Anatomical terminology


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Anatomical terminology

  1. 1. Body Organization & Terminology
  2. 2.  Coronal (Frontal)Planes Divides the body into anterior/posterior parts  Transverse (Horizontal or Axial) Separates into both superior(upper)/inferior parts(lower)  Sagittal Divides the body into right and left portions.  MidSagittal (Median) Extends vertically. Divides the body into right and left halves
  3. 3. Anatomic Directional Terms
  4. 4. Body Regions
  5. 5. Anterior Regions of Body
  6. 6. Inferior to the thorax (chest) and superior to the hipbones?Abdominal RegionPortion of the upper limb between the elbow and wrist?Forearm (Antebrachium)Front of the elbowAntecubitalWhat is the depression on the anterior surface of the elbow?Antecubital fossaPortion of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow?Brachium, Brachial RegionArmpit = Axilla, Axillary RegionCheek = Buccal, Buccal RegionWrist = Carpus, Carpal RegionHead = Cephalic Region
  7. 7. Neck = Cervix, Cervical RegionFingers or Toes = Digits Thumb 1 Index Finger 2 Middle Finger 3 Ring Finger 4 Pinky 5Portion of the cranium overlying the frontal bone?Forehead, Frontal RegionBig toe = Great Toe, HalluxThe anterior region where a fold is created as the torso meets the thigh?Groin, Inguinal RegionSmall of the back = Lumbar RegionNaval = Umbilicus
  8. 8. Surrounds the nipple on the anterior thoraxMammary RegionChin = Mental Region (Chin is more commonly used)Portion of the face associated with the noseNasal RegionMouth = Oral CavityThe region of the face associated with the eyeOrbital RegionThe anterior portion of the hand formed by the metacarpalsPalmAnterior portion of the fingers = Palmar AspectThe region overlying the kneecapPatellar RegionThumb = Pollex (commonly called thumb or first digit)
  9. 9. The region associated with the pelvisPelvic RegionThe region between the pubic symphysis, the coccyx, and the ischial tuberosities?Perineum, Perineal RegionFoot = Pes (commonly called the foot)Superior portion of the foot = Dorsum, Dorsal RegionSole of the foot = Plantar SurfaceArea overlying the pubic bones = Pubic RegionArea superficial to the shoulder blade = Scapular RegionAnterior thoracic region on the midline = Sternal regionChest = Thoracic Region
  10. 10. Posterior Regions of Body
  11. 11. Dorsum of the body from the base of the neck to the end of the spine?Back, Dorsum, Dorsal RegionPortion of the lower limb from the hip to the knee?Thigh, Femoral RegionPortion of the lower limb from the knee to the ankle?Leg or Crural RegionRegion of the pelvis associated with the large, posterior, hip muscles?Buttocks, Gluteal RegionThe region at the posterior base of the headOccipital RegionPosterior portion of the fingers = Dorsum, Dorsal AspectArea on the posterior aspect of the knee = Popliteal RegionArea superficial to the sacrum = Sacral RegionBraincase = Cranium, Cranial Region
  12. 12. The body is split up into two main areas, the axialand appendicular regions. The axial region refers to the head, vertebral column and trunk.
  13. 13. The appendicular region refers to the pelvic girdles and the upper and lower limbs. Each area is further divided into descriptive regions.
  14. 14. Body Cavities
  15. 15. Posterior (Dorsal) Aspect The small cavity at the back of the body which houses the Cranial and Vertebral Cavities.Cranial Cavity (upper) (Holds the brain) Bounded by the skull Contains Brain and Meninges.Vertebral Canal (lower) Bounded by vertebral column, intervertebral discs and surrounding ligaments. Contains Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerve Roots.
  16. 16. Ventral Cavity Arises from a space called the coelom that forms during embryonic developmentThoracic Cavity (Large cavity above diaphragm) Bound Laterally by the ribs (covered by costal pleura) and the diaphragm inferiorly (covered by diaphragmatic pleura) Contains Heart, Lungs, Trachea, Oesophagus, Large Blood Vessels, and Nerves.Abdominal Cavity (Large cavity below diaphragm) Contains gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidneys and adrenal glands. Bound superiorly by the diaphragm, laterally by the body wall, and inferiorly by the pelvic cavity.
  17. 17. Ventral CavityPelvic Cavity (Small cavity below the brim of the pelvis) Bounded superiorly by the abdominal cavity, posteriorly by the sacrum, and laterally by the pelvis. Contains urinary bladder, genitals, sigmoid colon and rectum.
  18. 18. Body MembranesMembrane that lines the ventral cavitySerous membranes Layer that adheres to the internal surface of the body wall Parietal Layer Layer that adheres to the external surface of the internal organs Visceral Layer Space between the two layers lining the ventral cavity Serous Cavity (Lubrication) Space within the thoracic cavity MediastinumSerous membrane that surrounds the heartPericardium
  19. 19. What portion forms the sac surrounding the heart? Parietal Pericardium What portion forms the heart’s external surface? Visceral Pericardium Space that surrounds the heart Pericardial CavitySerous membrane associated with the lungs, what portion adheres to the internal thoracic wall?Pleural Membrane What portion adheres to the internal thoracic wall? Parietal Pleura What portion adheres directly to the lungs? Visceral Pleura Space between the lungs and the thoracic wall Pleural Cavity
  20. 20. Membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavityPeritoneum Portion of the membrane that lines the internal walls of the cavity Parietal Peritoneum Portion of the membrane that ensheathes the external surfaces of most digestive organs Visceral Peritoneum Space that lies between the two layers of the membrane lining this cavity Peritoneal Cavity
  21. 21. Four Quadrants
  22. 22. Nine Regions of Abdomen
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