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Ogt science review

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  • 1. Northwest High School Class of 2014 OGT SCIENCE REVIEW
  • 2. Define conduction,convection, and radiation.Give an example of each.Conduction Convection RadiationNext Question Test Yourself
  • 3. Conduction Definition Example The transfer of A metal pot on the heat across a stove is heated medium from a when the burner is source of higher on. temperature to a source of lower temperatureNext Question Take Me Back
  • 4. Convection Definition Example The process by Steam rises from a which heat is pot of boiling transferred by the Water movement of a heated fluid (gas or liquid).Next Question Take Me Back
  • 5. Radiation Definition Example The transfer of Earth is heated by heat by electromagnetic electromagnetic waves that travel waves. This form through space of heat transfer from the sun. does not need a medium.Next Question Take Me Back
  • 6. Test Yourself - A The metal handle of a pot on the stove becomes hot. Conduction Convection Radiation Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 7. Test Yourself - A The metal handle of a pot on the stove becomes hot. Conduction - CORRECT Convection Radiation Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 8. Test Yourself - A The metal handle of a pot on the stove becomes hot. Conduction Convection – INCORRECT – TRY AGAIN Radiation Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 9. Test Yourself - A The metal handle of a pot on the stove becomes hot. Conduction Convection Radiation – Incorrect – Try again Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 10. Test Yourself - B You warm yourself by a campfire. Conduction Convection Radiation Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 11. Test Yourself - B You warm yourself by a campfire. Conduction – Incorrect – Try again Convection Radiation Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 12. Test Yourself - B You warm yourself by a campfire. Conduction Convection – INCORRECT – TRY AGAIN Radiation Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 13. Test Yourself - B You warm yourself by a campfire. Conduction Convection Radiation – Correct Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 14. Test Yourself - C Warm air at the Earth’s equator rises; cold air at its poles sinks. Conduction Convection Radiation Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 15. Test Yourself - C Warm air at the Earth’s equator rises; cold air at its poles sinks. Conduction – Incorrect – Try again Convection Radiation Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 16. Test Yourself - C Warm air at the Earth’s equator rises; cold air at its poles sinks. Conduction Convection – CORRECT Radiation Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 17. Test Yourself - C Warm air at the Earth’s equator rises; cold air at its poles sinks. Conduction Convection Radiation – Incorrect – Try again Next Test Yourself QuestioNext Question
  • 18. Test Yourself - D Medical x-rays are used to produce images of the body. Conduction Convection RadiationNext Question
  • 19. Test Yourself - D Medical x-rays are used to produce images of the body. Conduction – Incorrect – Try again Convection RadiationNext Question
  • 20. Test Yourself - D Medical x-rays are used to produce images of the body. Conduction Convection – Incorrect – Try again RadiationNext Question
  • 21. Test Yourself - D Medical x-rays are used to produce images of the body. Conduction Convection Radiation - CorrectNext Question
  • 22. Biomes Define Biome Name 6 common biomes.Describe theNext Question
  • 23. Biomes Define Biome A biome is a distinct ecological community of plants and animals living together in a particular climate.Next Question Back to Biomes
  • 24. Biomes Name 6 common biomes. Describe the climate of each. 1. Arctic Tundra • dry and wet seasons; Cold 2. Deciduous Forest • moisture evenly distributed; warm summers, cold winters 3. Desert • sporadic, localized moisture; great daily range of temperature.Next Question Next Page of Biomes
  • 25. Biomes Name 6 common biomes. Describe the climate of each.  Coniferous Forest • moisture varies throughout year; cold winters, cool summers.  Tropical Forest • long wet season with short dry season; hot 3. Temperate Grassland • wet and dry seasons; hotNext Question or Back to Biomes
  • 26. List some causes ofweather. Solar Energy – heats air and land Elevation – temperature falls with increased elevation Nearness to large bodies of water – humidity and temperature are affected Temperature – determines how much water vapor air can hold Air Pressure – produces wind and air mass patternsNext Question
  • 27. What is the greenhouseeffect? Carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere prevent the sun’s heat energy from radiating back into space from Earth.Next Question
  • 28. How is the theory of globalwarming related to the greenhouse effect? The burning of fossil fuels increases the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Because CO2 absorbs heat, the atmosphere may become warmer.Next Question
  • 29. Plate Tectonics Explain the theory of plate tectonics What are some events that change the Explain continental drift. Look at a ma Define tectonic termsNext Question
  • 30. Plate Tectonics As the plates that make up the Earth’s surface shift, they can cause the Earth’s surface to change.Next Question Back to Plate Tectonics
