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Periodic table
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Periodic table

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chemistry ppt 2

chemistry ppt 2

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Transcript

  • 1. PERIODIC TABLE Chemistry Part 2
  • 2. Chemistry
    • A knowledge of chemistry is essential for understanding the structure and function of animals because body functions involve chemical reactions.
  • 3. Matter
    • Matter – is anything that occupies space and has mass.
  • 4. Elements
    • Elements – Pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler units.
  • 5. Atoms
    • Atoms –are composed of a nucleus and an electron cloud.
    • Nucleus – central core of an atom and is made up of Protons (particle with a positive charge) and Neutron – (particle without a charge, it’s neutral)
  • 6. Atoms
    • Electron cloud – electrons around the nucleus
    • Electrons – particle with a negative charge
  • 7. Periodic Table
      • Atomic number = number of protons
      • Atomic Mass=
    • Total numbers
    • Of protons plus
    • Neutrons in
    • Nucleus.
  • 8. Isotopes
    • Same atoms; different numbers of neutrons, therefore different atomic mass.
    • Examples: Carbon 12 and Carbon 14
    • Carbon Atomic Number 6, so how many neutrons in Carbon 12?
    • 6
    • Carbon 14?
    • 8
  • 9. Radioisotopes
    • Unstable Isotopes
    • Unstable nuclei, which tend to undergo radioactive decay.
    • Carbon 14 is unstable isotope. (half-life of 5,730 years)
    • Carbon 12 is stable.
  • 10. Electrons
    • Energy levels – different locations of electrons around the nucleus
    • First level – 2 electrons
    • Second & all other levels – 8 electrons
  • 11. Electrons
    • The amount of electrons in the outermost energy level leads to properties of the atom – will it react with other atoms?
  • 12. Valence Electrons
    • Number of electrons in outermost shell.
    • If the outer shell is full then NO REACTION!
    • Column 8, valence shell has 8 electrons, it is full, NO REACTION!!
    • Columns 1-7?
    • Fill in info on periodic table.
  • 13.  
  • 14. Electron Dot Diagram
    • Illustrates energy levels and the number of electrons in all shells.
    • Can put symbol in center to represent nucleus.
    • Easy way to determine number of valence electrons.
  • 15.  
  • 16. Lewis Dot Structure
    • Write symbol for element.
    • Indicate valence electrons by putting dots representing electrons found in OUTER SHELL ONLY. (only show electrons that are available for bonding)
    • Ex:
  • 17. uc
  • 18. Covalent Bonds
    • Atoms SHARE electrons.
    • Use Lewis Dot Structures
  • 19. Ionic Bonds
    • Electrons TRANSFER of electrons.
    • Use Lewis Dot Structure