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Transforming collections, transforming technical services: finding efficiencies in e-content


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  • 1. Transforming Collections, Transforming Technical Services: Finding Efficiencies in E-Content
    • Good Practices for Great Outcomes : Cataloging Efficiencies that Make a Difference
    • OCLC Forum at Texas State University, LBJ Student Center
    • May 6, 2011
    • Elaine Sanchez, Head Cataloging Librarian
    • Paivi Rentz, Head Acquisitions Librarian
    • Texas State University-San Marcos
  • 2. Collections at Texas State
  • 3. E- and Other Collections at Texas State: Cataloging Statistics FY10 – compared to FY09 FY10 – compared to FY08 E-resources budget 60% of budget spent on e-resources Not available Acquisitions Print down 2.72%; Non-print down .99%; E-resources up 3.72% Not available Total physical titles received FY10 (19,747) down 6% compared to FY09 (21,912) FY10 (19,747) down 11% compared to FY08 (22,374) Total physical titles cataloged FY10 (21,780) up 1% compared to FY09 (21,674) FY10 (21,780) up 1.03% compared to FY08 (21,122) Total e-titles cataloged FY10 (260,193) up 2015% compared to FY09 (12,907) FY10 (260,193) up 68% compared to FY08 (46,013) Total subscribed/purchased e-resource titles (cataloged/uncataloged) FY10 (614,644) up 187% from FY09 (327,926) Not available Total digital documents and metadata added by cataloging for institutional repository (BePress) titles FY10 (217) down 25% from FY09 (287) FY10 (217) was up 7% from FY08 (202) Total digital images and metadata added by cataloging in CONTENTdm titles FY10 was 40 (no prior year activity) Not available
  • 4. Weeding at Texas State
    • General trends :
      • Library is moving to a commons concept with an eventual loss of collection space
      • Redesign of the special collection on the 7 th floor to eventually assume more collection space
      • Continuing addition of physical materials in a static shelf situation
    • Collection trends:
      • Media collection weeding/format upgrading, and move to e-video
      • Serial collection weeding (JSTOR)-serial drops-move from print to e-serials, while depending on archives like LOCKSS and Portico
      • Microform collection weeding with the move to e-databases
      • Music move to e- and streaming audio in addition to CD, and weeding of LP collection
      • Virtual reference and weeding of physical reference collection
      • Government documents shift to e- in general, a new e-government document collection via Documents without Shelves of Marcive, and weeding of government document collection
      • Book collection weeding and move to e-books
    • Collection Repository :
      • Library is planning for a Collection Repository to hold portions of the collection, freeing up space for the commons concept building redesign
    FY10 – compared to FY09 FY10 – compared to FY08 Cataloging has increased its role in collection weeding activities, reflected in statistics Physical Collection Weeding FY10 (38,417) up 319% from FY09 (12,061) Fy10 (38,417) up 1420% from FY08 (2,706) E-Deletes for E-Drops FY10 (7,918) up 1047% compared to FY09 (756) FY10 (7,918) up 4551% compared to FY08 (174)
  • 5. Transforming Texas State Technical Services
  • 6. Texas State Transition: E-Cataloging, Digital Work 1997-2004 2005-2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2010-2011 E-serial cataloging begins A-Z list migrated to Ebsco A-Z 628 NetLibrary records cataloged by Monographs using MarcEdit Temporary book backlog cataloger hired as Ebook/Metadata Cataloger Ebook/Metadata cataloger creates first application profile for CONTENTdm digital collection Media Cataloging begins cataloging streaming video Serials Cataloging/IR Manager creates organizational structure for DSpace 22,000+ NetLibrary records (uncataloged) loaded MarcEdit used to clean up the 22,000 NetLibrary records Acquisitions hires 1 st Electronic Resources Librarian Ebook/Metadata Cataloger, Spec. Coll. Cataloger, & Elect. Res. Librarian join IR Team Spec. Coll. Cataloger issues research paper on preservation and digital formats Music Cataloging begins cataloging streaming audio Ebook/Metadata Cataloger becomes Metadata & Institutional Repository Librarian Serials Cataloger creates 1 st A-Z list Serials Cataloger becomes IR Manager, IR Team begins Ebook team assembled to catalog increasing e-books E-resource cataloging statistics tracked in all e-formats IR Vireo, Metadata, and ETD Teams formed with catalogers and Elect. Res. Librarian Largest e-book sets, ECCO and MOMW, 242,204 titles, cataloged, and vendor authority Patron on demand and Documents without Shelves e-book acquisitions and cataloging services begin 27,473 NetLibrary records cataloged by Monographs with MarcEdit Temporary book backlog cataloger hired and added to Ebook team 202 IR docs. & 43,013 e-resources cataloged Ebook/Metadata Librarian maps Dspace and BePress metadata and record values ETD workflows created for Vireo, the IR, and catalog Research begins for new Dspace platform lead by Metadata & IR Librarian Cataloging 1 st to go live in III ETDs accepted in IR 287 IR docs. & 12,907 e-resources cataloged 217 IR docs. & 260,193 e-resources cataloged 68 IR docs., 40 CONTENTdm images, 39,933 e-resources cataloged
  • 7. E-Cataloging and Cumulative Cataloged E-Resource Totals
  • 8. Library Resources Awaiting Cataloging: Physical and E-Resource Counterparts
    • Ballpark counts as of April 28, 2011
    • Individual e-resource titles are frequently acquired as part of a collection, often with hundreds or thousands of titles. These are typically batch cataloged in record files, rather than individually.
