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Introduction to Global English
 

Introduction to Global English

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An introduction to guidelines that are explained more fully in The Global English Style Guide: Writing Clearn, Translatable Documentation for a Global Market, by John R. Kohl.

An introduction to guidelines that are explained more fully in The Global English Style Guide: Writing Clearn, Translatable Documentation for a Global Market, by John R. Kohl.

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    Introduction to Global English Introduction to Global English Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Global English John R. Kohl Linguistic Engineer SAS Institute, Inc. Cary, North Carolina john.kohl@sas.comCopyright © 2012 SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Agenda  Important Concepts  Selected Guidelines  Benefits of Developing Global English Skills  How Will You Implement Global English? slide 2Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Important Concepts  non-native speaker  translation-memory software • SDL Trados, Multicorpora, Wordfast, Déjà Vu, Transit  machine-translation software • Google Translate, Bing Translator, Asia Online, SYSTRAN, PROMT, Moses slide 3Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Important Concepts (cont.)  Considerations: • For non-native speakers, we need to simplify our language somewhat and avoid unusual terms and constructions. • Native speakers typically still outnumber non-natives. We don‟t want to alienate native speakers by going to extremes. • The use of translation memory underscores the importance of consistency. (Global English targets sources of unnecessary inconsistency, not just errors.) • For translation—especially machine translation— simplification, consistency, and clarity are important. slide 4Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Agenda  Important Concepts  Selected Guidelines  Benefits of Developing Global English Skills  How Will You Implement Global English? slide 5Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Selected Guidelines 1. Conforming to Standard English 2. Simplifying Your Writing Style 3. Using Modifiers Clearly and Carefully 4. Making Pronouns Clear and Easy to Translate 5. Eliminating Undesirable Terms and Phrases 6. Punctuation and Capitalization Guidelines 7. Using Syntactic Cues slide 6Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 1. Conforming to Standard English  Use standard verb complements  By default, a command bar is displayed at the top of the window. Alternatively, you can select to display a floating command dialog box instead.  By default, a command bar is displayed at the top of the window. Alternatively, you can choose to display a floating command dialog box instead. But don‟t just use the first revision that comes to mind  By default, a command bar is displayed at the top of the window. To enter commands in a floating dialog box instead, select Command box from the Preferences dialog box. (5 words longer, but tells them how to do it.) slide 7Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 1. Conforming to Standard English slide 8Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 1. Conforming to Standard English  Don‟t use intransitive verbs transitively, or vice versa  If you are not sure what an icon represents, pause your cursor on the icon.  If you are not sure what an icon represents, position your cursor over the icon. slide 9Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 1. Conforming to Standard English  Don‟t use non-standard comparative and superlative adjectives  Ants are likelier to take bait when the temperature is between 65 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit.  Ants are more likely to take bait when the temperature is between 65 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit. slide 10Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 2. Simplifying Your Writing Style  Some familiar guidelines: • Use shorter sentences • Avoid unnecessary use of passive voice • Avoid unnecessary use of future tense • Consider revising or defining noun phrases • etc. slide 11Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 2. Simplifying Your Writing Style  Avoid unusual constructions • The “get” passive  When you press F6, your program gets submitted for execution.  When you press F6, your program is submitted for execution. slide 12Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 2. Simplifying Your Writing Style  Avoid unusual constructions • Causative “have”  All variables that are shorter than 8 bytes will have their lengths increased by 1 byte.  If a variable is shorter than 8 bytes, its length will be increased by 1 byte. [same word count, but two short clauses instead of one long one] slide 13Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 2. Simplifying Your Writing Style  Avoid ambiguous verb constructions • “appear” plus an infinitive:  The Message Display window appears to indicate how many records were inserted into the new table. ? The Message Display window seems to indicate how many records were inserted into the new table.  The Message Display window appears. This window indicates how many records were inserted into the new table. slide 14Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 3. Using Modifiers Clearly and Carefully  Place “only” immediately before whatever it is modifying  Treatment for the most common type of stroke is generally only effective within three hours of the first symptom.  