Hello..This is vandana verma.I would like to dedicatemy little work to allenglish learner.. I hopeThis will help you..Good luck!!!!
THERE ARE 26 ALPHABET IN ENGLISH 5 ARE VOWEL AND 21 ARE CONSTITUENT. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZENGLISH GRAMMAR IS THE ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT SECTION OF VARIOUS EXAMS
The Capital LetterUse a capital letter for the first letter in a sentence:The dog is barking.Come here! The capital letter is also called aAlways use a capital letter for the word I : big letter or uppercaseI am eight years old. letter, or sometimes just a capital.Tom and I are good friends.Use a capital letter for the names of people:Alice, Tom, James, Kim, Snow WhiteUse a capital letter for the names of places:National Museum, Bronx Zoo, London, SacramentoUse a capital letter for festivals, holidays, days of the week, months of the year:New Year’s Day, Christmas, Labor Day, Mother’s Day,Sunday, Monday, Friday, January, May, July, October
exerciseCircle the letters that should be CAPITALS. Then writethe correct letter in the space above them . Ohh no !1. peter and i are good friends. Homework!!2 .we are going to chicago during our summervacation.3 .there is an interesting football game on sunday.4 .jason lives on thomson avenue.5.january is the first month of the year.
A GROUP OFWORDS LIKETHIS, WHICHMAKESCOMPLETESENSE.
EXERCISE 1.ALL ROAD LEADS TO KANPUR.HOW COLD THE NIGHT IS!BE QUIT. LET’S SEE HOWWE ARE IN A CAFÉ.WHAT A SHAME! MUCH YOU HAVEHOW MUCH YOU LOVE?DO YOU GIVE ME A KIDDO? LEARNED??.??MY FATHER WAS A GREAT MAN.I LOVE MY MOTHER .DO YOU KNOW MY STYLE?OH! IT’S SO COOL!I AM A HARDWORKER.MAY I HAVE A CUP OF TEA WITH YOU.WHY SHOULD I GO WITH YOU?DO YOU HAVE CAAR?OH ! MY GOD THIS IS SCORPIO.
GROUP OF WORDS WHICH MAKES SENSE BUT NOT COMPLETE SENSE .KICKKICK!!! HIT HIM! GO AWAYYY
THE PART WHICH NAMES THE PERSON OR THING . THANKS SHAILENDRA.SUBJECT GROUP OF WORDS WHICH FORMS PARTS CLAUSE OF A SENTENCE, AND CONTAINS A SUBJECT AND A PREDICADTE.PREDICATE THE PART WHICH TELLS SOMETHING ABOUT THE SUBJECT. YOU SIT DOWN.
EXERCISE 2.o SHOW ME HOW TO DO IT.o HE HIT ON THE HEAD.o I BLOW THE WHISTLE.o CHERRY WENT AWAY FORM HOME.o A RAT WILL BELL THE CAT.o YOU COME HERE.o YOU CAN GO.o YOU CAN KISS ME.o I WILL COME WITH YOU.o GIVE ME YOUR HEART.
The . type NOUN of INTERJECTION ADJECTIVEsenten cedepen ds on PARTS OF the CONJUNCTION SPEECH PRONOUNrole of thewords used PREPOSITION VERB in it. . ADVERB
NOUN. A NOUN IS A WORD USED AS THE NAME OF A PERSON , PLACE, OR A THING. , Noun . THING MEANS ALL OBJECTS THAT WE CANSEE,HEAR,TASTE,TOUCH,SMELL,AND SOMETHING THAT WE CAN THINK OF BUT CAN NOT PRECEIVE BY THE SENSES. MY NAME IS ANTHENI GONJALBISH.
Common Noun: commonnoun ( )Common noun is a name given to every person, place, animal or thing of the same type
Let us see this exampleRamesh is a boy . Ramesh boy Noun . Ramesh boy . Boy , Ramesh proper noun boy common noun . Here Ramesh and boy, both are nouns. Ramesh is the name of a particular boy.
Proper NounProper noun ( ) , . “ , Proper Noun capital letter “
Special names have been assigned to some special groupof things when they are refered to as one in a collectiveway, such nouns are called collective nouns. Collective Noun ( ) .Collective Noun .
crowd collection of people ( )army collection of soldiers collection of people working together for ateam common goal - - . eg. cricket team. collection of birds, sheep, , ,flock or goats that travel, live, , or feed together . collection of domesticherd animals like cattle collection of ships,fleet vehicles of a single owner collection of peoplefamily related by birth, marriage , or adoption collection of people undernation a single government
Abstract Noun ( )Abstract noun is theword used as the nameof a quality, action orstate when that quality,action or state is .considered as an object.
