start with mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Remove single trees or groups </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat as needed </li></ul>
    44. 52. Group Selection <ul><li>Start with a mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Remove small groups of trees to create patches of regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat periodically in different areas </li></ul>
    45. 53. Source: UGA Forestry Photo Gallery
    46. 54. Source: UGA Forestry Photo Gallery
    47. 55. Single tree selection: Before (Wisconsin DNR image)
    48. 56. Single tree selection: After (Wisconsin DNR image)
    49. 57. (Ontario Extension image)
    50. 58. Thinnings <ul><li>Improve the future growth of existing trees </li></ul><ul><li>Row or selection thinnings </li></ul><ul><li>Timber stand improvement </li></ul>
    51. 61. Outline <ul><li>About forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
    52. 62. Forest Management 101 <ul><li>Favor the right species for the site </li></ul><ul><li>Know and mimic natural disturbance regimes </li></ul>
    53. 63. Source : Tom McEvoy, 2000. Introduction to Forest Ecology and Silviculture . Second Edition. Copyright Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service (NRAES).
    54. 64. Aspen-birch <ul><li>Early successional </li></ul><ul><li>Generalist </li></ul><ul><li>Short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent seed dispersal </li></ul>
    55. 65. White & red pine <ul><li>Mid-successional </li></ul><ul><li>Red, white, jack pine and birch </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around on drier, more fire prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived </li></ul>
    56. 66. Fir-spruce <ul><li>Late successional type </li></ul><ul><li>Balsam fir, white spruce, birch, black spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Can exist on many soil types but not driest </li></ul>Photo: UGA online photo library
    57. 67. Oaks <ul><li>Mid-successional type </li></ul><ul><li>Fire dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Likes drier, fire-prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy seeds, seedlings and stump sprouts </li></ul>
    58. 68. Northern Hardwoods <ul><li>Late successional </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow birch, red oak, maples, white pine, fir </li></ul><ul><li>Rich, moist northern MN sites (cold) </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived type </li></ul>
    59. 69. Maple-Basswood <ul><li>Climax type </li></ul><ul><li>Moist, rich sites </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t like disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively heavy seeds, stump sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>Likes low-intensity (gap) disturbance </li></ul>
    60. 70. [email_address]

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