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Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
Minnesota Forestry 101
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Minnesota Forestry 101

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Presentation to Minnesota Conservation Corps during their 2006 summer retreat, Hinckley MN.

Presentation to Minnesota Conservation Corps during their 2006 summer retreat, Hinckley MN.

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    • 1. Forestry 101 Eli Sagor [email_address] (612) 624-6948 MCC mid-year retreat, July 2006
    • 2. Outline <ul><li>About forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
    • 3. About forestry
    • 4. Outline <ul><li>About forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
    • 5. Sound forestry is… <ul><li>… production of a renewable resource </li></ul><ul><li>… a $7 billion industry in Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>… beneficial to wildlife and water </li></ul><ul><li>… conducted by professional foresters and loggers </li></ul>
    • 6. Sound forestry is… <ul><li>… not necessarily timber-focused </li></ul><ul><li>… a responsible way to make money from the land </li></ul><ul><li>… a way to keep forest land forested </li></ul><ul><li>… a way to restore lost habitat elements </li></ul>
    • 7.  
    • 8.  
    • 9.  
    • 10. Sound forestry is NOT… <ul><li>… clearing land to build shopping malls </li></ul><ul><li>… a “cut & run” extractive industry </li></ul>
    • 11. Some important concepts
    • 12. Kraft Crown Classification <ul><li>Dominant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crowns extending above main canopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receiving direct sunlight from above and from sides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Codominant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crowns at general level of crown cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receiving direct sunlight from above but little from the sides </li></ul></ul>
    • 13. Kraft Crown Classification <ul><li>Intermediate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shorter but with crowns extending into the main canopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receiving direct sunlight from above but not from the sides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suppressed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crowns entirely below the main canopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receiving no direct light from above or from the sides </li></ul></ul>
    • 14.  
    • 15. Shade Tolerance <ul><li>A tree species’ ability to grow and thrive under low light conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Some trees need full sun, others can grow under a dense canopy. </li></ul>
    • 16. Outline <ul><li>About forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
    • 17. Source: J. Tester, 1995. Fig. 1.6
    • 18. Minnesota’s 3 biomes <ul><li>Northeast: Coniferous </li></ul><ul><li>Central: Deciduous </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast: Prairie </li></ul>Source: MN DNR
    • 19. Source: J. Tester, 1995. Fig. 1.22
    • 20. Common Forest types Photo by Firth Photo-Bank, Mpls, from Tester 1995
    • 21. Aspen-birch <ul><li>Early successional </li></ul><ul><li>Generalist </li></ul><ul><li>Short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent seed dispersal </li></ul>
    • 22. Aspen-birch <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this type: severe fire or extensive windthrow </li></ul><ul><li>Transition to white-red pine or fir-spruce, depending on site </li></ul>
    • 23. White & red pine <ul><li>Mid-successional </li></ul><ul><li>Red, white, jack pine and birch </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around on drier, more fire prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived </li></ul>
    • 24. White & red pine <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this type: Severe fire / extensive windthrow </li></ul>
    • 25. Black spruce <ul><li>Found on wet, low areas </li></ul><ul><li>Not much competition… </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant boreal forest type </li></ul>
    • 26. Fir-spruce <ul><li>Late successional type </li></ul><ul><li>Balsam fir, white spruce, birch, black spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Can exist on many soil types but not driest </li></ul>Photo: UGA online photo library
    • 27. Fir-spruce <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this type: small or larger gaps from windthrow, insects, or tree death </li></ul>
    • 28. Oaks <ul><li>Mid-successional type </li></ul><ul><li>Fire dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Likes drier, fire-prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy seeds, seedlings and stump sprouts </li></ul>
    • 29. Oaks <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this forest type: Fire </li></ul>
    • 30. Northern Hardwoods <ul><li>Late successional </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow birch, red oak, maples, white pine, fir </li></ul><ul><li>Rich, moist northern MN sites (cold) </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived type </li></ul>
    • 31. Northern Hardwoods <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this forest type: small gaps, windthrow </li></ul>
    • 32. Maple-Basswood <ul><li>Climax type </li></ul><ul><li>Moist, rich sites </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t like disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively heavy seeds, stump sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>Likes low-intensity (gap) disturbance </li></ul>
    • 33. Maple-Basswood <ul><li>Natural disturbance that maintains this forest type: small gaps from windthrow or tree death </li></ul><ul><li>Small gap disturbance every 40-150 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophic disturbance 400-1000 yrs </li></ul>MN DNR