He is a good person. ( .) EXAMPLEif we want to describe a quality, thenwe need to refer to the quality as a noun,like... What is goodness? . ... ?Good is a word used to describe that quality of a person,and goodness is the noun form of the word good.
examples of the three types of abstract nouns. goodnessQuality whiteness( ) honesty bravery pleasureAction( ) movement judgement childhoodState( ) youth poverty
Masculine Gender Nouns can be FeminineNeuter Gender categorized into 4 Gender groups based on their gender. Common Gender
E X A MP LE Common Masculine Feminine NEUTER boy girl child car man woman person room lion lioness animal tree
Number NounA noun that indicates a single object is a singular noun noun singular ( )noun .Noun indicating more than one object is recognized as a pluralnoun. noun plural ( - )nounFor example... plural singular BOYS BOY OX EN OX
THINGS TO REMEMBER……. Nouns can be possessive and express ownership, usuallyfollowing the use of ―of.‖The life of MariaNouns sometimes function differently in sentences. For example:Subject: Maria likes ice creamObject of Preposition: He gave the ice cream to MariaSubject complement: The best customer is MariaGrammar vocabulary: Nominal means any word, or group of words,used as a noun. The nominal word used in the original noun example isMaria.Most nouns ending in s, sh, o, or ch need an -es suffix to be plural.Nouns ending in a consonant followed by y become plural by changingthe y to i and adding -esMass Nouns are nouns that cannot be counted and they usually donot have a plural formLike freedom,money,love.Collective nouns refer to groups of people and/or things.if the plural noun does not end with an “s,” the possessive is formedby adding apostrophe and “s.”
TYPES OF CASES The noun is said to be When the nounWhen a noun or in the Accusative Case, denotes ownershipa pronoun is used as a if it is used as the or possession it saidsubject of a verb, it is in object of a verb in the to be inthe Nominative Case. sentence the Possessive Case. Nominative Case Accusative Case Possessive Case
Accusative Case Possessive Case . . NominativeCase .
The car was driven by Ram This is Rams Ram car car.Ram drove the car. car . Ram Ram car car nominative case , . Ram accusative . Ramnominative case , case. Rams car accusative possessivecase. case
ADJECTIVE.THE WORD USED TO ADD SOMETHING TO THE NOUN. Noun , - , - , , .
He is a lazy boy. lazyI like that painting. lazy boy . . The basket has some brinjals. some that noun brinj al , thatpainting . some .
Adjective noun (adjective ) - . Adjectives can be divided into the following categories, depending on their use... Adjective of Adjective of Adjective of Quality - Quantity - Number - Adjective of Comparison - Demonstrative Adjective
Adjective of Quality Noun . The word or words describing the quality of a noun are classified as Adjective of Quality.
He is an honest man. Adjective of quality " " " " . Adjective Noun - honest. . When the adjective answers The answer of questions like what type or how, what type of it is known as adjective of person is honest. quality. An adjective in this category elaborates on the some quality of the noun. India is a great country. Calcutta is a large city Indialarge - great. - What type of . country is India -Large describes great.the size of thecity
Adjective of Quantitynoun , , adjective .The word or words describing thequantity of nouns that are notactually be counted fall under thecategory Adjective of Quantity …..
I ate some rice. Adjective of quantity " " some . Adjective of quantity is used in response to the question "how Some adjective much". used in the some, no,enough, These do not example tell express quantity in terms of about the actual countable quantity of rice You have no shame. We have had enough experience enough no enough adjective no adjective used in used in thethe example tell example tellabout the quantity ofshame about the quantity of experience
Adjective of Number Adjective of number " " Adjective of number is used to answer the question how much, wherever it can be counted . .
adjective indefinite numeral adjective . Adjectives that do not give a definite number are known as indefinite numeral adjective, like... all, no, many, few, some any, certain, severalnoun Adjective of number, Adjective of Quantity .
Adjectives for Comparison Superlative Degree - Adjectives used to comparenouns nouns of the same ComparativeAdjectives Degree - category are Adjectives of . English Comparison There are three3 Positive Degree - levels of . comparison in the English language.
Positive Degree ( ) Raju is strong. adjective . The first level of comparison is the positive degree....Raju is stronger thanMahesh. Comparative Degree ( ) adjective The second level of comparison is the comparative degree. This type of compares between two things or persons Raju is the strongest amongst his friends Superlative Degree ( ) adjective The superlative degreee of comparison is used when comparing between more than two objects or persons
Demonstrative AdjectiveDemonstrative adjective .Demonstrative adjective " " .Demonstrative adjecitves are used to point orindicate the nounDemonstrative adjectives are generally used toanswer the "which" questions. This boy is strong. These mangoes are sour. EXAMPLE I like such things. This is a boy. What is the name of this place?
Interrogative Adjectives : When words like what, which and whose placed before aArticles :The articlec (a, an and the) are a noun raise a query or form questions they arespecial sub-category of the demonstrative classified as interrogative adjectives.adjective. : what, which whose . Emphasizing Adjectives: Adjectives like own and very are used to put greater Exclamatory Adjectives Sometimes, what is used as emphasis on the noun, and are hence an adjective to raise an exclamation, this type of referred to as Emphasizing Adjectives. usage makes it an exlamatory adjective. - what - . .
Position of Adjectives adjective . noun . noun . The location of the adjective in a sentence is important. Generally it is used just before or just after the noun.
