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  • 1. Chapter 1Chapter 1 An Overview of Community Corrections:An Overview of Community Corrections: Goals & Evidence-Based PracticesGoals & Evidence-Based Practices
  • 2.  U.S. crime control policies over last three decades have led to a steady increase of convicted offenders in the correctional system  Approximately 7 million people, about 3% of the total adult population, are currently under some form of correctional supervision  Recent economic troubles causing states to reduce their correctional population and shift resources away from prisons to community corrections
  • 3.  Any sanctions in which offenders serve a portion of or their entire sentence in the community  Seek to repair the harm the offender caused the victim or the community and to reduce the risk of re-offending in the future  Can be imposed either pre or post- adjudication of offender’s guilt
  • 4.  Probation  Intensive supervision probation  Restitution & fines  Community service  Substance abuse treatment  Day reporting  House arrest & electronic monitoring  Halfway houses  Boot camps  Prisons and jails
  • 5.  Most common form of community supervision  The release of a convicted offender under court imposed conditions for a specified period during which the court retains authority to modify the conditions or resentence the offender if they violate the conditions  Most other community sanctions are programs or conditions of probation
  • 6.  As of 2010, 4.2 million offenders were on probation, and over 819,000 on parole  2.4 million offenders were incarcerated in jails & prisons
  • 7.  The primary sentencing philosophy; parole boards determined readiness for release  Concerns raised in the 1970’s regarding the effectiveness of rehabilitation and fairness of indeterminate sentencing  Robert Martinson in 1974, concluded that “with few and isolated exceptions, the rehabilitative efforts that have been reported so far had no appreciable effect on recidivism.”  The American Friends Service Committee urged repeal of indeterminate sentencing laws in 1976 so that offenders convicted of similar crimes would serve roughly equal terms in prison
  • 8.  In 1979, David Fogel proposed determinate sentencing in “. . . We Are the Living Proof . . .”: The Justice Model for Corrections Sentencing.”  Fogel urged limiting sentencing & parole discretion, abolish parole boards, & flat-time sentences for each offender category  Maine was the first state in 1975 to adopt determinate sentencing
  • 9.  Mandatory minimums for certain types of offenders  Truth in sentencing requires offenders serve at least 85% of sentence  Three strikes laws for third felony convictions  Sentencing guidelines for judges to follow when sentencing
  • 10.  A matrix for a judge to use based on the offender’s prior criminal record & the current conviction  Some are suggestive; others are mandatory  Proponents contend guidelines decrease judicial disparity & potential for discrimination  Federal sentencing guidelines have been revised to allow judges to exercise more discretion  Many states use a mix of indeterminate and determinate sentencing 
  • 11.  Correctional policy shifts between what we can afford, changes in public perception, & what is important to vocal constituents  Maruna & King (2008) note a shift away from expert- driven policy to policy based on emotion and politics, with public opinion influenced by biased, sensationalist media reports about crime and criminal justice  Consequently, the public is not well informed
  • 12.  Convincing the public that people are redeemable if given the tools & means to change  Experts suggest the media must present broader, more accurate view & not concentrate on atypical cases  Informing the public about diverse sentencing options with adequate information
  • 13.  Correctional funding is driven by public tax dollars  Incarceration is far more costly than community supervision – growing consensus that prison should be reserved for most dangerous offenders & community options expanded  About $0.18 of every correctional dollar goes to community corrections to supervise more than 70% of all people under correctional supervision
  • 14. Legislators and correctional administrators have considered a variety of options: • Decriminalizing lower level violent & drug felony offenses to Class A misdemeanors • Repealing mandatory minimums • Using more community graduated sanctions • Increasing parole rates • Changing probation & parole policies for responding to violations • Closing existing housing units within a prison or closing existing prisons altogether
  • 15.  Discretion in the criminal justice system begins with victims & law enforcement  Community corrections plays pivotal role at three major decision points that follow arrest: bail, sentencing, and reentry
  • 16.  Following arrest, defendants may be released on their own recognizance or required to post bail  Pretrial supervision is correctional supervision of a defendant who is not convicted and… • Accounts for defendant’s whereabouts • Allows defendant to prepare for upcoming court appearances • Allows defendant to continue working • Keeps bed space open in jail for defendants who are not released
  • 17.  Vast majority of offenders can be punished in the community  Intermediate sanctions offer graduated levels of supervision  A full range of sentencing options gives judges latitude to select punishments that fit the crime and the offender
  • 18.  The President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (1967) introduced the term reintegration  Today’s term is reentry  95 - 97% of prisoners will one day be released  Reentry programs help offenders return safely to the community as law-abiding citizens  Prisoner reentry applies to prisoners who are released on mandatory statutes and those released on parole
  • 19.  Minimum-security institutional settings for imprisoned offenders who & are nearing release  Considered to be more treatment oriented than prison  Examples: halfway houses, boot camps, prison in- prison therapeutic communities
  • 20.  The discretionary conditional & supervised release of an offender prior to the expiration of their sentence  Technical differences exist between probation & parole, but both involve supervision in the community
  • 21.  Goals of Community Corrections: • Punish offenders • Protect the public • Address victim’s needs • Change offender’s attitudes & behaviors  Theories Behind the Goals: • Principles of effective correctional intervention • Restorative justice • Shaming
  • 22.  Major criticism of traditional probation & parole is its failure to protect the public from future crime  This criticism can be addressed in several ways: • Use appropriate risk assessment to select right offenders for right programs • Offender supervision should include proper monitoring of compliance with conditions • Take violations of supervised conditions seriously
  • 23.  Goal of correctional programming: to address inadequacies that contribute to offender’s criminal behavior  Typical problems include: drug or alcohol addiction, lack of emotional control, inadequate education or vocational training, lack of parenting skills, mental illness & developmental disabilities
  • 24.  Principles of effective correctional intervention include: • Early risk assessments • Focus on high risk offenders • Use of cognitive-behavioral treatment for at least 3-9 months • Treatment interventions linked to needs related to criminal behavior
  • 25.  Victim-centered sanctions that emphasize offender responsibility to repair the injustice caused to their victims and community  Techniques include community boards, mediation, offender-victim meetings  Most effective for nonviolent crimes, juvenile crimes or first-time adult offenders  Less likely at this time to be used for violent crimes
  • 26.  Briefly stigmatize offender publicly  To be effective, shaming must have 5 conditions: • Offender must belong to an identifiable group • The form of shaming must be sufficient to compromise the person’s social standing in the group • The punishment must be communicated to the community • The offender must fear being shunned • Normally, there must be a method for the offender to regain social status
  • 27.  EBP: using current best practices or interventions for which there is consistent & solid scientific evidence of success  Assessment shows that practices work to meet intended outcomes & are open to periodic measurement, evaluation, & dissemination of practices & interventions  EBP is not based on intuition, speculation, anecdotal evidence, or tradition (e.g., “that’s the way we’ve always done it around here”)  Research methodology must be sophisticated & rigorous enough to determine what does and does not work
  • 28.  The rate of recidivism is the most common form of measuring program or treatment effectiveness  Recidivism is the return to criminal behavior, measured by: • Rearrest • Reconviction • Reincarceration  Different studies identify recidivism differently, making comparisons of program effectiveness difficult
  • 29.  Effectiveness can also be measured by: • Amount of restitution collected • Number of offenders employed • Amount of fines and fees collected • Number of community service hours • Number of probationers enrolled in school • Number of drug-free days • Impact on reduction of institutional crowding