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Reading and Writing in the Content Areas

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  1. 1. The Writing Journey Exploring Writing And Making Student Eager to Write Alay sa Bayan Program Magdalena & Majayjay, Laguna Department of Education, Region IV-A Calabarzon June 7-8, 2010
  2. 2. Seminar-Workshop Outline <ul><li>The Writing Process </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>* Text Structures and Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>* Selecting Books for Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Writing Output </li></ul>
  3. 3. How are you today? <ul><li>In a piece of paper, write the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul><ul><li>Grade Level Taught </li></ul>
  4. 4. Think about… <ul><li>Your favorite telenovela / TV Show </li></ul><ul><li>The last book you have read </li></ul><ul><li>The recent movie you saw </li></ul><ul><li>Your most memorable teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Something good that happened to you yesterday </li></ul>
  5. 5. Group Roles <ul><li>Assign roles in the group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scribe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Keeper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DA (Devil’s Advocate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of a group name and come up with a group cheer </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. My Favorite Things <ul><li>I like the smell of a newly sharpened pencil. It reminds me of leaves, grass and trees. When it’s small and stubby, I keep and collect it as homage to the tree where it came from. </li></ul>
  7. 7. My Favorite Things <ul><li>I like wearing sneakers. They’re comfortable and sturdy. I wear my white sneakers when I travel to far away places. </li></ul>
  8. 8. My Favorite Things <ul><li>I love going to the beach. I enjoy walking by the sea side at sunrise or sunset to look for treasures, precious and mundane, which the sea has washed to the shore. This is a starfish I found on the beach one summer day. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Raising Expectations <ul><li>What do you ask the students to write? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you want the students to learn how to write them? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are you having difficulty in? </li></ul>
  10. 10. How do children write? <ul><li>Children view writing as a requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>Children get writing ideas from real life experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are capable of using their imagination to be able to write. </li></ul><ul><li>Children could get lost and stumped before and during writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Children mentally jump, skip, plod and turn during writing. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How do children write? Children must understand that writing is a process. Children need writing companions.
  12. 12. On Writing <ul><li>Writing helps in the construction of new meaning from old and fresh experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing is mind traveling; destination unknown. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Writing Process <ul><li>Four steps in the writing process: Prewriting; </li></ul><ul><li>Writing the First Draft; </li></ul><ul><li>Revising; </li></ul><ul><li>Editing and Proofreading </li></ul>
  14. 14. Prewriting <ul><li>Find a meaningful idea to write about that meets the requirements and answers the instructions of the assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop your idea through the use of one or two prewriting strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Review the main idea and the sub-ideas that were generated from prewriting . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Prewriting <ul><li>If this leads you to a dead end, go back and retrace your steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus and begin writing . </li></ul>
  16. 16. When writing… <ul><li>Write as you would speak </li></ul><ul><li>Know your subject </li></ul><ul><li>Be honest </li></ul><ul><li>Be personally involve with your writing (sincerity) </li></ul><ul><li>Be at ease (relax) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Revising, Editing & Proofreading <ul><li>Commit yourself to improve your written output. </li></ul><ul><li>Review and revise the content first. </li></ul><ul><li>Review your writing, opening and closing paragraphs, style, words, sentences and paragraphs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reread your revision. </li></ul><ul><li>Have someone with “fresh eyes” to read your writing. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Revising On The Run <ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t add any new information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove unnecessary facts and details </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Find the best possible information and go with it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put the pieces in the best possible order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do what little rewriting is necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- Peter Elbow </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Prewriting Strategies <ul><li>Free Writing – writing down thoughts in random on the topic or idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Clustering – making a semantic web or concept map on the topic or idea. </li></ul><ul><li>5 Ws and 1 H – identify basic information on the topic or idea by asking Who, What, Where, When and Why questions. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Prewriting Strategies <ul><ul><ul><li>Cubing – Do a variation of free writing by writing the following instructions on a cube: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe it – What do you see, hear, feel, smell, taste…? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare it – What is it like? What is it different from? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associate it – What connections between this and something else come to mind? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze it – What parts does it have? How do they work? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apply it – What can you do with it? How can you use it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Argue for or against it – may be serious or humorous </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Prewriting Activities <ul><li>1. Outlining – identifying the main idea, topic sentences and supporting details following a structure (Introduction, Content, Conclusion) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic Outline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence Outline </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Offbeat Questions – craft questions about the topic or idea that is out of the box </li></ul><ul><li>Person – What type of food and beverage is he/she like? </li></ul><ul><li>Place – Where does this place go for advice? </li></ul><ul><li>Object – What does this object look like when standing upside down? </li></ul><ul><li>Issue or Event – What is inside its refrigerator? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Talking Points on Writing <ul><li>Learning to write and writing to learn </li></ul><ul><li>It is a “virtuous” cycle (Walker, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Involve students in reading and writing activities in the content areas . </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Reading and Writing Love Team <ul><ul><ul><li>Reading and writing are sparing partners. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good readers are good writers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To be very good at writing, one needs to ceaselessly read. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Reading and Writing Love Team <ul><li>Students benefit from reading and writing activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develop skills and resources to understand content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>practice techniques that aid in retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>write better </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Reading and writing activities in the content areas foster student centered learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles between teacher and student undergo transformation . </li></ul>
  28. 28. What will students read? <ul><li>Storybooks, works of fiction, literary genres </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers and magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Menus, letters, invitations, announcements </li></ul><ul><li>Recipes, handbooks, manuals </li></ul><ul><li>Leaflets, brochures, directories </li></ul><ul><li>Tickets, movie pass, reciepts </li></ul><ul><li>Billboards, posters, signs </li></ul>
  29. 29. What will students write? <ul><li>Expressive Writing - diaries, journals, stories, poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Product Writing - reports, essays, non-fiction and information materials </li></ul>
  30. 30. Text Structures & Organization <ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison and Contrast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narration / Sequence of Events </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Students encounter different text structures and organizations when reading a variety of materials in the content areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Different text structures and organizations require a reading ‘stance’. </li></ul><ul><li>Different text structures and organizations call for different writing activities. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Assessing and Evaluating Writing <ul><li>A rubric is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an assessment tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a scoring guide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a guide for students and teachers before an assignment begins </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. How to create a rubric? <ul><li>Determine concepts and learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the criteria to be evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a grid where concepts, criteria and rating are included </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the rubric to students </li></ul><ul><li>Use the rubric in evaluating the product, assignment or project </li></ul>
  34. 34. When writing is good <ul><li>Content that is interesting and important </li></ul><ul><li>Craft - How content was rendered or presented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organization and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>voice and style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sentence fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>writing conventions (spelling, punctuation, grammar </li></ul></ul>