Correct use of some adjectivesThe adjective can be correctly used with a verb when some quality of thesubject, rather the action of the verb, is to be expressed.These flowers smell sweet. (NOT These flowers smell sweetly.)The plural forms these and those are often used with the singularnounskind and sort.Examples are: these kind of thingsHowever, some grammarians insist that we should say: this kind of thingsThe words superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, and posterior take toinstead of than.He is senior to me.James is inferior to Peter is intelligence.In comparing two things or classes of things the comparative should be used.Take the shorter of the two routes. (NOT Take the shortest of the two routes.)Of the two suggestions, the former is better. (NOT Of the two suggestions, theformer is the best.)When a comparison is made by means of a comparative, the thing that iscompared must be excluded from the things with which it is compared.Hercules was stronger than any other man. (NOT Hercules was stronger thanany man – this sentence would suggest that Hercules was stronger thanHercules himself, which, of course, is absurd.)
Attributive adjectives after nounsMost adjectives can go in two main places in a sentence: in attributive position and predicativeposition.In attributive position, an adjective comes before the noun it modifies.She is a nice girl.In predicative position, an adjective goes after the verb.She is nice.While attributive adjectives usually go before the nouns, a few can be used after nouns. example,Secretary GeneralPoet LaureateSome adjectives ending in -able/-ible can also be used after nouns.It is the only solution possible.After something, everything etc.Adjectives come after words like something, everything, anything, nothing, somebody,anywhere etc.I would like to go somewhere quiet. (NOT I would like to go quiet somewhere.)I heard something interesting today. (NOT I heard interesting something today.)In most expressions of measurement adjectives come after the measurement noun.ten years older (NOT Older ten years) (NOT ten older years)six feet deeptwo miles longVerb + object + adjectiveAdjectives can be placed after the object.You make me happy.Can you get the children ready for school?
DistributivesEach, every, either and neither are distributive adjectives. These are normally used withsingular nouns.PositionDistributives are placed immediately before the nouns they qualify.Each boy wore a hat.Neither answer is correct.Every child needs love.NoteEach, either and neither can be used with plural nouns when they are followed by ‘of’Each of the boys wore a hat.Neither of the answers is correct.EachEach is used when we are talking about the members of a group as individuals.Each boy was given a watch.Each of the boys was given a watch.Each and everyEach is preferred when we are thinking of people or things separately, one at a time. Every issimilar to all. Every is preferred when we are thinking of people or things together.Each patient went to see the doctor. (In turn)He gave every patient the same medicine.Either and NeitherEither and neither are used to talk about distribution between two things.Either is used in affirmative clauses. Neither is used in negative clauses.Which shirt do you want? Either shirt will do.I will take either shirt, they are both good.Neither answer is correct.Neither of them came.
Adjective PhrasesSometimes a group of words does the work of an adjective.Study the following examples.The mayor was a wealthy man.The mayor was a man of great wealth.In sentence 1, the adjective wealthy says what sort of man the mayor was. In sentence 2,the group of words ‘of great wealth’ also says the same thing. It qualifies thenoun man as an adjective does. It therefore does the work of an adjective and iscalled an adjective phrase.DefinitionAn adjective phrase is a group of words that does the work of an adjective.The magistrate was a kind man. (Here the adjective kind modifies the noun man.)The magistrate was a man with a kind heart. (Here the adjective phrase ‘with a kindheart’ modifies the noun man.)They lived in a stone house.They lived in a house built of stone.Study the following adjectives and the adjective phrases that are equivalent to them.A golden necklace – a necklace made of goldA white coat – a coat of white colorA jungle track – a track through the jungleA deserted city – a city with no inhabitantsThe French flag – the flag of FranceA wooden hut – a hut built of woodA blank page – a page with no writing on it
exercise1. a busy street. FIND THE ADJECTIVES.2. a dark corner.3. a deep sea.4. a large bed.5. It is windy.6. John’s handwriting is very neat.7. The sea is rough.8. All the players are very tall.9. The baby’s hands are very small.10. Sue’s drawing is beautiful.11. That problem is too difficult.12. Peter is very quiet today.
PRONOUN. THE WORD USED INSTEAD OF NOUN. PRONOUNS ARE: I.Pronoun Noun SHE. HE. . YOU. MY. THEY. WE.
sentences ...Raju is absent because Raju is ill. Raju is absent because he is ill - Raju Raju he .
PRONOUN CASESNominative Cases: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, whoThe nominative, or subjective, case pronoun is the subject of the sentence.Examples: She went to the store.Who has the book?I am he.Objective Cases: Me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whomThese function as direct or indirect objects.Examples:We gave IT to HER.I don’t know to WHOM I speak.The bag is with HER.Possessive Cases: My, mine, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their,theirs, your, yours, whoseThe possessive case pronoun shows possessionExample:That is MY bag.That bag is MINE.HER bus was late.The bags are all HERS.
A pronoun takes the place of an unknown noun. Theunknown noun is called the ―antecedent.‖Example: Maria wondered if she was late for work.Maria is the antecedent of ―she.‖ Instead of saying: Mariawondered if Maria was late for work, ―she‖ appears to takethe place of ―Maria.‖The pronoun must always agree with antecedent, so if theantecedent is male, the pronoun must be male, if the antecedent isplural, the pronoun must be plural, etc. Example:Correct: When Maria bought the detergent, she used her creditcard.Incorrect: When Maria bought the detergent, they used his creditcard.
