DNA and RNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid “ the double helix” and Ribonucleic Acid
The Double Helix <ul><li>The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953 by scientists James Watson and Francis Crick. </li></...
Nucleotide <ul><li>Basic building block of DNA or RNA </li></ul><ul><li>DNA sugar is Deoxyribose, bases A,T,C,G </li></ul>...
DNA Base Pairing Rules <ul><li>Adenine – Thymine </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosine – Guanine </li></ul>
DNA Replication <ul><li>DNA Helicase “unwinds” the helix. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Polymerase lays down new nucleotides (base...
Oops!  Remember? <ul><li>If a mistake is made in replication a  MUTATION  results. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are caught and r...
RNA Bases Pairing Rules <ul><li>Adenine – Uracil </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosine – Guanine </li></ul>
Transcription = making RNA <ul><li>Copies info from DNA. </li></ul>
3 types of RNA <ul><li>mRNA= Messenger RNA </li></ul><ul><li>codon = 3 nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>carries “message” fro...
Comparing DNA to RNA <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER leaves nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Double Strand </li></ul><ul><li>...
Practice: ATTCGCCTTACG <ul><li>What would the complimentary strand be? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this DNA or RNA? </li></ul><ul...
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Dna and rna

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Dna and rna

  1. 1. DNA and RNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid “ the double helix” and Ribonucleic Acid
  2. 2. The Double Helix <ul><li>The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953 by scientists James Watson and Francis Crick. </li></ul><ul><li>Double Helix = “twisted ladder” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nucleotide <ul><li>Basic building block of DNA or RNA </li></ul><ul><li>DNA sugar is Deoxyribose, bases A,T,C,G </li></ul><ul><li>RNA sugar is Ribose, bases A,U,C,G </li></ul>
  4. 4. DNA Base Pairing Rules <ul><li>Adenine – Thymine </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosine – Guanine </li></ul>
  5. 5. DNA Replication <ul><li>DNA Helicase “unwinds” the helix. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Polymerase lays down new nucleotides (base pair rules). </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting in two new strands identical with one old and one new backbone each. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Oops! Remember? <ul><li>If a mistake is made in replication a MUTATION results. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are caught and repaired during proofreading (CDK and Cyclin “supervisors”). </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: DNA replication takes place during the S phase of the cell cycle (interphase) and has to happen before Cell Division can take place. </li></ul>
  7. 7. RNA Bases Pairing Rules <ul><li>Adenine – Uracil </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosine – Guanine </li></ul>
  8. 8. Transcription = making RNA <ul><li>Copies info from DNA. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3 types of RNA <ul><li>mRNA= Messenger RNA </li></ul><ul><li>codon = 3 nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>carries “message” from DNA </li></ul><ul><li>tRNA = Transfer RNA </li></ul><ul><li>anticodon = 3 nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>that pair with codon </li></ul><ul><li>rRNA = Ribosomal RNA </li></ul><ul><li>associates with proteins to form </li></ul><ul><li>ribosomes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Comparing DNA to RNA <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER leaves nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Double Strand </li></ul><ul><li>A-T, C-G </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>ONE KIND </li></ul><ul><li>Mistake = MUTATION! </li></ul><ul><li>“ original blueprints” </li></ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Made in Nucleolus </li></ul><ul><li>Can leave Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Single Strand </li></ul><ul><li>A-U, C-G </li></ul><ul><li>Ribose Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>3 KINDS </li></ul><ul><li>Codons/anitcodons </li></ul><ul><li>“ copy for work site” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Practice: ATTCGCCTTACG <ul><li>What would the complimentary strand be? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this DNA or RNA? </li></ul><ul><li>What would the transcribed RNA be? </li></ul>

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