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Chapter 8  Cell ReproductionIntroduction to Chromosomes
Important Words Chromosomes – tightly coiled     Strands of DNA wrap  packages of DNA; they are rod     around proteins ...
Important Words Chromatid – each half of  a chromosome; forms as  DNA copies itself before  cell division Centromere – h...
Important Words                               How many chromosomes                                do humans have? Each s...
Types of Chromosomes 2 Types of Chromosomes: 1. Sex Chromosomes – are the chromosomes that  determine the sex of an orga...
Karyotype: Picture ofChromosomes. What do younotice about the arrangement?
Chromosomes Karyotype – is a picture  of the chromosomes in  a somatic (body) cell. 22 homologous pairs  of autosomes. ...
Chromosomes Homologous chromosomes – two  copies of each autosome (maternal and  paternal) Homologous chromosomes are th...
Compare the karyotypes.      Record your observationsKaryotype A       Karyotype B
ComparisonsKaryotype A                     Karyotype B 19 pairs: Not Human            23 pairs: Human Sex: Male (XY)   ...
Human Karyotype: Male
Human Karyotype: Female
Chromosomes Diploid – cells have two sets (maternal and  paternal) of chromosomes.     Have all 46 chromosomes.     Rep...
Haploid Cells Reproductive Cells Gametes - sperm and  egg cells; they have 23  chromosomes Fertilization 23 in  sperm ...
Diploid Cells Somatic Cells Cells that make  up the body of  organisms. Somatic Cells are  produced through  Mitosis (c...
Introduction to chromosomes
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Introduction to chromosomes

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Transcript of "Introduction to chromosomes"

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Cell ReproductionIntroduction to Chromosomes
  2. 2. Important Words Chromosomes – tightly coiled  Strands of DNA wrap packages of DNA; they are rod around proteins called shaped and proteins hold them Histones. together.
  3. 3. Important Words Chromatid – each half of a chromosome; forms as DNA copies itself before cell division Centromere – holds the chromatids together until they separate
  4. 4. Important Words  How many chromosomes do humans have? Each species has a unique number of chromosomes.  46 chromosomes or 23 pairs.
  5. 5. Types of Chromosomes 2 Types of Chromosomes: 1. Sex Chromosomes – are the chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism. Female: XX Male: XY 2. Autosomes – all other chromosomes  Humans: 44 autosomal chromosomes
  6. 6. Karyotype: Picture ofChromosomes. What do younotice about the arrangement?
  7. 7. Chromosomes Karyotype – is a picture of the chromosomes in a somatic (body) cell. 22 homologous pairs of autosomes. 2 sex chromosomes Is this person male or female? Male: XY Normal or abnormal Normal: 23 pairs
  8. 8. Chromosomes Homologous chromosomes – two copies of each autosome (maternal and paternal) Homologous chromosomes are the same size, shape, and carry genes for the same trait. Final pair is not numbered: Sex Chromosomes.
  9. 9. Compare the karyotypes. Record your observationsKaryotype A Karyotype B
  10. 10. ComparisonsKaryotype A Karyotype B 19 pairs: Not Human  23 pairs: Human Sex: Male (XY)  Sex: Female (XX) Sister chromatids are still  Single Copy of each attached at their chromosome. centromeres (these are  This picture was taken double copies of each AFTER the cell divided! chromosome).  Be prepared to analyze a This is a picture karyotype regardless of BEFORE the cell divided! when the picture of the chromosomes was taken.
  11. 11. Human Karyotype: Male
  12. 12. Human Karyotype: Female
  13. 13. Chromosomes Diploid – cells have two sets (maternal and paternal) of chromosomes.  Have all 46 chromosomes.  Represented by 2n (means a full set of DNA)  Somatic Cells (cells making up the body) Haploid – cells have one set of chromosomes.  Have 23 chromosomes.  Represented by n (means a half set of DNA)  Gametes (reproductive cells : egg and sperm)
  14. 14. Haploid Cells Reproductive Cells Gametes - sperm and egg cells; they have 23 chromosomes Fertilization 23 in sperm + 23 in egg = 46 in zygote Gametes are produced through Meiosis (cell division results in 4 genetically different cells)
  15. 15. Diploid Cells Somatic Cells Cells that make up the body of organisms. Somatic Cells are produced through Mitosis (cell division results in 2 genetically identical cells).
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