Personal Pronouns can refer to the person/people speaking (First person,)spoken to (second person,) or spoken ABOUT (third person.) First person subject singular: I First person subject plural: We First person object singular: me First person object plural: us Second person subject singular: you Second person subject plural: you Second person object singular: you Second person object plural: you Third person subject singular: he, she, it Third person subject plural: they Third person object singular: him, her, it Third person object plural: them
Example: I wanted to give them to her, but hewouldn’t let me I — first person singular Them — third person plural Her — third person singular He — third person singular Me — first person singular
Possessive PronounsLike regular nouns, personal pronouns can also be possessive.Possessive Determiners are possessive forms of personalpronouns. Possessive Determiners must have a following noun.First person determiner singular: MY (book)First person determiner plural: OUR (book)First person pronoun singular: MineFirst person pronoun plural OursSecond person determiner singular: YOUR (book)Second person determiner plural YOUR (book)Second person pronoun singular: YoursSecond person pronoun plural: YoursThird person determiner singular: IS, HER, ITS (book)Third person determiner plural: THEIR (book)Third person pronoun singular: His, hers, itsThird person pronoun plural: Theirs
Example: They have MY bags butthey know they’re MINE.My — Determiner, dependent on―Bags‖Mine– stands in place of ―Mybags
Indefinite Pronouns These have no specific antecedents. These are usually identified with general words like: all, any, some, or none. Examples: Singular: another, both, nobody, everything, nothing, somebody, everyone, no one, something, etc. Plural: all, many, most, much, some singular: Somebody has her bags. Plural: Everyone knows about Maria’s bags.
Indefinite pronouns are only pronouns ifthey are used ALONE. If they are used witha noun, they become indefinite adjectives.Pronoun: Both knew they were Maria’s bags.Adjective: Both baggers knew they were Maria’sbags.First person singular: MyselfFirst person plural: OurselvesSecond person singular: YourselfSecond person plural: YourselvesThird person singular: Himself/Herself/ItselfThird person plural: ThemselvesExample: We asked OURSELVES where her bags were.“We” is the doer and receiver of the action “ask.”
Intensive Pronouns are used to point back to the noun or pronoun for emphasis.Example: I myself knew they were Maria’s bags.The intensive pronoun does not always need to directly follow the noun.Example: I prefer walking myself.Reciprocal pronouns express mutual action.Examples: each other/ each other’sOne another/one another’sMaria and Heather greeted each other.Interrogative PronounsThese are used to ask questions and can be personal or non-personalPersonal subject: Who/WhoeverPersonal object: Whom/WhomeverPersonal possessive: WhoseNon-personal subject: WhichNon-personal subject: WhatExample:Who has the bags?Which bagger has them?Whose bags are these?
exerciseMy name is David. I am the youngestin the family.This is my father. He is a teacher.This is my mother. She is a lawyer.I have a brother and two sisters.They are Peter, Sharon and Jenny.I have a dog. It is called Lucky.Lucky, you are a good dog.Good morning, children! You may sitdown now.My family and I live in a big city. Wehave an apartment.
VERB: is the word or group of words that says something about the noun or expresses some action by the noun. YUUU CAT IS SCATING. HUUU !!! Noun .
TYPES OF VERBTRANSITIVE AND ACTIVE PASSIVE INTRANSITIVE VOICE VERB MOODS TENSES PERSON AND AUXILIARY VERBS NUMBER
verb . verb . . . I walk I walked I will walk
. (I) to walk ( ) . - - walk, walked willwalk. walked will walk (past - walk (future - ) ) (present - ) . , , ,
A verb that denotes an action occurs, occured or will occur between the subject and the object in a sentence isTransitive Verb called a transitive verb. Transitive Verb verb . He kicked the ball.These take objects. Transitive verbs carry the action of subject and apply it to the object.
A verb that denotes a state of the noun it describes in the sentence is called an intransitive verbIntransitive Verb Intransitive Verb verb . She is a girl.These do not take an object, but express actions that do not requirethe agent doing something to something else.
Linking verbs These link the agent with the rest of the sentence and explain the link between the subject and the rest of the sentence. Examples: appear, grow, seem, smell, taste Example: Maria seems tired from shopping.The Lay/Lie and Raise/Rise ConfusionThese two pairs of verbs are constantly misused. In each, there is a transitive verb (TRV) and anintransitive verb (INV).Lie — Intransitive, means recline or be situatedLay — Transitive, means to place or put somethingRise — Intransitive, means to get up.Raise — Transitive, means to lift something up.Infinitive — INV: LieTRV: LayINV: RiseTRV: RaisePast Tense — Lie (Lay)Raise (Raised)
Active and Passive VoiceLet us compare the two sentences shown below... Active voice Raju helps Hari Passive voice Hari is helped by Raju. The content of both the sentences is same. But, the first statement the form of the verb shows that Raju - the subject of the sentence - is doing something, is active, whereas the second sentence is showing that Hari - the subject of the sentence is inactive (passive). . , verb Raju Hari . Raju (active) Hari (passive) .
