Patrology II: Early Confessions of Faith & The Apostolic Fathers
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Patrology II: Early Confessions of Faith & The Apostolic Fathers

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Patrology II: Early Confessions of Faith & The Apostolic Fathers

Patrology II: Early Confessions of Faith & The Apostolic Fathers

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  • 1. PatrologyPatrology Talk 2: Early Confessions of Faith & TheTalk 2: Early Confessions of Faith & The Apostolic FathersApostolic Fathers 1Cor 4:151Cor 4:15 “For although you have ten thousand“For although you have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet you have not many fathers.instructors in Christ, yet you have not many fathers. For in Christ Jesus, through the Gospel, I haveFor in Christ Jesus, through the Gospel, I have begotten you.”begotten you.” Pre Servants Program 2009-2010Pre Servants Program 2009-2010 Ehab RoufailEhab Roufail
  • 2. OutlineOutline • Confessions of FaithConfessions of Faith • The DidacheThe Didache • The Apostles’ CreedThe Apostles’ Creed
  • 3. Early Confessions of FaithEarly Confessions of Faith From the beginning the Church has presented faith by means of a summarised statement called a confession. This is a biblical term meaning to proclaim one’s faith in God. The Christian faith is a life in which the believer experiences personally together with his brothers, through the unity with the Father in the Son by the work of the Holy Spirit. This life cannot be defined or limited by a certain creed, nevertheless there is a necessity for those who accept faith to proclaim this faith in a brief simple form to show there membership in the Body of Christ. The early church recognised this and we see this in the Baptismal confession and other writings
  • 4. Apostolic Father – Ignatius of AntiochApostolic Father – Ignatius of Antioch • St. Ignatius was Bishop of AntiochSt. Ignatius was Bishop of Antioch after Saint Peter.after Saint Peter. • It is reported that St.Peter himselfIt is reported that St.Peter himself appointed Ignatius to the see ofappointed Ignatius to the see of Antioch.Antioch. • Besides his Latin name, Ignatius, heBesides his Latin name, Ignatius, he also called himself Theophorus (also called himself Theophorus ("God"God Bearer"Bearer"), and tradition says he was), and tradition says he was one of the children Jesus took in Hisone of the children Jesus took in His arms and blessed.arms and blessed. • St. Ignatius is one of the ApostolicSt. Ignatius is one of the Apostolic Fathers (the earliest authoritativeFathers (the earliest authoritative group of the Church Fathers).group of the Church Fathers).
  • 5. Ignatius of Antioch - MartyrdomIgnatius of Antioch - Martyrdom Epistles attributed to St. Ignatius report hisEpistles attributed to St. Ignatius report his arrest by the authorities and travel to Rome:arrest by the authorities and travel to Rome: • ““From Syria even to Rome I fight with wildFrom Syria even to Rome I fight with wild beasts, by land and sea, by night and bybeasts, by land and sea, by night and by day, being bound amidst ten leopards, evenday, being bound amidst ten leopards, even a company of soldiers, who only grow worsea company of soldiers, who only grow worse when they are kindly treated. —when they are kindly treated. —Ignatius toIgnatius to the Romansthe Romans, 5., 5.””Along the route he wrote sixAlong the route he wrote six letters to the churches in the region and oneletters to the churches in the region and one to a fellow bishop.to a fellow bishop. • He was sentenced to die in the Coliseum, toHe was sentenced to die in the Coliseum, to be eaten by lions.be eaten by lions. • In hisIn his ChronicleChronicle, Eusebius gives the date of, Eusebius gives the date of his death 108 AD.his death 108 AD. • His body lies entombed under St. Peter'sHis body lies entombed under St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.Basilica in Rome.
  • 6. Early ConfessionsEarly Confessions Ignatius of Antioch – Letter to the TralliansIgnatius of Antioch – Letter to the Trallians Chapter 9. Reference to the history of ChristChapter 9. Reference to the history of Christ Close your ears, therefore, when any one speaks toClose your ears, therefore, when any one speaks to you at variance with Jesus Christ, who wasyou at variance with Jesus Christ, who was descended from David, and was also of Mary; whodescended from David, and was also of Mary; who was truly born, and ate and drank. He was trulywas truly born, and ate and drank. He was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate; He was trulypersecuted under Pontius Pilate; He was truly crucified, and [truly] died, in the sight of beings incrucified, and [truly] died, in the sight of beings in heaven, and on earth, and under the earth. He washeaven, and on earth, and under the earth. He was also truly raised from the dead, His Fatheralso truly raised from the dead, His Father quickening Him, even as after the same manner Hisquickening Him, even as after the same manner His Father will so raise up us who believe in Him byFather will so raise up us who believe in Him by Christ Jesus, apart from whom we do not possessChrist Jesus, apart from whom we do not possess the true life.the true life.
