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Project in Computer

Project in Computer

Published in: Career, Technology
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  • 1. The Internet is a worldwide collection ofcomputer networks cooperating with eachother to exchange data using a commonsoftware standard.
  • 2. Before the globally spread internetworking, communication networks had limited communications between the stations on the network. Advanced Research Projects Agency Network(ARPANET) - a nationwide computer network in the USA. (1969) - ARPANET became the technical core of what would become the internet. X.25 protocols Unix-to-unix copy(UUCP) FidoNet CYCLADES ..and a few more
  • 3. These networks, however, are separatednetworks. Internet Protocol Suite(TCP/IP)on 1982, was standardized to unify theseparated networks. The term "internet" was adopted in thefirst RFC published on the TCP protocol. Ingeneral, an internet was any network usingTCP/IP.
  • 4. During the next two decades, the network thatevolved was used primarily by academicinstitutions, scientists and the government for researchand communications. The appeal of the Internet to thesebodies was obvious, as it allowed disparate institutions toconnect to each others computing systems and databases. The nature of the Internet changed abruptly in1992, when the U.S. government began pulling out ofnetwork management, and commercial entities offeredInternet access to the general public for the first time. Thischange in focus marked the beginning of the Internetsastonishing expansion.
  • 5. oEmailoThe World Wide WeboRemote AccessoCollaborationoFile SharingoStreaming MediaoInternet Telephony
  • 6. E-mail (Electronic Mail) has become apopular way of communicating over theInternet. It enables messages to be sentinstantly anywhere in the world. Instead ofwriting a letter and paying postage why notsend it electronically? Using e-mail requiresan e-mail address that is either provided byan Internet Service Provider (ISP) or a freeservice web site.
  • 7. A server is a fast, high-powered computer orbank of computers with large amounts of datastorage. The basic function of a server is to store dataand then serve or deliver that information to userswhen requested. Servers are specifically designed fortheir function and there are many types such as e-mail servers, web servers, ISP servers, and DNSservers to name a few. They work together to makeup the backbone of the Internet and permit ourcommunications within it. These servers aretypically found in an ISP office.
  • 8. Some early email systems required thatthe author and the recipient both be online atthe same time, in common with instantmessaging. Todays email systems are basedon a store-and-forward model.Email servers accept, forward, deliver andstore messages. Neither the users nor theircomputers are required to be onlinesimultaneously.
  • 9. SPAM is basically junk e-mail fromadvertisers, companies, or people you dontknow. Many times it contains inappropriatewords in the subject line as well as suggestivephrases. Most people ask how they get Spamwhen they use antivirus protection software ontheir computer. Well, Spam is not a virus, it isjust unwanted e-mail. In addition, it is typicallystored on the server, not the users computer.
  • 10. PHISHING is an e-mail appearing to befrom a legitimate company. The purpose isto trick recipients into providing personalinformation such as credit card, bankaccount, and social security numbers. The e-mail uses the legitimate company logo andother identifiable marks to gain the trust ofthe victim.
  • 11. The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW orW3, commonly known as the Web or the "InformationSuperhighway"), is a system of interlinked hypertext documentsaccessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view webpages that may contain text, images, videos, and othermultimedia, and navigate between them via hyperlinks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used ineveryday speech without much distinction. However, theInternet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. TheInternet is a global system of interconnected computer networks.In contrast, the Web is one of the services that run on theInternet. It is a collection of text documents and otherresources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs, usually accessed byweb browsers from web servers. In short, the Web can bethought of as an application "running" on the Internet.
  • 12. The terms Internet and World Wide Webare often used in everyday speech withoutmuch distinction. However, the Internet and theWorld Wide Web are not one and the same. TheInternet is a global system of interconnectedcomputer networks. In contrast, the Web is oneof the services that run on the Internet. It is acollection of text documents and otherresources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs,usually accessed by web browsers from webservers. In short, the Web can be thought of asan application "running" on the Internet.
  • 13. The hyperlink structure of the WWW is described bythe web graph: the nodes of the web graph correspond tothe web pages (or URLs) the directed edges betweenthem to the hyperlinks. Over time, many web resources pointed to byhyperlinks disappear, relocate, or are replaced withdifferent content. This makes hyperlinks obsolete, aphenomenon referred to in some circles as link rot andthe hyperlinks affected by it are often called dead links.The ephemeral nature of the Web has prompted manyefforts to archive web sites. The Internet Archive, activesince 1996, is one of the best-known efforts.