The most common use of the verb is to describe an event or ask a question. Besides this the verb is used to issue an order or express the possibility. These different situations that a verb describes are known as moodsMood ( ) . verb verb . - moods .
English languages has three moods... Indicative,ImperativeSubjunctive.
INDICATIVE MOODIndicative mood is used to... - , ... 1.Rama goes to a school daily. 2.He writes neatly. 3.The child is alive. ... 1.Will you play with me? 2.Are you going home?
Imperative Mood Imperative mood is exhibited when we ask somebody to do something. This mood is of three types Imperative mood . ( ) - Order or command - Training or Advice - Request or prayer
Command ( )This mood is exhibit when a command is issued -somebody is ordered to do something. - .1. Wait there.2. Come here.3. Open your book at page 10.Training and Advice ( )This mood is displayed when you advice somebody orgive instructions to train or educate. .1. Be steady.2. Take care of your health.3. Try to do better.
Prayer or request ( )When you request somebody do something, imperative mood in play,that too in the prayer or request mode. . Have mercy on us.Subjunctive MoodThe third mood is known as subjunctive mood. Verbs used to expressa wish, purpose or contrary to truth, to express a condition are saidto express the subjunctive mood. mood subjunctive mood. , , , verbs subjunctive mood .
Wish or Desire ( ) God save my friend.Purpose ( ) Take care that no mistakes are madeContrary to fact ( ), Condition( ), Supposition ( ) If I were sick, I would go to the doctor.
Often to complete the mood,tense or otherAuxiliary Verbs information in a sentence a supporting verb is (or verbs are) used along with the main verb of sentence. These supporting or assiting verbs are known as Auxiliary verbs. (mood), (Tense), (Person)(Number) verb auxiliary ( ) verbs .had walkedwill runwas callinghas been talking had, will, was is . auxiliary ( ) verbs . main verb . main verb - tense .
Some verbs that are generaly used as auxiliary verbs are given belowThe Verb Its formsbe am, is, are, was, were, been, beinghave have, has, hadshall shall, shouldwill will, woulddo do, does, done, didcan can, couldmay may, might
A WORD THAT MODIFIES THE MEANING OF A VERB ,AN ADJECTIVE , OR ANOTHER ADVERB IS CALLED AN ADVERB POPAAY RUNS QUICKLY . QUICKLY SHOWS HOW OR IN WHAT MANNER POPAAY RUNS. i.e. QUICKLY MODIFIES THE VERB (RUNS). Verb, Adjectiv CARROT IS VERY SWEET. e VERY SHOWS HOW MUCH OR IN WHAT DEGREE THE CARROT IS SWEET i.e. VERY MODIFIES ADJECTIVE Adverb (SWEET). •HE READS QUITE CLEARLY. •QUITE SHOWS HOW FAR OR TO WHAT EXTENT HE . READS CLEARLY.i.e. QUITE MODIFIES ADVERB(CLEARLY).
Cont… adverb - modify modify .Adverbs used at the beginning ofa sentence sometimes modify themeaning of the entire sentence.oEvidently the facts are correct.oLuckily no one was hurt in the accident.oProbably he is mistaken.
Kind of Adverbs ( )•Adverbs of Time•Adverbs of Frequency•Adverbs of Place•Adverbs of Manner•Adverbs of Degree or Quanity•Adverbs of Affirmation or Negation•Adverbs of Reason
I am going to school now.Theadverb "now" "late" verbof time .elaborates on thetime of I arrived late foran workactivity
The adverb of frequency elaborates on how many times (the frequency) of any activity. Adverb of . frequency is also sometimes referred to the adverb of number. I have read the book twice. .Adverb often, twice, seldom, onceof adverbs verbnumber . adverbs of number adverb of frequency . . He often comes here. "twice" "often" . verb
Adverb ( ) . When an adverb describes where an activity was done, it is known as the adverb of place Go there. "here" "there" come go .. Come here. in, out, here, there, under, above (adverb of place) .
Adverb of manner , . When an adverb describes the quality of an activity being done, it is known as the Write clearly. adverb of manner."clearly" "hard" write work . .
Adverbs of Degree or Quanity The adverb of degree elaborates on the quantity. Adverb of degree quantity . Here fully describes the verb prepared, while very describes another adverb hard. fully verb prepared very adverb hard .
Not negates the verb know, whilecertainly accepts it. "not" verb know ,certainly .
There was a huge protestThegovernmentthereforepassed thebill.