  • 31. Plate Tectonics Earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain creation, and sea floor spreading are examples of events that change the Earth’s surface.Next Question Back to Plate Tectonics
  • 32. Plate Tectonics Scientists believe that 200 million years ago, Earth’s continents were joined together, forming a super- continent called Pangaea. As the tectonic plates under the continents shifted, Pangaea broke up, and the continents moved apart.Next Question Back to Plate Tectonics
  • 33. Plate Tectonics Tectonic Plates  Moving sheets of rock that form Earth’s surface Theory of plate tectonics  Theory that explains how a few thin, rigid tectonic plates move across Earth’s surface Mantle convection Force deep within the Earth, driven by internal  heat, that moves continents and the plates of which they are a part.Next Question or Back to Plate Tectonics
  • 34. List some severe weatherpatterns Explain each pattern and tell where it is found  Tropical Storms  Tornadoes  MonsoonsNext Question
  • 35. List some severe weatherpatterns – Tropical Storms And hurricanes Start as low-pressure areas over warm waters Gain strength from warm water, but diminish when they reach land Usually begin in tropical areas where the water is the warmestNext Question Back to Sever Weather
  • 36. List some severe weatherpatterns – Tornadoes Rotating air funnels that descend from storm clouds Can reach air speeds in excess of 300 mph Found throughout the world, but are common in central US states like Oklahoma, Nebraska, Illinois and OhioNext Question Back to Sever Weather
  • 37. List some severe weatherpatterns – Monsoons Wind systems that seasonally reverse direction Winds bring rain inland from the ocean in the summer, and they often bring drought from the continent interior during the winter. Found over the Asian continent and AustraliaNext Question Back to Sever Weather
  • 38. Describe ways of estimatinggeologic time. Radiometric dating  Based on the half-life of radioactive isotopes that is used to determine the age of materials Rock sequencing  Analyzing the order of rock strata to estimate their relative ages; Rocks lower in the order tend to be older than those near the top. Fossils  Remains or traces of prehistoric organisms that are often formed when tissue is replaced with mineralsNext Question
  • 39. Atomic Theory What is and element? Give and example.  An element is a basic substance made of a single type of atom (hydrogen, carbon, gold) How are atoms and molecules related to elements?  Molecules are chemical combinations of two or more atoms. Hydrogen and oxygen can combine to make a molecule of water (H2O)Next Question
  • 40. Fission and Fusion What is Fission? What is Fusion? Test YourselfNext Question
  • 41. What is Fission? Fission is a reaction that produces energy when heavy radioactive nucleus splits apart into fragments. The mass of the fragments is less than the mass of the original isotope.Next Question Back to Fission and Fusion
  • 42. What is Fusion? Fusion is a process in which two nuclei come together to form a third, larger nucleus. Energy is released when the larger nucleus is produced.Next Question Back to Fission and Fusion
  • 43. Test Yourself - A New elements being formed in the intense heat of stars • Fission • FusionNext Question Next Test Yourself Question
  • 44. Test Yourself - A New elements being formed in the intense heat of stars • Fission – Incorrect – Try again! • FusionNext Question Next Test Yourself Question
  • 45. Test Yourself - A New elements being formed in the intense heat of stars • Fission • Fusion - CorrectNext Question Next Test Yourself Question
  • 46. Test Yourself - B Neutron hitting uranium-235 to release energy • Fission • FusionNext Question Next Test Yourself Question
  • 47. Test Yourself - B Neutron hitting uranium-235 to release energy • Fission - Correct • FusionNext Question Next Test Yourself Question
  • 48. Test Yourself - B Neutron hitting uranium-235 to release energy • Fission • Fusion – Incorrect – Try Again!Next Question Next Test Yourself Question
  • 49. Test Yourself - C Power generated in a nuclear submarine’s reactor. • Fission • FusionNext Question
  • 50. Test Yourself - C Power generated in a nuclear submarine’s reactor. • Fission - Correct • FusionNext Question
  • 51. Test Yourself - C Power generated in a nuclear submarine’s reactor. • Fission • Fusion – Incorrect – Try Again!Next Question
  • 52. What about stars? How are stars created? How do stars produce energy? How are stars responsible for the creaNext Question
  • 53. How are stars created? A new star forms when a huge cloud (made of hydrogen and other matter) collapses in space. Gravity at the center of the new star creates great heat.Next Question Back to About Stars
  • 54. How do stars produceenergy? The intense heat inside a star causes the hydrogen protons to move so rapidly that they join together or fuse. This process, fusion, is a nuclear reaction that creates energy. The star starts to glow.Next Question Back to About Stars
  • 55. How are stars responsible forthe creation of elements? Ongoing fusion of protons in stars results in many different proton combinations. Each different combination of protons is an element. After millions of years some stars explode, releasing many different elements into space.Next Question Back to About Stars
  • 56. Energy Define potential energy. Define kinetic energy.Next Question