    • Physical titles are generally acquired as single titles, and are cataloged individually, record by record.
    • These large and increasing e-resource collections have larger numbers of titles to catalog in a single acquisition; the URL makes them instantly available, which sets up a priority tension to make them available sooner.
  • 9. IR Documents & Metadata Added, and Cumulative IR Totals
  • 10. Cataloging & Metadata Unit E-Services Unit Name E-Services DMS (Database Management Services)
    • Vendor-supplied authority and bibliographic record loads for e-cataloging records
    • Creation and maintenance of virtual collection tracings for various e-collections, including e-Reference
    Media Cataloging Unit
    • All streaming video cataloging services
    • Coordination with e-book cataloger and music cataloger on standards
    • Streaming video record deletes and cataloging management
    • Streaming video authority control, locally
    Metadata/Institutional Repository Unit
    • Documents without Shelves e-government document cataloging service
    • Patron driven e-books cataloging service
    • New Directions for … standing orders changed from print to e-book
    • All other e-book cataloging services
    • DSpace platform building
        • Metadata services
        • eCommons management
        • CONTENTdm metadata
        • E-book record deletes and cataloging management
        • E-book authority control, with vendor, and locally
        • ETD and Vireo coordination
    Music Cataloging Unit
    • All streaming audio cataloging services
    • Coordination with e-book cataloger and media cataloger on standards
    • Streaming audio record deletes and cataloging management
    • Streaming audio authority control, locally
    Serials Cataloging Unit
    • Documents without Shelves e-government document cataloging service
    • All e-serial cataloging services
    • Gale standing order e-book set series
    • E-serial record deletes and cataloging management
    • E-serial authority control, locally
    • E-serial/merged print holdings notes and item record creation and management
    Special Collections Cataloging Unit
    • ETD cataloging
  • 11. From One to Many: E- Collection Cataloging Management
    • What Does It All Mean?
    • Our Collections are shifting to E-formats.
    • We have been determinedly and positively working together to create staff and workflow infrastructures to collect and make these resources available.
    • From individual records to thousands of records, we are finding creative and effective ways to manage the increasing flow of e-resources and e-cataloging needs, using new mass data management and editing tools for efficient and effective processes.
    • E-resources are proliferating in various formats, and one unit or one person cannot effectively handle them all.
    • Cataloging is going beyond e-cataloging to metadata and digital resource collections in the Institutional Repository, and creation and management of digital collections.
  • 12. Finding Efficiencies in E-Content : Experience at Texas State
  • 13. Systematic E-Cataloging Process
    • The Six Steps to a Systematic, Controlled, Quality Description and Access E-Resource Cataloging Process
    • Having quality records is one of the most important issues.
    • Identify what the quality criteria are for your online catalog to help in the determination of quality records, and thus potential use of vendor records.  
    • E-resource permanence or stability of the e-resources is critical, as database maintenance for disappearing and reappearing e-resources is a nightmare.
    • Having a method in place to provide batch descriptive cataloging and authority control is vital.
    • Establishing a policy on when vendor records will be used, when individual cataloging will be done, whether brief records are a possibility, and when no cataloging will be provided, is another necessary step.
    • 6. Having Acquisitions and Public Services staff aware of all these e-resource cataloging management practices is necessary so that they can understand why some e-resources are cataloged, and some are not.
  • 14. Systematic E-Cataloging Process at Texas State
    • What e-resources will receive title-level bibliographic cataloging records
    • Permanent access titles
    • Subscription-based resources with title-level access
    • What e-resources will not receive title-level bibliographic cataloging records
    • Aggregate database e-resources with non-permanent titles
    • Large sets where no title-level bibliographic records are available. Discuss these situations with appropriate Unit and Dept. Head to provide the optimal solution for access
    • How to determine whether to use vendor-supplied (including OCLC) records or to catalog locally
    • The Electronic Resources Librarian will let us know about the availability of title-level bibliographic records from the vendor.