Position of adverbs: difference between British and American English.Mid-position adverbs usually go after auxiliary verbs, after am / are / is /was / were and before other verbs.She has never written to me.The discussion was mainly about politics.When there are two or more auxiliary verbs, the adverb usually goes afterthe first.You have definitely been working hard.In American English, mid-position adverbs are often put before auxiliaryverbs and am / are / is / was / were, even when the verb is not emphasized.You certainly have made him angry. (US)You have certainly made him angry. (GB)In British English, mid-position adverbs can go before auxiliary verbs andam /are / is / was / were when we want to emphasize the auxiliary verbs.I am really sorry. (No emphasis on am.)I really AM sorry. (Emphasis on AM)In negative sentences, mid-position adverbs generally come before not if theyemphasize the negative.Compare:I really don’t like her. (Strong dislike)I don’t really like her. (Mild dislike)
Adverb clauses of degree or comparison…..Adverb clauses of degree or comparison answer the question how much,how little or how many. The chief conjunctions used to introduce adverbclauses of degree are as, as…as, so…as and than.She is older than her husband.She is as intelligent as she is beautiful.She is not so intelligent as her sister.The correlative the…the may also be considered as a conjunctionintroducing adverb clauses of degree.The older you grow the wiser you become.The more he earns the more he spends.NotesIn adverb clauses of degree or comparison, the verb is often understoodand not expressed.I earn as much as you (do).I can sing as well as he (does).She is as tall as he (is).Nobody knows her better than I (do).Note that when the verb is not expressed it is more common to use objectpronouns after as and than.
Adverb clauses of result and concession…..Adverb clauses of result or consequence are introduced by thesubordinating conjunctions that, so…that, so that and such…that.He is such a good man that all respect him.She was so weak that she could hardly stand. OR She was so weak shecould hardly stand.It was so hot we didn’t go out. OR It was so hot that we didn’t go out.Adverb clauses of concessionAdverb clauses of concession are introduced by the subordinatingconjunctions though, although, even though, while, whereas and evenif.Though I am poor I am honest.I will be able to get in although I have no ticket.Even if it rains I will come.The men managed to survive even though they were three days withoutwater.John is very popular among his friends, whereas his brother is a reclusive.As is sometimes used in the sense of though.Young as he is he occupies an important position in the firm. (=Thoughhe is young, he occupies an important position in the firm.)
PREPOSITION is a word placed before a noun or pronoun. It expresses the relationship of that noun or pronoun with some other noun or pronoun. PREPOSITION Noun Pronoun Noun Pronoun Noun Pronoun .
EXERCISE:Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunctions.1. He is not ………………. clever as his brother.2. He must be punished ………………. he is guilty.3. A fool …………… his money are soon parted.4. He was not punished …………….. he was guilty.5. He worked hard ……………… he might pass the examination.6. Give every man thy ear, ……………… few thy voice.7. I waited for him ………………… the clock struck seven.8. You will not get the prize ……………… you deserve it.9. It has been a year ……………… I saw him.10. Hardly had he reached the platform ……………….. the trainarrived.11. No sooner did he see the tiger ………………. he fainted.12. ………………. you do not apologize, I shall punish you.
Answers:1. He is not so clever as his brother.2. He must be punished because he is guilty.3. A fool and his money are soon parted.4. He was not punished though he was guilty.5. He worked hard that he might pass the examination.6. Give everyman thy ear, but few thy voice.7. I waited for him until the clock struck seven.8. You will not get the prize unless you deserve it.9. It has been a year since I saw him.10. Hardly had he reached the platform when the train arrived.11. No sooner did he see the tiger than he fainted.12. If you do not apologize, I shall punish you.
Some conjunctions and their usesThanAs a conjunction than follows an adjective or adverb in the comparativedegree.Wisdom is better than riches.He is wiser than I am.I am smarter than you are.LestLest is used as a subordinating conjunction expressing a negativepurpose. It has a similar meaning to ‘for fear that’.He fled lest he should be killed.Note that lest is rare in modern English. Also note that the only auxiliarythat can follow lest is should.ThatThat is simply a connector. It is used to express a reason or cause.His manners are so bad that nobody invites him to a party. (= Nobodyinvites him to a party because his manners are so bad.)Bring it to the light so that I can see it better
WhileWhile is used to mean:a) during the time that; as long as; asWhile there is life, there is hope.While they were sleeping, the robbers broke in.b) at the same time thatThe boys sang while the girls danced.While you were playing I was working.c) whereasWhile I have no money to spend, you have nothing to spend on.OnlyAs a conjunction only means ‘except that’ or ‘but’.The book would be helpful to you, only it is expensive. (= The book wouldbe helpful to you, but it is expensive.)Because, for and sinceAll of these words can be used to refer to the reason forsomething. Sinceclauses often come at the beginning of sentences.Since he had not paid his bill, his electricity was cut off.A because-clause is less formal than a since-clause.Because I was ill, I could not attend the meeting.Since I was ill, I could not attend the meeting.
SinceAs a conjunction since means ‘from the past time when’.Where have you been since I last saw you?It is just a week since we arrived here.I have never seen him since that unfortunate event happened.The conjunction since may also mean as.Since we have no money we can’t buy anything. (= As we have no money wecan’t buy anything.)OrThe conjunction or is used to introduce an alternative.Is it green or blue?You can have tea or coffee.Sometimes or is used as an equivalent to and.The troops were not wanting in strength or courage, but they were badly fed. (=The troops were not wanting in strength and courage…)IfThe conjunction if means ‘on condition that’; ‘supposing that’.If you want to go there I will take you.If it rains we shall not go.If can mean ‘when’ or ‘whenever’.If I don’t wear my spectacles, I get a headache.If is also used to express wish or surprise in the structure if only.If only I had known that. (Emphasizing one’s regret that one did not know it.)
