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  • 1. PREHISTORY • PERIOD IN WHICH OUR ANCESTORS EXISTED ON EARTH BUT HAD NOT YET INVENTED WRITING • OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THEM COMES FROM SCATTERED AND SCARCE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE • BECAUSE OF LACK OF WRITTEN EVIDENCE WE CAN ONLY SPECULATE ON WHAT THEY THOUGHT ABOUT, HOW THEY ORGANIZED THEMSELVES, HOW THEY INTER-RELATED WITH EACH OTHER, AND WHY AND HOW THEY BEHAVED THE WAY THEY DID
  • 2. MOST LIKELY THEORY FOR THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN BEINGS • 3 MILLION YEARS AGO • SMALL APE-LIKE CREATURES APPEAR ON SHORES OF SEVERAL EAST AFRICAN LAKES • BECAUSE OF LARGER BRAIN CAPACITY THEY BECOME DOMINANT SPECIES IN REGION – DEVELOPED COMPLEX SOCIAL ORGANIZATION – ABILITY TO MAKE AND USE TOOLS AND WEAPONS
  • 3. EVOLUTION • NATURAL SELECTION – BIOLOGICAL PROCESS IN WHICH THE BEST TRAITS IN A SPECIES ARE PASSED ON AND AMPLIFIED FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION WHILE NEGATIVE TRAITS GENERALLY ARE NOT • RESULTED IN DEVELOPMENT CREATURES WHICH WERE STRONGER, SMARTER, AND LESS APE-LIKE IN APPEARANCE
  • 4. MIGRATION • MIGRATION TO OTHER PARTS OF AFRICA AND FINALLY OUT OF AFRICA • SIMULTANEOUS EVOLUTION, POPULATION INCREASE, AND MIGRATION RESULTED IN APPEARANCE OF HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS AROUND 200,000-100,000 BCE • MARKED BEGINNING OF PALEOLITHIC AGE
  • 5. VARIATION • Behavior patterns developed based on environment where humans lived – People in northern climates developed custom of wearing clothing and use of fire – People in southern climates were not under similar pressure to wear clothing and were slower to use fire • Minor biological variations also appeared in response to environmental conditions – People in southern climates retained high proportion of melanin in their skin pigment • Protects skin from sun • Makes skin darker
  • 6. PALEOLITHIC LIFESTYLE • EXCLUSIVELY HUNTERS AND GATHERERS • NO PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS – LIVED IN TEMPORARY SHELTERS AND MOVED WHENEVER FOOD SUPPLIES RAN LOW • LIVED IN BANDS OF APPROX. 30 PEOPLE • COOPERATED TOGETHER TO OBTAIN FOOD AND FOR DEFENSE • PRIMITIVE, NOMADIC PEOPLE BY MODERN STANDARDS
  • 7. PALEOLITHIC ACHIEVEMENTS I • MADE AND USED TOOLS – VARIETY OF MATERIALS • STONE • WOOD • BONE – CORRESPONDED TO IDEAS THEY HAD IN THEIR MINDS FIRST – PRESERVED THEM FOR FUTURE USE – TAUGHT OTHERS HOW TO MAKE AND USE THEM – LATER GENERATIONS WOULD IMPROVE ON WHAT THEY HAD BEEN TAUGHT AND MAKE BETTER ONES • RESULTED IN CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT IN HUMAN TECHNOLOGY
  • 8. PALEOLITHIC ACHIEVEMENTS II • SPOKEN LANGUAGE – CAPACITY TO DESCRIBE THINGS – TO NAME THINGS – SHARE KNOWLEDGE, EXPERIENCES, AND FEELINGS WITH OTHERS • RELIGIOUS BELIEFS – BELIEVED FORCES OF NATURE WERE LIVING THINGS THAT HAD TO BE APPEASED IN ORDER TO PERSUADE THEM TO BEHAVE IN A BENEFICIAL MANNER – PRACTICE OF BURIAL OF DEAD • INDICATED BELIEF IN AFTERLIFE
  • 9. PALEOLITHIC ACHIEVEMENTS III • ART – PAINTED ON ANY AVAILABLE SURFACE BUT ONLY ONES DONE IN CAVES HAVE SURVIVED – MOTIVATED BY MAGIC • DESIRE TO ENSURE SUCCESSFUL HUNT
  • 10. BIRTH OF NEOLITHIC AGE • DISCOVERY OF AGRICULTURE – 8000 BCE – MIDDLE EAST – BARLEY AND RYE – MOST LIKELY DISCOVERED BY WOMEN • ANIMAL HUSBANDRY – SHEEP AND GOATS • TOGETHER, THEY MADE POSSIBLE A MORE RELIABLE SOURCE OF FOOD THAN HUNTING AND GATHERING HAD
  • 11. ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NEOLITHIC AGE I • ESTABLISHMENT OF PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS • POPULATION GROWTH AND CONCENTRATION OF PEOPLE • TRADE – TRADED FOOD SURPLUS TO OTHER REGIONS IN EXCHANGE FOR COMMODITIES FARMERS NEEDED BUT DIDN’T PRODUCE THEMSELVES • SALT • VOLCANIC GLASS • IRON ORE • INTERNAL TRADE WITHIN NEOLITHIC VILLAGES ALSO DEVELOPED – EXCHANGE OF FOOD FOR ITEMS SUCH AS POTTERY, TOOLS, ETC. – DIVISION OF LABOR
  • 12. ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NEOLITHIC AGE II • AWARENESS OF PRIVATE PROPERTY • DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL HIERARCHY AND GOVERNMENT – RULING ELITE EMERGES AS SOME PEOPLE ACQUIRED MORE LAND THAN OTHERS • GAINED POWER OVER THOSE WHO DIDN’T OWN AS MUCH AS THEY DID
  • 13. SPREAD OF AGRICULTURE I Jarmo Jericho Catal Huyuk Oldest Neolithic settlements found in the Middle East 8000 BCE
  • 14. SPREAD OF AGRICULTURE II • AGRICULTURE LATER APPEARED IN OTHER PARTS OF WORLD – EITHER INDEPENDENTLY OR AS RESULT OF EXPOSURE TO OLDER AGRICULTURAL REGIONS • NEOLITHIC AGE DID NOT APPEAR EVERYWHERE AT THE SAME TIME – FIRST IN MIDDLE EAST – LATER IN OTHER PARTS OF WORLD
  • 15. NEOLITHIC TECHNOLOGY I • POTTERY CONTAINERS – FOR STORING FOOD AND WATER • WHEEL AND SAIL – IMPROVED WATER AND LAND TRANSPORTATION • PLOW – MADE AGRICULTURE EASIER AND MORE PRODUCTIVE
  • 16. NEOLITHIC TECHNOLOGY II • DISCOVERY OF METAL • FIRST METAL TO BE USE WAS COPPER – EASILY SHAPED – ENABLED BROKEN TOOLS AND WEAPONS TO BE RECAST AND RESHAPED • NEXT METAL WAS BRONZE – ALLOY OF COPPER AND TIN – HARDER AND MORE DURABLE THAN COPPER – MADE POSSIBLE BETTER TOOLS AND WEAPONS WITH SHARPER CUTTING EDGES