  • 7. Early ConfessionsEarly Confessions Ignatius of Antioch – Letter to the MagnesiansIgnatius of Antioch – Letter to the Magnesians Chapter 13. Be established in faith and unityChapter 13. Be established in faith and unity Study, therefore, to be established in the doctrines ofStudy, therefore, to be established in the doctrines of the Lord and the apostles, that so all things,the Lord and the apostles, that so all things, whatsoever you do, may prosper both in the fleshwhatsoever you do, may prosper both in the flesh and spirit; in faith and love; in the Son, and in theand spirit; in faith and love; in the Son, and in the Father, and in the Spirit;Father, and in the Spirit;
  • 8. Apologist – IrenaeusApologist – Irenaeus • Bishop of Lugdunum inBishop of Lugdunum in GaulGaul (now(now LyonLyon,, FranceFrance)) • Bishop and MartyrBishop and Martyr • BornBorn 2nd century2nd century SmyrnaSmyrna inin Asia MinorAsia Minor (modern-day İzmir,(modern-day İzmir, Turkey)Turkey) • Known for his refutation againstKnown for his refutation against the heresy of Gnosticismthe heresy of Gnosticism • DiedDied 202 Lugdunum in Gaul202 Lugdunum in Gaul (modern-day Lyon, France)(modern-day Lyon, France)
  • 9. Early Confessions -Early Confessions - IrenaeusIrenaeus Iranaeus of Lyons –Iranaeus of Lyons – gives a rule of faith, one of the longer ones, ingives a rule of faith, one of the longer ones, in Against HeresiesAgainst Heresies I:10:1.I:10:1. The translation is fromThe translation is from The Ante-Nicene FathersThe Ante-Nicene Fathers, volume I., volume I. The Church, though dispersed through the whole world, even toThe Church, though dispersed through the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and theirthe ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and their disciples this faith:disciples this faith: [She believes] in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of[She believes] in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them.heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them. And in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God, who becameAnd in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God, who became incarnate for our salvationincarnate for our salvation And in the Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets theAnd in the Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets the dispensations of God, and the advents, and the birth from adispensations of God, and the advents, and the birth from a virgin, and the passion, and the resurrection from the dead, andvirgin, and the passion, and the resurrection from the dead, and the ascension into heaven in the flesh of the beloved Christthe ascension into heaven in the flesh of the beloved Christ Jesus, our Lord.Jesus, our Lord.
  • 10. Early Confessions -Early Confessions - IrenaeusIrenaeus And [the Holy Spirit proclaimed] His [future] manifestation fromAnd [the Holy Spirit proclaimed] His [future] manifestation from heaven in the glory of the Father "to gather all things in one,"heaven in the glory of the Father "to gather all things in one," and to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race, in orderand to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race, in order that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Saviour, and King,that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Saviour, and King, according to the will of the invisible Father, "every knee shouldaccording to the will of the invisible Father, "every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things underbow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth, and that every tongue should confess" to Him, andthe earth, and that every tongue should confess" to Him, and that He should execute just judgment towards all.that He should execute just judgment towards all. [So] that He may send "spiritual wickednesses," and the angels[So] that He may send "spiritual wickednesses," and the angels who transgressed and became apostates, together with thewho transgressed and became apostates, together with the ungodly, and unrighteous, and wicked, and profane amongungodly, and unrighteous, and wicked, and profane among men, into everlasting fire; but may, in the exercise of His grace,men, into everlasting fire; but may, in the exercise of His grace, confer immortality on the righteous, and holy, and those whoconfer immortality on the righteous, and holy, and those who have kept His commandments, and have persevered in Hishave kept His commandments, and have persevered in His love, some from the beginning [of their Christian course], andlove, some from the beginning [of their Christian course], and others from [the date of] their repentance, and may surroundothers from [the date of] their repentance, and may surround them with everlasting glory.them with everlasting glory.
  • 11. Apostolic Father – St. Clement of RomeApostolic Father – St. Clement of Rome • Bishop of Rome – Consecrated by St. PeterBishop of Rome – Consecrated by St. Peter • Bishop and MartyrBishop and Martyr • Saint Clement of Rome is commemorated in the SynaxariumSaint Clement of Rome is commemorated in the Synaxarium on the 29on the 29thth HatourHatour • It is said that he has suffered martyrdom in AD 100 during theIt is said that he has suffered martyrdom in AD 100 during the reign of Emperor Trajan (98-117). He was martyred by tyingreign of Emperor Trajan (98-117). He was martyred by tying his neck to an anchor and casting him into the sea.his neck to an anchor and casting him into the sea. • Was born in Rome to an honorable father whose name wasWas born in Rome to an honorable father whose name was Fostinus; who was a member of the Roman Senate and thatFostinus; who was a member of the Roman Senate and that his father educated him and taught him Greek literature.his father educated him and taught him Greek literature.
