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# Magnetic levitation

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Magnetic Levitation theory and application based on levitation such as train ,toy,turbine etc.

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• ### Magnetic levitation

1. 1. MAGNETIC LEVITATION<br />PRESENTED BY:<br />VIVEK KUMAR DUBEY<br />EN-F (3RDYEAR)<br />
2. 2. <ul><li>Magnetic levitation, maglev, or magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is suspended above another object</li></ul>with no support other than magnetic field .<br /><ul><li>The electromagnetic force is used to counteract the effects of the gravitational force.</li></li></ul><li>Direct Diamagnetic Levitation – How it Works<br />Diamagnetic materials repel a magnetic field <br />All materials have diamagnetic properties, but the effect is very weak, and usually overcome by the object‘s paramagnetic or ferromagnetic properties, which act in the opposite manner<br />By surrounding a diamagnetic material with a magnetic field, it can be held in a stationary position (the magnetic force is strong enough to counteract gravity)<br />
3. 3.
4. 4. Direct Diamagnetic Levitation – Applications<br />Water is primarily diamagnetic, so water droplets and objects that contain large amounts of water can be levitated<br />
5. 5. MAGLEV METHODS<br />· Repulsion between like poles of permanent magnets or<br />electromagnets.<br />· Repulsion between a magnet and a metallic conductor<br />induced by relative motion.<br />· Repulsion between a metallic conductor and an AC<br />electromagnet.<br />· Repulsion between a magnetic field and a diamagnetic<br />substance.<br />· Repulsion between a magnet and a superconductor.<br />· Attraction between unlike poles of permanent magnets or<br />electromagnets.<br />· Attraction between the open core of an electromagnetic<br />solenoid and a piece of iron or a magnet.<br />· Attraction between a permanent magnet or electromagnet<br />and a piece of iron.<br />· Attraction between an electromagnet and a piece of iron or<br />a magnet, with sensors and active control of the current to<br />the electromagnet used to maintain some distance between<br />them.<br />· Repulsion between an electromagnet and a magnet, with<br />sensors and active control of the current to the<br />electromagnet used to maintain some distance between<br />them.z<br />MAGLEV METHODS<br /><ul><li>· Repulsion between like poles of permanent magnets or electromagnets.
6. 6. · Repulsion between a magnet and a metallic conductor induced by relative motion.
7. 7. · Repulsion between a metallic conductor and an AC electromagnet.
8. 8. · Repulsion between a magnetic field and a diamagnetic substance.
9. 9. · Repulsion between a magnet and a superconductor.
10. 10. · Attraction between unlike poles of</li></ul> permanent magnets or electromagnets.<br /><ul><li>· Attraction between the open core of an</li></ul> electromagnetic solenoid and a piece of <br /> iron or a magnet.<br /><ul><li>· Attraction between a permanent magnet </li></ul> or electromagnet and a piece of iron.<br />
11. 11. Super Levitron<br /><ul><li>Two opposing neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets.
12. 12. Invention by Roy Harrigan.
13. 13. The rotation of a spinning object’s axis of spin creates a torroid of genuine stability.
14. 14. The top remain levitating in a central point in space above the base where the forces acting on the top- gravitational, magnetic, and gyroscopic- are in equilibrium
15. 15. Stops due to air resistance</li></li></ul><li>Why it works??? <br /><ul><li>The principle</li></ul>Two similar poles repel, and two different poles attract, with forces that are stronger when the poles are closer.<br /> There are four magnetic forces on the top. <br />The north-north repulsion dominates, and the top is magnetically repelled.<br /> It hangs at the point of equilibrium where the total force is zero.”<br />
16. 16. The Future<br />Magnetic Levitation<br />
17. 17. Applications<br />Maglev Trains- The magnetized coil running along the track, repels the large magnets on the train's undercarriage, allowing the train to levitate<br />Biomagnetism- in MRI <br />Particle accelerators to accelerate sub-atomic particles to nearly the speed of light<br />In petaflop computers. A petaflop is a thousand-trillion floating point operations per second. <br />
18. 18. NASA<br />Maglev technology could give space vehicles a “running start” to break from Earth’s gravity<br />
19. 19. Maglev Space Propulsion <br />Launching systems would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track .<br />Reaching the end of the track, the vehicle could switch to more conventional rocket engines.<br />
20. 20. The History <br />Magnetic Levitation Vehicles<br />
21. 21. <ul><li>1750 – John Mitchell conducted the first experiments measuring the magnetic forces between the poles of a magnet .
22. 22. 1900 – Robert Goddard and Emile Bachelet conceive the concept of frictionless trains.
23. 23. 1969 – American scientist James R. Powell and Gordan T. Danby patented the first design for Maglev trains.</li></li></ul><li>1990 – The initial phase of the Yamanashi Maglev Test Line commences.<br />
24. 24. Magnetic Levitation Wind Turbine<br />Maximum overall efficiency of windmill is 30%.<br />The remaining energy is mainly lost in friction. <br />If the same windmill is operating at 50% of its maximum speed the efficiency becomes very low.<br />
25. 25. <ul><li> Due to wear and tear performance of the machine deteriorates.
26. 26. Normal windmill can start its generation from wind speed of 3 m/s. But windmill</li></ul> using magnetic levitation can start<br /> generation from wind speed of <br />1.5m/s.<br />
27. 27. ADVANTAGES OF MAGLEV<br />transportation<br /><ul><li>No surface contact or friction to slow them </li></ul>down. More speed = More passengers.<br /><ul><li> Faster trips
28. 28. High reliability
29. 29. Petroleum independence with respect to air</li></ul> and auto as a result of being electrically<br />powered.<br />.<br />
30. 30. <ul><li> Less polluting
31. 31. Potential for high </li></ul>capacities at 3-4 minutes headways.<br /><ul><li> High safety.
32. 32. Convenient– due to high </li></ul> frequency of service, vibration free<br /> train rides and quieter.<br /><ul><li> At speeds below 249.4 kmph</li></ul> the noise produced by Maglev trains<br /> is less than that by conventional <br /> trains. At speeds above 155 mph,<br /> most of the noise produced by vehicle<br /> is of aerodynamic origin, whether it is <br /> on rail or levitated.<br />
33. 33. Thank you…..<br />