Problems and solutions in research

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Transcript

  • 1. Problems and Solutions in Research
  • 2. Self-Fulfilling ProphecyA situation in which a researcher’sexpectations influence that person’sown behaviorThose behaviors can then influencethe participant’s behavior
  • 3. Two ways to avoid self- fulfilling prophecy Single Blind - an experiment in which the participants are unaware of which participants have received the treatment Double Blind - an experiment in which neither the participants nor the experimenter know which participants receive which treatment
  • 4. Milgram ExperimentHypothesis - Would participantsadminister painful shocks because anauthority figure had instructed themto do soIndependent variable - instructed todeliver shocks from authority figureDependent variable - administershocks and increasing the level
  • 5. Design of the experiment
  • 6. Participants - 200 college studentsand adults (told participants arestudying affects or punishment onlearning)Results - 62% pushed the button tothe severe level. Ordinaryindividuals could easily inflict painon others when instructed by anauthority figure
  • 7. Type of experiment - single blindcriticism - deception in research andethical principleSwarthmore college - young, liberalminded, highly educated studentswould not conform as the WWIIgeneration88%
  • 8. Placebo EffectHypothesis - If people are given andtold about a certain drug then theywill believe in it’s affectsIndependent variable - Type of drugDependent variable - response toplacebo
  • 9. Participants experimental group - “new tranquilizer” “new energizer” Control group - no drugs
  • 10. Results - 53% - 80% reported thatthey had benefitted from the drugType of experiment - double blind