    • When to use vendor-supplied records: Cataloging & Metadata Services will evaluate, and determine use, according to the following criteria:
      • Quality of vendor-supplied records
        • Required/Deal-Breaker:
          • Accurate title
          • Accurate edition
          • Author
          • Title-level url
          • MARC formatting is correct for use in our ILS
  • 15. Systematic E-Cataloging Process at Texas State
    • How to determine whether to use vendor-supplied (including OCLC) records or to catalog locally
        • Highly Recommended :
          • Call number
          • Library of Congress Subject Headings
          • Cataloging records that meet current standards, including MARC standards
      • Number of staff available to catalog the resources
      • Rush access needs
      • Other needs, to be explained by Acquisitions or Collection Development
    • When to catalog locally: Cataloging & Metadata Services will evaluate, and determine use, according to the following criteria:
      • Absolutely no records available for purchase
      • Quantity of titles to catalog (300 or less)
      • Number of staff available to catalog the resources
      • Rush access needs
      • Other needs presented by Acquisitions or Collection Development
    • Will cataloging always be full and complete, or will brief records ever be utilized
      • Cataloging will be full and complete to the extent possible
      • Exceptions may be made in rare cases, such as the Patron-on-Demand, “coverage load” records, or uncataloged titles in online databases
        • CMS will evaluate when to apply this criteria
  • 16. Systematic E-Cataloging Process at Texas State
    • Why authority records and authority control are necessary
    • Authority work provides a controlled vocabulary that standardizes access points in bibliographic records. This enables patrons to search for materials in the library catalog with the desired subject content, authorship and/or title. Authority records are necessary so that in the OPAC there are not multiple variant forms of names, subjects, series, and so on. One search retrieves all associated records! Adding to that, other headings that are related to the initial search (earlier or later forms, broader or narrower subject terms, for example) are also easily viewed and subsequently searched, if desired. Authority records facilitate keeping our database current, as we are continually updating the records with changes and additions to the headings and cross-references when new knowledge becomes available.
    • Parameters for purchasing, or acquiring authority records from our authority control vendor
    • All efforts should be made to provide authority control records for all bibliographic records purchased or acquired from vendors. There is already a line item in the budget that is established for vendor authority control.
    • When to purchase authority control from authority vendor
      • Large batch files of vendor-supplied bibliographic records, over 100
    • When to leave authority control to cataloging units
      • When we catalog individual titles
      • When a batch file of vendor-supplied bibliographic records is 100 or less
  • 17. Systematic E-Cataloging Process at Texas State
    • What are the options if authority control cannot be purchased or reasonably performed for a large set?
      • Millennium First Use Headings Report to assemble headings needing authority control
      • These headings will be worked on as staff and time permit
    • These parameters cover most situations. Exceptions can be made for unusual circumstances.
    • Additional considerations
      • Source of records should be known
      • The treatment of reproductions, sets, and serials should be known
      • Will smaller bibliographic units, i.e., volumes, abstracts, chapter, poems, etc., be included?
      • Have access points been subjected to authority control?
      • Can the vendor edit to the library’s specifications, including local additions, and is there a charge?
      • Is there a unique 001 and where does it come from, and, how is it formatted?
      • Has the e-book cataloging set been deduped?
      • Do records match the content purchased– is there an e-resource for each record and vice versa?
      • Is your system’s record-loading functionality capable of handling the records, and what tweaks may be needed?
      • Will records be delivered in a timely manner, as soon as the e-resources are available?