  • 14. The scheme specifiers (http:// or https://)in URIs refer to the Hypertext Transfer Protocoland to HTTP Secure, respectively, and so definethe communication protocol to be used for therequest and response. The HTTP protocol isfundamental to the operation of the WorldWide Web. Through internet research using searchengines like Yahoo and Google, millions ofpeople worldwide have easy, instant access to avast and diverse amount of online information.
  • 15. Web browsers such as Internetexplorer, Firefox, and Apple Safari accessweb pages and allow users to navigate fromone to another via hyperlinks.
  • 16. The internet allows the users to easilyconnect to other computers all over theworld anytime and anywhere, which makeseverything easier. With this, work can be done at home orany place having an internet connection.
  • 17. A virtual private network (VPN) is aprivate computer network that interconnectsremote (and often geographically separated)networks through primarily publiccommunication infrastructures such as theInternet. VPNs provide securitythrough tunneling protocols and securityprocedures such as encryption. Meaning, onecan have complete access of all theirfiles/data even if they are away from theoffice.
  • 18. The easy communication and data/informationtransferring over the internet via internet chat hasmade collaborative work for groups easier, cheaper,and sometimes free. It also allows the formation ofsuch groups to be easier. Web collaboration can be used in an Internet(IP) environment or integrated with anorganizations existing telephone infrastructure toprovide automated customer assistance for aclients Web-based inquiries.
  • 19. Version control systems allow a teamof developers (which could be distributedgeographically) to be working on the sameset of files at once without interrupting eachothers work.
  • 20. File sharing is the practice of distributingor providing access to digitally storedinformation, such as computer programs,multimedia (audio, images and video),documents, or electronic books.
  • 21. Users can use software that connects in to apeer-to-peer network to search for shared fileson the computers of other users (i.e. peers)connected to the network. Files of interest canthen be downloaded directly from other userson the network. Typically, large files are brokendown into smaller chunks, which may beobtained from multiple peers and thenreassembled by the downloader. This is donewhile the peer is simultaneously uploading thechunks it already has to other peers.
  • 22. Popular uploading sites
  • 23. This function of the internet affects theproduction, sale, and distribution of anyproduct , like softwareproducts, music, videos, films, photography,etc., globally.
  • 24. Streaming Media Is a multimedia that is constantlyreceived by and presented to an end-user while beingdelivered by a provider. Its verb form “to stream” refersto the process of delivering media. Streaming Media technology enables you to includeaudio, video and other multimedia files into yourwebsite. When a user clicks on a media link on a webpage, the contents of the media file begin to flow acrossthe Internet in a gradual and continuous stream from thestreaming server to the user’s browser (i.e., the “stream”in streaming media). After about a 5 to 10 second delay,audio and video files begin to play either in a pop upwindow or embedded into the web page.
  • 25. YouTube is the leading free streaming site. YouTube is a video-sharing website, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005, on which users can upload, view and share videos.
  • 26. Live streaming, delivering live over theInternet, involves a camera for the media, anencoder to digitize the content, a mediapublisher, and a content delivery network todistribute and deliver the content.
  • 27. Internet telephony refers tocommunications services—voice, facsimile,and/or voice-messaging applications—thatare transported via the Internet, in real timerather than the public switched telephonenetwork (PSTN).
  • 28. Voice Based Applications: Automated Attendants Voice Prompting Voice Messaging Faxing, Fax Services, Fax Broadcast UnPBX Speech Recognition Text to Speech
  • 29. Phone-To-Phone Connection
  • 30. PC-To-Phone Topology
  • 31. Components Endpoints (Terminals) Miltipoint Control Units (MCUs)
  • 32. H.323 Protocol Stack
  • 33. H.323 Standard H.323 Specification • Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)  Session Layer (Monitors quality) • Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)  Transport Layer (error control) • Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)  Network Layer (Reserves network bandwidth and assigns priority to traffic)
  • 34. What is a Codec? A driver that converts from one format to another by compressing or uncompressing data. • Audio  G.711, G.722, G.723 • Video  MPEG-4, Vivo H.263
  • 35. Protocols H.225 - call control protocol • Defines packet standards Q.931 - digital subscriber signaling • Call signals at Network layer H.245 - media control protocol • Provides end-to-end signaling for multimedia operation and signaling. • Determines Master and Slave T.120 - Real time data conferencing protocol H.235 – security • Authentication • Privacy (data encryption) • Key Exchange (RSA)
  • 36. Advantages Packet switched which allows all of the bandwidth to be used. Circuit switched results in gaps. Usage cost by bypassing PTSN Ability to merge real-time voice into other Internet applicationsObstacles Setup Cost Greater Adherence to Standards Ease of Administration Greater Public Awareness
  • 37. Technical Barriers Reliability Sound Quality (Limited Bandwidth) Packet-switched connectionless networkPotential Problems Gateway Connection Ability (TEST!!!) Must retain human voice characteristics Latency (> 250ms) Jitter dropped packets (> 3%) Passing of DTMF tones
  • 38. And that’s the end of ourreport..

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