ECOLOGYL E V E L S O F O R G AN I Z A T I O N AN D B I O M E S
5 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION• Biosphere• Ecosystems• Communities• Populations• Organisms• EXTRA Specific:• Cells grouped into tissues• Cells• Molecules.
BIOSPHERE• The broadest, most inclusive level of organization.• The thin volume of Earth and its atmosphere that supports life.• If the Earth were the size of an apple, the biosphere would only be as thick as the skin.• 1. True or False: All organisms are found within the Biosphere.
ECOSYSTEMS• Biosphere is composed of these smaller units.• Includes ALL of the organisms and the NON-LIVING environment found in a particular place.• 2. True or False: A pond is considered an ecosystem.• Name a nonliving factor.• Biotic – living factors• Abiotic – nonliving factors
COMMUNITIES• A community is all the interacting organisms living in an area.• Ecologist studying a community often focus on how species interact and how these interactions influence the nature of the community.• 3. True or False: The word community means the same thing in biology as is means in everyday life.
POPULATION• Includes all the members of a species that live in one place at one time.• Ex: Population of fish, birds, insects, etc.• 4. True or False: Populations located in the same area make up a community.
ORGANISM• The simplest level of organization in ecology.• A single member of a given species.• Research at this level concentrates on the adaptations that allow organisms to overcome the challenges of their environment.• More specific levels in study of biology include tissues, cells, and molecules.
TUNDRA• Cold, largest, northernmost biome, covers 1/5 of world’s land surface.• Few trees, permafrost – permanently frozen layer of soil under surface.• -26 to 12 degrees C (-14.8 to 53.6 degrees F)• Less 25 cm precipitation yearly.• 5. True or False: Tundra supports the GREATEST amount of Biodiversity.• http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/28112- assignment-discovery-the-tundra-biomes- video.htm
TAIGA• Located just south of the Tundra.• AKA: Borreal Forest, Coniferous Forest• Forest dominated by evergreen trees, plants adapted to long cold winters, moose, bears, wolves.• -10 to 14 degrees C (14 to 57.2 degrees F)• 35-75 cm average precipitation.• 6. Why do evergreens have needle-leaves?• http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/28108- assignment-discovery-taiga-biomes-video.htm
TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST• Trees lose all leaves in fall= deciduous.• Leaves are thin with large surface area.• Pronounced seasons.• Deer, foxes, raccoons, squirrels.• 6 to 28 degrees C (42.8 to 82.4 F)• 75-125 cm ave. precip.• 7. True or False: We live in a temperate deciduous forest.• http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/28109- assignment-discovery-temperate-forest-video.htm
TEMPERATE GRASSLAND• Prairie, interior of continents, about same latitude as TDF, less rainfall=no trees.• 8. Why less rainfall?• 0 to 25 degrees C (32 to 77 degrees F)• 25-75 cm ave precip.• Grasses and grazing animals.• Rich soil – farmland.• http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/28110- assignment-discovery-temperate-grassland-biomes- video.htm
DESERT• NOT hot all the time, cold at night!• Vegetation is sparse.• Animals, active at night.• Lizards, snakes, kit foxes.• 7 to 38 degrees C (44.6 to100.4 degrees F)• Less than 25 cm ave. precip.• 9. True or False: The Tundra is like a frozen Desert.• http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/28106- assignment-discovery-desert-biomes-video.htm
SAVANNAS• Tropical or subtropical grasslands• Alternating wet and dry seasons• Zebras, wildebeest, giraffes, gazelles.• Lions, leopards and cheetahs.• 16 to 34 degrees C (60.8 to 93.2 degrees F)• 75-150 cm ave. precip.• 10. True or False: There are more carnivores than herbivores living in the savanna.• http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/28107- assignment-discovery-savanna-biomes-video.htm
TROPICAL RAIN FOREST• Stable, year-round growing season• Abundant Rainfall• Most Productive Biome – 1/5 of known species.• 20 to 34 degrees C (68 to 93.2 degrees F)• 200 to 400 cm ave. precip.• Responsible for 28% of world’s oxygen turnover.• 11. True or False: The tropical rain forest produces 28% of the world’s oxygen.http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/30139- assignment-discovery-tropical-ecosystem-video.htmhttp://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/28111- assignment-discovery-the-tropic-biomes-video.htm