  • 18. User Efficiencies Created: Cataloging and Acquisitions User Efficiencies Created : Cataloging, Acquisitions Automating the rush process by adding ILS holds for materials requested as rush or on demand by patrons (2008) Globally updated notes in serials holdings records, improving them with more appropriate text, based on shared input from Serials Acquisitions, Reference, and Serials Cataloging (2009) Established standards and modified records with standard genre-headings for all e-resources, with input of Reference (2009) Implemented Vireo system, an electronic thesis and dissertation submission and management system (2010) Patron-driven e-book acquisition and cataloging (2010) Worked with Reference to create a Language Learning Media Collection and Digital Media Collection, re-locating appropriate materials to the Collections (2010) Documents without Shelves, an e-government document cataloging record service initiated with Government Information staff (2011)
  • 19. ILS Efficiencies Created: Cataloging and Acquisitions ILS Efficiencies Created : Cataloging, Acquisitions Automated updating of OCLC holdings for all books, using Millennium create files/review files (2009) Implemented use of review files for online revision of item records, bibliographic record tracings and physical location of pieces (2010) Automated the weeding process by use of Millennium create files/review files and a weeding location code, also used to delete holdings on OCLC en masse (2010) Automated the distribution of unauthorized headings to appropriate units using Millennium first use headings reports and exporting of data (2011)
  • 20. Technical/Workflow Efficiencies Created: Cataloging and Acquisitions Technical/Workflow Efficiencies Created : Cataloging, Acquisitions Began using MarcEdit and regular expressions to edit bibliographic records in a file, rather than individual editing (2005) Paperless request workflow in Acquisitions and transition in Cataloging & Metadata Services – processing data entered into order records, transferred to item records, and materials flagged/treated accordingly prior to distribution to cataloging unit (2008) Transferred cataloging of books with LC cataloging to a fast-cat process and a larger unit with other functions (2008) Outsourced authority control for books with LC cataloging (2008) Networked cataloging thermal Millennium spine label printers for all areas that produced various manual classification labels for library materials: Cataloging, Special Collections, Media, Reserve, Government Information (2008- ) Requested and ordered via YBP Gobi, with receipt of Gobi ExportPlus full MARC and later PromptCat records, for books (2009) Utilize a shared spreadsheet for serials adds and drops, used and maintained by both areas, rather than a paper form system (2009) Cataloging bounceback guidelines which standardized and streamlined problem-reporting with newly received materials that had been distributed to Cataloging (2009) Acquisitions and Cataloging & Metadata Services Procedures for Handling Replacements, and related Replacement & Withdrawal Procedures: set clear standards and procedures in place for both departments (2009) Determined a method to differentiate permanent access e-book records from Ebrary vs. subscription, by use of a “p” after the 001, so that we would not delete these purchased e-books (2010)
  • 21. Balancing Efficiency with Institutional and User Needs, Technical Limitations
    • Duplicate print and e- titles: We don’t add parallel URLs (we started to, but mass record loads, limited staff, and disappearing access as titles were removed proved to be too costly and ineffective)
    • Mechanism of what we own: Perpetual access and keeping MARC records vs. deleting them for titles we no longer own, or have access to, continues to be difficult to manage but we rely on the Electronic Resources Librarian, and some sets (such as Ebrary) that have regular notices
    • Updating e- holdings on OCLC is not performed for vendor-supplied, non-OCLC e-resources because we defer e-book ILL, and e-resources that are not perpetually owned come and go
    • As we generally don’t load individual e-resource cataloging records that don’t meet standards, many titles are accessed only via our Database web page search; however, we do provide a full cataloging record for the database
    • For some sets which do not provide quality MARC records but are high request or usage, we do provide brief local cataloging or related-doctored-uncataloged OCLC records in our ILS prior to cataloging, with the URL for access, if it will take some time for us to completely catalog the resources
  • 22. Future and The Collective Mind : Technical Services
  • 23. Future Issues for Technical Services at Texas State
    • ERM coverage load for serials and e-book sets, and future ERM that better manages electronic resource workflows and continuing and permanent licensing needs
    • Continuing acquisitions/cataloging of and access to growing and changing e-resources and all library resources
    • Digital collections, digitization of collections and University outreach, metadata application, preservation digitization and archives
    • Development and growth of comprehensive digital collection platform
    • Merging of Archivist’s Toolkit records into the ILS
    • Evolution of ILS and our library e-resources, databases, bibliographic, authority, and holdings data: what is the next information platform after Discovery and Federated Search, and the roles that Technical Services must perform
    • RDA implementation, FRBR, Cataloging on the Semantic Web, Open Access and Scholarly Communication
    • RFID in our future
    • Future of MARC, and what is next?
    • Impact of the Commons concept and the future Collections Repository
    • Investigation of shelf-ready vendor processing for books with LC cataloging and other possible record enhancements
    • Succession planning and management
  • 24. Shift to E- and the Collective Mind: Future of Technical Services
      • Selectors and Acquisitions/Collection Development are Drivers of the move to e-collections and database page access to sets; Cataloging & Metadata Services will be the Driver of collection digitization and metadata creation
      • Acquisitions/Collection Development and Cataloging & Metadata Services form a partnership with faculty in the building of the e- and physical collections for university and research needs
      • Cataloging & Metadata Services is the Driver of high quality, consistent access to all physical and e-format library resources, including archives and special collections, in present and future online catalog and other digital platforms
      • Without Technical Services, e-collections would not be available to our patrons; in fact, library resources in all formats would cease being available, secure, findable, and easily accessible for patrons
      • Without Technical Services, e-collections (in fact, all collections) would not have subject, title, classification, author access, and adequate resource description; there would be no method to connect patrons to their desired titles in a one-stop location
      • Without Technical Services, new and future digital platforms and discovery systems would not practice efficient recall and retrieval for patron searches
      • Cataloging & Metadata Services and Acquisitions together form the efficient, effective, integrated, creative Collective Mind of the Library
  • 25. Cataloging, Metadata, Acquisitions: Collective Mind of the Organization
    • On May 26, 2010, LYRASIS convened a Summit Meeting in Atlanta with some of its leading academic library directors to discuss issues of strategic importance regarding the future of the library catalog and of the cataloging process. This paper summarizes the comments of the group and some potential actions LYRASIS might take to move these ideas forward.