  • 57. Potential Energy The energy of position. Example: an eraser sitting on a table has less potential energy than an eraser sitting on top of an 8 foot ladder. The pendulum at the top of its swing has more potential energy than when it is mid- way through its swingNext Question Back to Energy
  • 58. Kinetic Energy The energy of Motion. Example: is a pendulum in motionNext Question Back to Energy
  • 59. Newton’s Laws of Motion1. Unless acted on by an outside force, a body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion remains in motion. (Inertia)2. Change of motion is proportional to the force used to produce the change.3. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.Next Question
  • 60. How do Science andinvention affect one another?1. Invention uses known scientific principles to make something work better or create a new tool  Example: Discovery of electro-magnetic waves led to the invention of radio, television and X-Rays.2. Using new tools (inventions) allows scientists to determine unknown scientific principles and new information Example: The Hubble Space Telescope allows scientists to learn more about the solar systemNext Question
  • 61. More Atomic Theory Draw a simple model (Bohr model) of an Which part gives the atomic number? How would you make your atom an ion? How would you make your atom an isotoNext Question
  • 62. Simple model of atomNext Question Back to More Atomic Theory
  • 63. Which part gives the atomicnumber? The number of protons gives the element its atomic number.Next Question Back to More Atomic Theory
  • 64. How would you make youratom an ion? The atom becomes an ion (electrically charged) when it loses or gains an electron.Next Question Back to More Atomic Theory
  • 65. How would you make youratom an isotope? An isotope has extra neutrons, increasing the mass of the atom.Next Question Back to More Atomic Theory
  • 66. Physical Properties ofSubstances Color  Density • Gold is yellow • Lead is more Hardness dense, feather is less dense • Diamonds are the hardest mineral  Ductility Conductivity • Copper can be pulled into a wire • Copper conducts electricity  Magnetism • Iron is attracted to a magnetNext Question
  • 67. Electricity How does electric  Explain what makes current flow? some materials • Electric current conductors and flows when others insulators electrons move • Conductors: freely materials with loosely held electrons (copper) • Insulators: materials with electrons tightly bound to their atoms (clay, rubber)Next Question
  • 68. Waves Define a wave. • A wave is a traveling disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another Name some types of waves. • Some types of waves include sound, seismic, water and light waves. Which type does not need matter to travel? •Light waves do not need matter toNext travel Question
  • 69. Periodic Table Information What is the periodic table of elements? Identify the part of the element squareNext Question
  • 70. Periodic Table Information The table is an organizational table developed by Mendeleev in 1869. Elements are arranged in rows by increasing atomic number. Elements in the same column have similar chemical properties.Next Question Back to Periodic Table Information
  • 71. Periodic Table InformationAtomic Number Atomic Mass 1 1.00794 Symbol H Element Name Hydrogen Next Question Back to Periodic Table Information
  • 72. Changes in Matter What is a physical change in matter? (Give Examples) What is a chemical change in matter? (Give Examples)Next Question
  • 73. Physical Change in Matter A change in the phase (state) of matter. Or, a change in which parts do not lose their identity Examples: • Ice melting to water; sugar dissolving in waterNext Question Back to Changes in Matter
  • 74. Chemical Change in Matter A reaction that causes a change in the properties of matter. It is usually difficult to reverse. Examples: • Spilling bleach on a pair of jeans, changing the color. • A stick burning in a campfire.Next Question Back to Changes in Matter
  • 75. Force, Acceleration, Friction Describe how force, acceleration and mass relate in the action of kicking a soccer ball. What is friction? How does it affect acceleration of a soccer ball.Next Question
  • 76. Describe how force, acceleration and massrelate in the action of kicking a soccer ball. F = m*a (Newton’s second law of motion. Force applied to the mass results in acceleration. The greater the force applied to a given mass, the greater the acceleration. Therefore, if you kick the soccer ball with more force, it will speed up faster.Next Question Back to Force, Acceleration, friction
  • 77. What is friction? How does it affectacceleration in the action of kicking a soccerball? Friction is a surface force directly opposing. Friction decreases the speed of a moving object. A soccer ball kicked opposing relative on the ground will lose speed faster than a ball kicked in the air.Next Question Back to Force, Acceleration, friction
  • 78. Conserving Energy What is the law of conservation of en Give some examples of conserving energy resources.Next Question
  • 79. What is the law ofconservation of energy? In any physical or chemical change, energy is neither created nor destroyed.Next Question Back to Conserving Energy
  • 80. Conserving Energy Recycling Buying fuel-efficient automobiles Riding a bike instead of driving Insulating buildingsNext Question Back to Conserving Energy
  • 81. Radioactivity Define radioactivity Give an example of one beneficial use .Next Question