  • 12. Apostolic Father – St. Clement of RomeApostolic Father – St. Clement of Rome 1 Clement: Chapter 24. God Continually Shows Us in Nature1 Clement: Chapter 24. God Continually Shows Us in Nature that There Will Be a Resurrection.that There Will Be a Resurrection. Let us consider, beloved, how the Lord continually proves to usLet us consider, beloved, how the Lord continually proves to us that there shall be a future resurrection, of which He hasthat there shall be a future resurrection, of which He has rendered the Lord Jesus Christ the first-fruits by raising Himrendered the Lord Jesus Christ the first-fruits by raising Him from the dead.from the dead. Let us contemplate, beloved, the resurrection which is at allLet us contemplate, beloved, the resurrection which is at all times taking place. Day and night declare to us a resurrection.times taking place. Day and night declare to us a resurrection. The night sinks to sleep, and the day arises; the day [again]The night sinks to sleep, and the day arises; the day [again] departs, and the night comes on. Let us behold the fruits [of thedeparts, and the night comes on. Let us behold the fruits [of the earth], how the sowing of grain takes place. The sower Luke 8:5earth], how the sowing of grain takes place. The sower Luke 8:5 goes forth, and casts it into the ground, and the seed being thusgoes forth, and casts it into the ground, and the seed being thus scattered, though dry and naked when it fell upon the earth, isscattered, though dry and naked when it fell upon the earth, is gradually dissolved. Then out of its dissolution the mighty powergradually dissolved. Then out of its dissolution the mighty power of the providence of the Lord raises it up again, and from oneof the providence of the Lord raises it up again, and from one seed many arise and bring forth fruit.seed many arise and bring forth fruit.
  • 13. The Didache – Teaching of the ApostlesThe Didache – Teaching of the Apostles The Didache – The Teachings of the apostlesThe Didache – The Teachings of the apostles Its ImportanceIts Importance:: The Didache is, in all probability, the oldestThe Didache is, in all probability, the oldest surviving piece of non-canonical literature. It is not so much asurviving piece of non-canonical literature. It is not so much a letter as a handbook for new Christian converts, consisting ofletter as a handbook for new Christian converts, consisting of instructions derived directly from the teachings of Jesus.instructions derived directly from the teachings of Jesus. • The book can be divided into three sections.The book can be divided into three sections. – The first six chapters consist of Christian lessons;The first six chapters consist of Christian lessons; – The next four give descriptions of the Christian ceremonies, includingThe next four give descriptions of the Christian ceremonies, including baptism, fasting and communion;baptism, fasting and communion; – The last six outline the church organization.The last six outline the church organization. Author:Author: The Didache claims to have been authored by the twelveThe Didache claims to have been authored by the twelve apostles. While this is unlikely, similarities to the Apostolicapostles. While this is unlikely, similarities to the Apostolic Decree are apparent. Most scholars agree that the work, in itsDecree are apparent. Most scholars agree that the work, in its earliest form, may have circulated as early as the 60's C.E.,earliest form, may have circulated as early as the 60's C.E., though additions and modifications may have taken place wellthough additions and modifications may have taken place well into the third century.into the third century.
  • 14. Baptismal confession – The DidacheBaptismal confession – The Didache Didache:Chapter 7. Concerning Baptism.Didache:Chapter 7. Concerning Baptism. AndAnd concerning baptism, baptize this way: Having first saidconcerning baptism, baptize this way: Having first said all these things, baptize into the name of the Father,all these things, baptize into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, in living water.and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, in living water. But if you have no living water, baptize into otherBut if you have no living water, baptize into other water; and if you cannot do so in cold water, do so inwater; and if you cannot do so in cold water, do so in warm.warm. But if you have neither, pour out water three timesBut if you have neither, pour out water three times upon the head into the name of Father and Son andupon the head into the name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit.Holy Spirit. But before the baptism let the baptizer fast, and theBut before the baptism let the baptizer fast, and the baptized, and whoever else can; but you shall orderbaptized, and whoever else can; but you shall order the baptized to fast one or two days before.the baptized to fast one or two days before.
  • 15. Apostles CreedApostles Creed 1.1. I believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven andI believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth.earth. 2.2. I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord.I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord. 3.3. He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and bornHe was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary.of the Virgin Mary. 4.4. He suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, andHe suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried.was buried. 5.5. He descended into hell. On the third day he rose again.He descended into hell. On the third day he rose again. 6.6. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand ofHe ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father.the Father. 7.7. He will come again to judge the living and the dead.He will come again to judge the living and the dead. 8.8. I believe in the Holy Spirit,I believe in the Holy Spirit, 9.9. the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints,the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, 10.10.the forgiveness of sins,the forgiveness of sins, 11.11.the resurrection of the body,the resurrection of the body, 12.12.and life everlasting.and life everlasting. Amen.Amen.
  • 16. Apostles CreedApostles Creed A legend which goes back to the 4A legend which goes back to the 4thth Century tellsCentury tells how the Twelve, before scattering, eachhow the Twelve, before scattering, each formulated one of the twelve articles whichformulated one of the twelve articles which made up this early creed.made up this early creed. What we found out later is that this creed was setWhat we found out later is that this creed was set after the apostolic age, but it was calledafter the apostolic age, but it was called apostolic because all its articles express theapostolic because all its articles express the faith of the Apostles.faith of the Apostles.