Treatment for the most common type of stroke is generally effective only within three hours of the first symptom. slide 15Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 3. Using Modifiers Clearly and Carefully  Clarify what each prepositional phrase is modifying:  Only 17 characters are available for the table name on a standard tape label. ? Only 17 characters are available for the table name that is on a standard tape label.  On a standard tape label, only 17 characters are available for the table name. slide 16Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 4. Making Pronouns Clear and Easy to Translate  “it” You must correct the error in your program before submitting it again. ? Vous devez corriger l’erreur dans votre programme avant de la soumettre encore. ? Vous devez corriger l‟erreur dans votre programme avant de le soumettre encore.  You must correct the error in your program before resubmitting the program. slide 17Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 5. Eliminating Undesirable Terms and Phrases  Eliminate unnecessary unusual non-technical terms  If the MEND statement is extraneous, then delete it.  If the MEND statement is unnecessary, then delete it.  This book includes many of the same procedures as the Users Guide, albeit at a more advanced level.  This book includes many of the same procedures as the Users Guide, but at a more advanced level. slide 18Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 5. Eliminating Undesirable Terms and Phrases  Eliminate unnecessary unusual non-technical terms Abbreviations • a.k.a. • n.a., n/a, N.A., N/A • i.e., e.g., etc. (common, but they lead to inconsistency) Truncated spellings • dupe • hi, lo • But what about app? slide 19Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 6. Punctuation and Capitalization  Don‟t use an em dash to introduce an -ING phrase  ActiveX draws each part of the step—resulting in a somewhat different graph.  ActiveX draws each part of the step, resulting in a somewhat different graph slide 20Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 6. Punctuation and Capitalization  Use a period instead of a semicolon before certain transitional words and phrases  Because the shares add up to one, the system is singular; therefore, one equation is omitted from the estimation process.  Because the shares add up to one, the system is singular. Therefore, one equation is omitted from the estimation process. slide 21Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Using Syntactic Cues A linguist‟s definition of syntactic cue: any element or aspect of language that helps readers identify parts of speech and analyze sentence structure. Syntactic cues help readers make sense even out of nonsense: „Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe. Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky slide 22Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Using Syntactic Cues The Global English definition of syntactic cue: any optional element or aspect of language that helps readers identify parts of speech and analyze sentence structure. slide 23Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Using Syntactic Cues The Global English definition of syntactic cue: any optional element or aspect of language that helps readers identify parts of speech and analyze sentence structure. slide 24Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Using Syntactic Cues Examples: • Ensure the client computer is still connected. • Ensure that the client computer is still connected. • A label assigns a variable a more informative name. • A label assigns a more informative name to a variable. slide 25Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Using Syntactic Cues Research (summarized in Appendix D) shows:  Non-native speakers rely more heavily on syntactic cues than native speakers do.  Syntactic cues also improve readability for native speakers. Empirical evidence shows:  Syntactic cues eliminate ambiguities that would otherwise impede translation. slide 26Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Using Syntactic Cues Syntactic cues proof of concept: If you‟re ready to master the basics of the software, take your SAS skills to the next level, become SAS Certified, or simply need access to SAS software to practice along with a course or book, check out SAS OnDemand for Professionals. slide 27Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Using Syntactic Cues Syntactic cues proof of concept: If you‟re ready to master the basics of the software, to take your SAS skills to the next level, or to become SAS Certified, or if you simply need access to SAS software in order to practice along with a course or a book, check out SAS OnDemand for Professionals. slide 28Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Using Syntactic Cues Explicit sentence structure improves readability:  The page you requested could not be located.  The page that you requested could not be located. slide 29Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Using Syntactic Cues Syntactic cues eliminate ambiguity:  The Cardiac Compass report includes an entry for every defibrillation therapy delivered. ? The Cardiac Compass report includes an entry for every defibrillation therapy that is delivered. ? The Cardiac Compass report includes an entry for every defibrillation therapy that was delivered.  