    • 34. Outline <ul><li>About forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
    • 35. Silviculture <ul><li>The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and health of forests and woodlands to meet the landowner’s objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>(Modified from J. Helms 1998) </li></ul>
    • 36. The toolbox <ul><li>Clearcut harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>“ Selective” or partial harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribed burning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to control understory competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to prepare a cleared site for planting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to favor natural regeneration of desired species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to reduce fuel loads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planting of desired species and/or genetically improved stock </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting stands from damage from wildlife (deer!) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning at various times in the rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Pruning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to improve log quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to reduce disease effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spraying herbicides or pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting to reduce insect threats </li></ul><ul><li>Salvage cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Fire suppression </li></ul><ul><li>And more… </li></ul>
    • 37. Forest management systems <ul><li>Clearcutting </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-tree selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermediate treatments </li></ul>
    • 38. Clearcutting <ul><li>Clear all vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the site </li></ul><ul><li>Plant trees (generally) </li></ul><ul><li>Spray herbicide to control competition </li></ul><ul><li>Thin (generally) </li></ul><ul><li>Clearcut, and start over </li></ul>
    • 39. (Wisconsin DNR image)
    • 40. (Ontario Extension image)
    • 41.  
    • 42.  
    • 43. Shelterwood Method <ul><li>Start with a mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Partial harvest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New seedlings are established </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remove canopy, “release the advance regeneration” </li></ul>
    • 44. Shelterwood: mature hardwood stand before any treatment (Wisconsin DNR image)
    • 45. Shelterwood: After first cut (Wisconsin DNR image)
    • 46. Shelterwood: After first cut, 5 years later (Wisconsin DNR image)
    • 47. Shelterwood: After overstory removal (Wisconsin DNR image)
    • 48. (Ontario Extension image)
    • 49.  
    • 50.  
    • 51. Selection System <ul><li>Start with mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Remove single trees or groups </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat as needed </li></ul>
    • 52. Group Selection <ul><li>Start with a mature stand </li></ul><ul><li>Remove small groups of trees to create patches of regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat periodically in different areas </li></ul>
    • 53. Source: UGA Forestry Photo Gallery
    • 54. Source: UGA Forestry Photo Gallery
    • 55. Single tree selection: Before (Wisconsin DNR image)
    • 56. Single tree selection: After (Wisconsin DNR image)
    • 57. (Ontario Extension image)
    • 58. Thinnings <ul><li>Improve the future growth of existing trees </li></ul><ul><li>Row or selection thinnings </li></ul><ul><li>Timber stand improvement </li></ul>
    • 59.  
    • 60.  
    • 61. Outline <ul><li>About forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Forest types </li></ul><ul><li>Silvicultural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
    • 62. Forest Management 101 <ul><li>Favor the right species for the site </li></ul><ul><li>Know and mimic natural disturbance regimes </li></ul>
    • 63. Source : Tom McEvoy, 2000. Introduction to Forest Ecology and Silviculture . Second Edition. Copyright Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service (NRAES).
    • 64. Aspen-birch <ul><li>Early successional </li></ul><ul><li>Generalist </li></ul><ul><li>Short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent seed dispersal </li></ul>
    • 65. White & red pine <ul><li>Mid-successional </li></ul><ul><li>Red, white, jack pine and birch </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks around on drier, more fire prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived </li></ul>
    • 66. Fir-spruce <ul><li>Late successional type </li></ul><ul><li>Balsam fir, white spruce, birch, black spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Can exist on many soil types but not driest </li></ul>Photo: UGA online photo library
    • 67. Oaks <ul><li>Mid-successional type </li></ul><ul><li>Fire dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Likes drier, fire-prone sites </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy seeds, seedlings and stump sprouts </li></ul>
    • 68. Northern Hardwoods <ul><li>Late successional </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow birch, red oak, maples, white pine, fir </li></ul><ul><li>Rich, moist northern MN sites (cold) </li></ul><ul><li>Long-lived type </li></ul>
    • 69. Maple-Basswood <ul><li>Climax type </li></ul><ul><li>Moist, rich sites </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t like disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively heavy seeds, stump sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>Likes low-intensity (gap) disturbance </li></ul>
    • 70. [email_address]

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