Scarcely…whenIt is wrong to use than instead of when in these sentences:Scarcely had I reached the station than the train steamed out.(Incorrect)Scarcely had I reached the station when the train steamed out.(Correct)If scarcely begins the sentence it should be immediately followedby had.Scarcely I had reached the station when the train steamed out.(Incorrect)Scarcely had I reached the station when the train steamed out. (Correct)I had scarcely reached the station when the train steamed out. (Correct)CorrelativesThe correlatives either…or, neither…nor, both…and, notonly…but also must be placed immediately before the words they relateto.Neither he would eat nor allow us to eat. (Incorrect)He would neither eat nor allow us to eat. (Correct)Neither I shall follow your instructions nor resign. (Incorrect)I shall neither follow your instructions nor resign. (Correct)He not only visited France but also Germany.He visited not only France but also Germany
Exercise:Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunctions1. I would rather be an engineer —————–a doctor.2. I cannot excuse you —————— youapologize.3. Neither a lender —————- a borrowerbe.4. Work hard —————– you should fail.5. Clever ——————- he was, he could notsolve the problem.
Interjection is the word Interjectionthat expresses thestrong suddensentiments sometimesexperienced. INTERJECTION
Comma ( )-The comma (,) is the short pause andis always used within sentences. It isused in cases wherever the writerwants to indicate a small separation,like...This is Ram, Sahib, Kiran and Mahesh.Get up, freshen up, have breakfast and rushoff to school.
Semi Colon ( )-The semi colon (;) is used toconnect two loosely connectedclauses.Colon ( )-The colon (:) is optionally used tomark the beginning of a quotationor at the beginning of anenumeration.
Full Stop -To end a sentenceThe full stop (.) is the greatest pause and indicates the end ofan imperative or a declarative sentence. . imperativedeclarative .To mark abbreviationsThe full stop has also been traditionally used inabbreviations, but now-a-days this use of the full stop hasbecome optional. , . B. Sc. or BSc
DETERMINERS..Determiners are words...such as this, those, my,their,which. They are specialadjectives that are usedbeforenouns.
ARTICLES ARTIA AN THE CLESThe words a and an are called indefinite articles. Youcan use them with singular nouns to talk about anysingle person or thing.
USE OF ARTICLES The articles precede the noun and are generally the first adjective for that noun. ie if more than one adjective is used describe a noun, the article is used before any of other , article . article .As a general rule - An article is used beforeevery singular common nounexcept when the noun is usedin a general sense. article . - .
She is a girl. girl a . mortalMan is mortal. .
TYPES OF TENSE Present Future Tense Tense ( ( ) ) Past Tense ( )F o u r s u b -c l a s s e s o f e a c h of t he t hr e e
PRESENT PAST FUTURE TENSE TENSE TENSE Present past Simple Future Simple Simple or or Indefinite or Indefinite Indefinite Present Past Future Continuous Continuous Continuous Present Past Perfect Future Perfect Perfect – – – Present Perfect Continuous - Past Perfect Future Perfect Continuous - Continuous -
• The form of verb that • The form of verb thatVerb indicates a underway indicates to an action or just currently that had occured in completed action is the past is known as Present known as the present the past tense.Tense tense.. ( ) ( ) • the form of verb that indicates an action Verb that will occur after Verb some time (in the future) is known as Past the future tense Future TenseTense . ( )
PRESENT TENSE.Present Indefinite I walk. . TensePresent Continuous I am walking. . TensePresent Perfect I have walked. . TensePresent Perfect I have been walking. . Continuous Tense
PAST TENSE.Past Indefinite Tense I walked. .Past Continuous Tense I was walking. .Past Perfect Tense I had walked. .Past Perfect Continous I had beenTense walking. .
FUTURE TENSE.Future Indefinite Tense I shall walk. .Future Continuous I shall beTense. walking. .Future Perfect Tense I shall have walked. .Future Perfect I shall have beenContinuous Tense walking. .
Present Tense (SIMPLE):With singular- verb + (s)With Plural- Verb onlyI /They/ we/you work, He /she/ it (object, planetc) works (1st form of verb)Affirmative/Negative/QuestionA: He speaks.N: He does not speak.Q: Does he speak?
(CONTINUOUS tense: + ING)Verb Stem + / / (raha/rahe/rahi) + Present Tense of "Hona" (to be)For those who dont like grammatical terms and dont know for sure whats "continuoustense", Ill tell that its the same as the English verbs, ending in "-ing". So if you want to saythat you "read" a book in the moment of speaking, you have to say "I am reading a book",not simply "I read a book", because the last could mean that you read a book in general, i.e.youre not reading it in the moment of speaking. So lets clear all that out with someexamples. . (mai~ kitab padh raha hu~) = Im reading a book. . (mai~pani pi raha hu~) = Im drinking water. . (mai~ roti kha rahi hu~) = Im eatingbread. (a girl speaking!)The verbs stem and raha/rahe/rahi are pronounced almost as one (at once), althoughtheyre written separately. Sometimes in colloquial speech all is even shortened more. The"raha hu~" for example is pronounced "rahu~", "raha hai" as "rahai", "raha hai~" ->"rahai~"... we/they/you are working, and he/she/it is working or it is being doneI /they/we/you do, He/she /it does.I /we/they/you don’t, He/she/It doesn’t (NEGATION)Do I/they/we/you? ……… Does he/she/it? (QUESTION)A: He is speaking.N: He is not speaking.Q: Is he speaking?
