Networking Trends


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  • Networking Trends

    1. 1. Client, Host, Server  Server- applications or systems available to clients and hosts  Interconnects clients with hosts  Host- is the main server  Clients use what is provided by the server
    2. 2. Mainframe, Supercompute rs  Synonymous of each other  Powerful computers used by corporate & government organization  Used for processing bulk data such as a census
    3. 3. Grid Computing, Distributed Processing  Grid computing- combination of computer resources  Distributed processing- how the grid computing works
    4. 4. Ethernet, Peer-to-peer (P2P)  Ethernet divides data into packets  Each frame contains source and destination addresses and error-checking data  P2P is am application that distributes workloads among peers
    5. 5. Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN)  LAN is a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area  WAN is a telecommunication network that covers a broad area  Businesses and governments use WANs to relay data
    6. 6. Virtual LAN (VLAN), Wireless LAN (WLAN)  VLAN is a group of hosts with a common set of requirements  WLAN links two or more devices using one of several wireless distribution methods
    7. 7. Internet, Intranet, Extranet  Internet is publically shared throughout anyone who has access to it  Intranet is a private network that is accessible only to people of the same company or organization  Extranet allows access with the use of a username and password
    8. 8. Virtual Private Network  Uses public telecommunication  Provides remote offices or traveling users access to a central organized network  Users have to be authenticated
    9. 9. Routers, Switches, Hubs  Routers perform the “traffic directing”  Forward data packets between computer networks  Switch- small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one (LAN)  They are capable of inspecting data packets as they are received  Hub- small, simple, inexpensive device that joins multiple computers together  Support the Ethernet standard
    10. 10. Optical Fiber, Cables  Optical fiber- the medium and technology associated with the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic strand or fiber  Carry much more information than conventional copper wire  Cables are basic tools used to share data or transmit power
    11. 11. Wireless Fidelity (WiFi)  Used to wirelessly connect electronic devices  300-600 feet of range depending on strength  Requires a wireless network or an internet hot spot
    12. 12. WiMax  WiMAX is a wireless digital communications system that is intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks”  It can provide broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles for fixed stations, and 3-10 miles for mobile stations
    13. 13. Bluetooth  Bluetooth is a very simple type of wireless networking  It sends out a weak connection that is only picked up by devices within a 32 foot range  Bluetooth uses a technique called spread-spectrum frequency hopping
    14. 14. Network Operating System (NOS) & Utility Software  NOS is the software that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data, users, etc  Utility software is a kind of system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the computer  Usually focuses on how the computer infrastructure operates  Utilities are often rather technical and targeted at people with an advanced level of computer knowledge
    15. 15. Storage Area Network (SAN) & Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)  SAN is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage  They are primarily used to make storage devices  RAIDs are used for their higher reliability and data- transfer rate, rather than for economic reasons
    16. 16. Introduction to Network Administration  A network administrator is a person who’s job is to monitor, install, configure and repair network equipment  Also, in some companies a network admin can involve themselves in fixing some of the computers on the network.
    17. 17. Access Control Gaining admission to a network requires both Identification and Authentication. Identification: State your identity. Authentication: Prove it.
    18. 18. Authentication  Network authentication is usually based off of having one or more of the following:  Something you know: a password, or possibly a PIN  Something you have: a key, ID card  Something you are: fingerprints, retinas/iris, voice  Somewhere you are: proximity to a certain place
    19. 19. Authorization  This is applied once a user has access to network.  Authorization dictates what a “subject” can do to the system once they have access  “One-Note, Google Docs”  Sometimes these are called “Permissions”
    20. 20. Accountability  Just as the Authorization system tells you what you can do, a system for Accountability monitors what you did.  These systems will monitor things like:  Applications used  Internet history  Time spent on the network
    21. 21. Computers & Security  Firewall: a device set up to deny access to a network if a computer does not match a set of requirements  Proxy: a server used to access other computers  License: gives a owner the right to use a network or software (single user, multi-user, network-wide)  Encryption: Information transformed using a cypher that will seem useless unless one has a certain key to have it make sense.
    22. 22. Physical Security  Networks and mainframe data centers can also be protected physically.  Locks and doors  Extra authentification requirements  Surveillance  Security Guards  Ext…
    23. 23. Network Policies  These are the rules, guidelines and constraints that dictate how and what things can be done on a network.  These will also dictate how the network is protected from corruption and is archived.  A more physical policy used to protect data centers is that of UPS (uninterruptable power supply)
    24. 24. Ethics  Networks can also be used in more unethical ways, such as spreading viruses, spam and other hindrances  Many people/companies/schools have network rules that employees must follow while on their network
    25. 25. Protocols  A set of rules that governs the communications between computers on a network  To communicate, two computers must speak the same “language”  Different network protocols allow any computer to communicate around the world
    26. 26. Synchronous & Asynchronous  The two different ways used communicating over a physical circuit  Synchronous- This connection negotiation process takes longer on a low error-rate, but is better with systems that the transmission medium is not very reliable  Transmissions are synced by external clock
    27. 27. Synchronous & Asynchronous Continued  Asynchronous- Called “best effort” transmission because on side transmits and the other receives (the best it can)  Transmissions synchronized by signals
    28. 28. Remote Access  People are able to access data or resources from a remote location.  Traditional remote access solutions used dial-up technologies to allow employees to connect to an office network via telephone networks connecting to remote access servers
    29. 29. Bandwidth & Broadband  Bandwidth- The amount of communication resources used or vacant expressed in bits/second  Broadband- The telecommunications signal or device of a greater bandwidth than another signal or device (the broader the band, the greater the capacity for traffic)
    30. 30. Bit Rates  The number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time