    • where the report is listed under : Library Director Summit on the Future of Cataloging
    • This should be reviewed, data gathered to support Cataloging & Metadata Services, and all of these discussed with Library Administration to demonstrate full support of and critical need for a complete, fully functional, librarian-run cataloging and metadata services operation.
  • 26. Value of Cataloging, Item & Location Status, Authority Control, and More
    • To estimate the following return on investment (ROI) for cataloging records and bibliographic search and material availability enhancements of various types, see Joe Matthews’ PowerPoint presentation: Value of Library Services, a presentation to the Joint Chapter Professional Development Day, (accessed April 28, 2011) or in Matthews, Joe. "The Value of Information in Library Catalogs." Information Outlook (July, 2000) 18-24.
    • With his formulas, which he used for special library collections, you can estimate:
    • Value of a Library’s Collection
    • Value of a Library’s Catalog
    • Collection ROI
    • ROI for enhanced MARC records
    • ROI for authority records
    • ROI of additional indexes
    • ROI for location and status of materials
    • Mr. Matthews suggests that the online catalog will be improved in its effectiveness in precision recall and retrieval if you keep it clean and assess this via a clean data base test, you use authority records, you frequently review subject headings, and you enhance your MARC records.
    • Critical skillsets of acquisitions staff and catalogers, not available elsewhere, and their importance in the digital future: for your administrator
  • 27. Value of Cataloging, Item & Location Status, Authority Control, and More
    • Or, another method of valuing technical services worth can be found:
    • Hider, Philip. “How Much are Technical Services Worth? : Using the Contingent Valuation Method to Estimate the Added Value of Collection Management and Access.” LRTS (v. 52, no. 4) 254-262.
  • 28. Cataloger Skill Sets and Expectations: Why we Critical to the Success of our University
    • Cataloger skill sets and expectations: Why we are so important to the mission, and future, of our organization. These are a few of the things Catalogers and Metadata Librarians do, skills we have, that no one else in the organization has:
    • Constructs original and copy cataloging in all formats and languages, using appropriate cataloging rules (AACR2, RDA, DACS, etc.)
    • Classifies and assigns subjects for subject analysis using Library of Congress Classification and Library of Congress Classification, among other classification schemes
    • Creates complex metadata in various schemas and non-MARC formats, for various digital platforms, including Dublin Core, METS, MODS, DACS, EAD, XML, Oxygen, for Dspace and CONTENTdm
    • Programming languages (PHP, JavaScript, XHTML, CSS)
    • Reading French, German, and/or Spanish, among other languages
    • Archival management
    • Digital librarianship
    • Works with automated library systems (Millennium, etc.) and bibliographic utilities (OCLC)
    • Builds authority records for accurate search precision and information retrieval
    • Oversees materials processing, approval plans, and workflows
    • Researches license and contractual agreements
  • 29. Cataloger Skill Sets and Expectations: Why we Critical to the Success of our University
    • Cataloger skill sets and expectations: Why we are so important to the mission, and future, of our organization. These are a few of the things Catalogers and Metadata Librarians do, skills we have, that no one else in the organization has (continued):
    • Ensures catalog bibliographic integrity
    • Supervises staff
    • Evaluates training needs and assists staff to acquire them
    • Leads special projects, Project Manager
    • New and emerging standards and technologies relevant to bibliographic control, preservation, and digitization
    • Communication, interpersonal, organizational, and written skills
    • Participates in various collegial faculty programs
    • Collection development
    • Faculty liaison program
    • Reference desk rotation
    • Represent the library in cooperative programs
    • Other duties
  • 30. Contact Information
    • Thank you!
    • Contact information
    • Elaine Sanchez
    • Head, Cataloging & Metadata Services
    • Alkek Library
    • Texas State University
    • 601 University Dr.
    • San Marcos, TX 78666
    • email: [email_address]
    • telephone: 512-245-3005