The Cardiac Compass report includes an entry for every defibrillation therapy that has been delivered. slide 30Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Using Syntactic Cues Syntactic cues eliminate ambiguity:  Use the FILENAME statement to specify the logical member name and member type. ? Use the FILENAME statement to specify the logical member name and the logical member type.  Use the FILENAME statement to specify the logical member name and the member type. slide 31Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Using Syntactic Cues  Two cardinal rules of Global English 1. Don‟t make any change that will sound unnatural to native speakers of English. Corollary: There‟s usually a natural-sounding alternative if you have time to think of one. 2. Don‟t insert a syntactic cue without considering whether some other revision would be even better.  The data available in the episode log includes the following types of data: ? The data that is available in the episode log includes the following types of data:  The episode log includes the following types of data: (31% reduction in word count) slide 32Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Agenda  Important Concepts  Selected Guidelines  Benefits of Developing Global English Skills  How Will You Implement Global English? slide 33Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Benefits of Developing Global English Skills  The Global English guidelines help technical writers and editors make “sense out of nonsense.”  The guidelines provide explanations and justifications for edits that editors might naturally be inclined to make anyway.  Writing or editing for a global audience can be a marketable skill (if you‟re job-hunting), or an added value for your current employer! slide 34Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Agenda  Important Concepts  Selected Guidelines  Benefits of Developing Global English Skills  How Will You Implement Global English? slide 35Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • How Will You Implement Global English? Option 1 Leave it all up to the editors? slide 36Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • How Will You Implement Global English? Teach it to writers and editors Option 2 in workshops? slide 37Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • How Will You Implement Global English? Controlled-authoring software: Option 3 • Use computers to flag the errors that computers can reliably detect. • Allow editors to focus on things that add more value (substantive edits, content reduction, standardizing terminology). slide 38Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • How Will You Implement Global English?  Controlled-authoring software (“language quality-assurance software”) • checks grammar, style, spelling, and terminology • is highly customizable, hence very “on target” • gives users immediate feedback (= effective training) slide 39Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • How Will You Implement Global English?  Some controlled-authoring software products: • Acrolinx IQ (www.acrolinx.com) • HyperSTE (www.simplifiedenglish.net) • SDL Global Authoring Management System (http://www.sdl.com/en/xml/products/sdl-global-ams/) • crossCheck (http://www.across.net/en/translation- quality.aspx) • Congree Authoring Server (http://www.congree.com/en/index.aspx) • Boeing Simplified English Checker (http://www.boeing.com/phantom/sechecker/) • MAXit (http://www.smartny.com/maxit.htm) slide 40Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • How Will You Implement Global English? See the handout. Option 4 slide 41Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Handout The handout on the STC Live Learning Center (http://www.softconference.com/stc/default.asp) includes the following:  Learning to Follow the Global English Guidelines: A table of search strings that you can use to collect and analyze examples from your own documentation. Example: Search for every instance of “get” and determine whether it is being used to form passive voice. (Guideline 3.10.1 Avoid using “get” to form passive voice.)  Syntactic Cues Guidelines: A concise listing of the major syntactic cues guidelines, with examples.  Recommended Reading and Resources slide 42Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Concordancer Software for Terminology Research slide 43Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Concordancer Software for Terminology Research slide 44Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Concordancer Software for Terminology Research slide 45Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • The Whole Scoop For the complete set of Global English guidelines, see Kohl, John R. The Global English Style Guide: Writing Clear, Translatable Documentation for a Global Market (2008, SAS Press). Available at all the major online booksellers. slide 46Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Questions? Fragen? Quaestiones ? Domande Sorular? ? 질문 ¿Preguntas? Вопросы? Perguntas? Questions? Ερωτήσεις ; Pytania? Vragen? slide 47Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Thank You Danke! Gratias! Grazie! 당신을 감사하 Teşekkürler! 십시오 ¡Gracias! Срасибо! Obrigado! Merci! Σας Dziękuje! Dank u! εσταριστούμε slide 48Copyright © 2012, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.