  • 82. Define Radioactivity Spontaneous release of energy by certain atoms, such as uranium, as these atoms disintegrate. It is the emission of one or more kinds of radiation from an isotope with unstable nucleiNext Question Back to Radioactivity
  • 83. Beneficial Example ofRadioactivity Helps doctors to see the development of cancer by using radioactive liquid traveling throughout the body. The radioactive liquid highlights masses in the body and projects those masses to an x-rayNext Question Back to Radioactivity
  • 84. Ozone Layer What is the ozone layer and why is it i Why are there “holes” in the ozone lay What is being done about CFC’s?Next Question
  • 85. What is the ozone layer? The ozone layer is a layer in the stratosphere that absorbs ultraviolet rays from the sun This keeps most of the life-harming rays from reaching the Earth’s surfaceNext Question Back to Ozone Layer
  • 86. Why are their holes in theozone layer? Certain chemicals react with ozone, destroying it. Chlorofluorcarbons (CFC’s) once used in refrigerators and aerosol cans were released into the atmosphere. The CFC’s destroyed the ozone layer creating a “hole” or thin layer – especially over the AntarcticNext Question Back to Ozone Layer
  • 87. What is being done aboutCFC’s? In 1986 the International Congress in Montreal produced a treaty to reduce and then ban CFC production by 1996Next Question Back to Ozone Layer
  • 88. Scientific Method Organize the following 1. Test hypothesis 5 steps to scientifically 2. Plan test with solve a problem: materials and 4 1. Develop a methods. hypothesis 3 3. Do background 2 2. Ask a question research based on 1 4. Report findings 8 observation 5. Record and 3. Draw conclusion 7 analyze data 6 Hit enter to see Next Question correct sequence!
  • 89. Evolution and Scientists The individuals listed below played a role in the development of evolutionary theory. Match them with their concept. Click to see listNext Question
  • 90. Evolution and Scientists - List The earth is very old, and it wasa) Charles Darwin 1. formed by gradual processesb) Jean Baptist 2. Events during an organism’s lifetime can produce changes that Lamark can be inheritedc) Charles Lyell 3. The human population was growing so rapidly that it wouldd) Thomas someday exceed available resources Malthus 4. Organisms that are best adaptede) Gregor Mendel to their environment survive 5. Offspring can resemble or differ from parents because of the “unit of inheritance (gene). Next Question Click or hit enter to see matches
  • 91. Mitosis or Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis2. Haploid daughter cell3. Daughter cells are identical4. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads5. Two consecutive cell divisions6. Chromosome number is maintainedNext Question
  • 92. Mitosis or Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis2. Haploid daughter cell Wrong3. Daughter cells are identical4. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads5. Two consecutive cell divisions6. Chromosome number is maintainedNext Question
  • 93. Mitosis or Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis2. Haploid daughter cell Correct3. Daughter cells are identical4. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads5. Two consecutive cell divisions6. Chromosome number is maintainedNext Question
  • 94. Mitosis or Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis2. Haploid daughter cell3. Daughter cells are Correct identical4. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads5. Two consecutive cell divisions6. Chromosome number is maintainedNext Question
  • 95. Mitosis or Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis2. Haploid daughter cell3. Daughter cells are Wrong identical4. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads5. Two consecutive cell divisions6. Chromosome number is maintainedNext Question
  • 96. Mitosis or Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis2. Haploid daughter cell3. Daughter cells are identical4. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads Wrong5. Two consecutive cell divisions6. Chromosome number is maintainedNext Question
  • 97. Mitosis or Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis2. Haploid daughter cell3. Daughter cells are identical4. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads Correct5. Two consecutive cell divisions6. Chromosome number is maintainedNext Question
  • 98. Mitosis or Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis2. Haploid daughter cell3. Daughter cells are identical4. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads5. Two consecutive cell Correct divisions6. Chromosome number is maintainedNext Question
  • 99. Mitosis or Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis2. Haploid daughter cell3. Daughter cells are identical4. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads5. Two consecutive cell Wrong divisions6. Chromosome number is maintainedNext Question
  • 100. Mitosis or Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis2. Haploid daughter cell3. Daughter cells are identical4. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads5. Two consecutive cell divisions6. Chromosome number is maintained WrongNext Question
  • 101. Mitosis or Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis2. Haploid daughter cell3. Daughter cells are identical4. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads5. Two consecutive cell divisions6. Chromosome number is maintained CorrectNext Question
  • 102. Next Question

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