PRESENT PERFECTI/we/ they/you- have/haven’tfor e.g-I have done (3rd form of verb)He/she/it- has/hasn’tfor e.g-he has done (3rd form of verb)A: He has spoken.N: He has not spoken.Q: Has he spoken?
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSI/we/ they/you- have / haven’t been …verb + ingHe/she/it- has/ hasn’t been…verb + ingIt has been done (3rd form of verb)‘Have had’ and ‘has had’ are used when something/work iscarried on from past in to the present.A: He has spoken.N: He has not spoken.Q: Has he spoken?
PAST TENSEFor verbs, whose stem end in a vowel you have toadd / / (ya/ye/yi) E.g. -> -> (Khana -> Kha (stem) ->Khaya)(simple present)Isà Was (simple past)I /he/she/ità was/ wasn’tI saw, ate, drank etc (2nd form of verb)(simple present)Areà were (simple past)We/you/theyà were/ weren’tWe saw, ate, drank etc (2nd form of verb)For question in simple past- Did you…..+ 1st form of verb?e.g- Did Mary dance in a musical? A: He had spoken.N: He had not spoken.Q: Had he spoken?
Past continuousI /he/she/it-- was/ wasn’t …verb+ ingWe/you/they-- were/ weren’t… verb + ingWell, no need to help you much here. Its the same as thepresent continous except that its used the past tense of Hona:Verb Stem + / / (raha/rahe/rahi) + Past Tense of"Hona" (to be) = Past Continuous Tense . (mai~ kitab padh raha tha) = I was reading abook. . (mai~ pani pi raha tha) = I was drinkingwater. . (mai~ roti kha rahi thi) = I was eatingbread. (a girl speaking!)A: He was speaking.N: He was not speaking.Q: Was he speaking?
Past Perfectwhen something/work started and ended inpast tense onlyI/we/you/they/he/she/it- had + 3rd form ofverbe.g I had done my homework yesterday.Sometimes we use “had had” when we are toosure about the happening.A: He had spoken.N: He had not spoken.Q: Had he spoken?
Past Perfect Continuous when something / work got started and went on in pasttense but not ended.I/we/you/they/he/she/it- Had been… verb+ ing.For question- had you completed/ been completingyour work……..?A: He has been speaking.N: He has not been speaking.Q: Has he been speaking?
FUTURE TENSEPlease study the will/shall & going to usage to know when and how we use these words.I/we/you/they/he/she/it- will + 1st form of verbThey will do……I/we shall do (1st form of verb)‘It’ will be done (3rd form of verb with IT)The Future tense it a bit more complicated than the past for it has more verb-endings forperson than those by the past tense.Future Imperfect Tense:Let us conjugate a verb in the future tense, then Ill give the endings:Future Imperfect of "Pina" ( = to drink) (mai~ piunga) = I will drink (tu piega) = You will drink (tum pioge)= You will drink (voh piega) = He/She/It will drink. (ham pienge) = We will drink (aap pienge) = You will drink. (vepienge) = They will drink.For "I" use -unga, for "Tu" use "ega", for "Tum" use "oge", for "voh" use "ega" and for"ham/aap/ve" the plural form "enge".A: He will speak.N: He will not speak.Q: Will he speak?
FUTURE CONTINUOUSI/we/you/they/he/she/it- will be & verb+ ingTo build that tense use these endings:(rahunga/rahega/rahenge/rahoge) similarly as the forms for FutureImperfect together with the "conjugated" verb.Verb Stem + TA / TE / TI + rahunga/rahega/rahenge/rahoge =Future Continuous TenseLets make the future continuous of the verb "pina" to make thingsclear:Future Continuous of "Pina" ( = to drink) . (mai~ pita rahunga) = I will be drinking. .(tu pita rahega) = You will be drinking. . (tum piterahoge) = You will be drinking. . (voh pita rahega) =He/She/It will be drinking. . (hum pite rahenge) = We will be drinking. . (aap pite rahenge) = You will be drinking. . (ve piterahenge) = They will be drinking.A: He will be speaking.N: He will not be speaking.Q: Will he be speaking?
FUTURE PERFECTNote – we rarely use future perfect tense only when we are confidentabout future.I/we- shall have + 3rd form of verbYou/they/he/she/it- Will have + 3rd form of verbA: He will have spoken.N: He will not have spoken.Q: Will he have spoken? FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS will/ shall have been & verb + ing A: He will have been speaking. N: He will not have been speaking. Q: Will he have been speaking?
Grammar is a very old field of study. Did you know that thesentence was first divided into subject and verb by Plato,the famed philosopher from ancient Greece? That wasabout 2,400 years ago!
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