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Kidombo harriet   cross-cutting issues in ict usage among male and female teachers...elearning 2010 [1]
 

Kidombo harriet cross-cutting issues in ict usage among male and female teachers...elearning 2010 [1]

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    Kidombo harriet   cross-cutting issues in ict usage among male and female teachers...elearning 2010 [1] Kidombo harriet cross-cutting issues in ict usage among male and female teachers...elearning 2010 [1] Presentation Transcript

    • FACTORS INFLUENCING ICT USAGE AMONG MALE AND FEMALE TEACHERS IN KENYA AND UGANDA Dr. Harriet J. Kidombo, School of Continuing and Distance Education, University of Nairobi, Kenya
    • Introduction
      • Paper analyzes the relationship between the use of ICT, measured in number of hours spent on computer per week among male and female teachers in selected schools in Kenya and Uganda.
      • The independent variables are age , subject taught, continuing professional training and socio-cultural factors and location of the institution.
    • Introduction…….
      • The paper hinges on the premise that there are gender differences in the use of ICT among teachers.
      • These differences are reflected in: personal characteristics, roles, responsibilities, access to resources, constraints, opportunities, needs, perceptions, views, etc.”
    • Objectives of the study
      • Establish the relationship between age and ICT usage among male and female teachers
      • Examine the influence of the subject taught and ICT usage among male and female teachers
      • Explore the relationship between continuing professional training and ICT usage among male and female teachers
      • Assess the moderating effect of socio-cultural factors and location of the School on ICT usage among male and female teachers
    • Conceptual framework Teacher’s Age Subject of teaching Continuing professional development ICT Usage Socio-cultural factors Location of the institution
    • Methodology
      • Mixed method approach
      • Qualitative and quantitative approaches
      • Selection of subjects based on a multi-case approach as opposed to a single case study
      • Involved twenty one (21) educational institutions in Kenya and Uganda
      • The target population was male and female teachers.
    • Methodology…..cont.
      • 9 primary schools
      • 9 secondary schools
      • 3 teacher training institutions
      • 952 teachers
      • 462 male teachers
      • 490 female teachers
    • Data collection instruments
      • semi directed interviews
      • focus group discussions
      • Audio and video tapes, photographs
      • Document analysis
      • questionnaires
    • Findings
      • quantitative analysis, descriptive analysis of data
        • presented in percentages
      • Qualitative analysis,
        • presented in narratives guided by the research questions
    • ICT Usage
      • Measured in:
          • hours of ICT use per week by teachers for academic purposes
      • Average ICT use in hours per week
        • Males = 8.70 hrs out of 40 hours working hours per week
        • Females = 7.48 hrs out of 40 working hours per week
    •  
    •  
    • Age
      • Younger male and female teachers use ICT more than older teachers
          • have more experience with computers due to email, social networking like Face book etc.
          • Are already regular users of ICT
          • Have greater confidence in using ICT
          • Perceive it to be useful for their personal
          • work and for their teaching and
          • Have plans to extend the use of ICT further in the
          • future, e.g. taking up new careers
    • Age……cont.
      • Collegiality among computer-using teachers encourage more use
      • Recent graduates from Teacher Training Colleges are taught computer literacy as part of curriculum
        • [Older teachers (> 20 years experience) or BbC (Born before Computers) suffer from technophobia]
      • Among older teachers, male teachers use ICT more than female teachers as majority teach science subjects, mathematics and technical subjects
    • Age…..cont.
      • ‘ the fearful’ category represent usually older teachers for whom ICT is generally a threat and the cause of much anxiety.
      • They represent about 50% of all teachers.
    • Extent of ICT use in various subjects
      • Percentage responses from the institutions
      Subject Always some of the time Rarely never Languages none 80% 5% 15% Humanities none 50% 30% 20% Mathematics none 75% 10% 15% Sciences none 80% 10% 10% Technical subjects 90% 10% none none Computer studies 100% none none none
    •  
    • ICT Use in various subjects
      • ICT is mostly used in teaching
        • Languages,
        • Technical,
        • Science and mathematics
        • Computer studies
      • Least used in
        • Humanities subjects such as history, geography and social studies
    • ICT use in various subjects…..cont.
      • National gender ratio of mathematics and science teachers is about 1:4 in Kenya and Uganda
        • [ University admissions in the sciences are usually approx. 25% female in the science and technical subjects]
      • Since ICT is used more in the sciences than in the humanities, hence male teachers use ICT more than female teachers for academic purposes.
    • ICT use in various subjects…..cont.
      • Male teachers receive training from suppliers of teaching software like Cyber Schools and Computers For Schools Kenya
    • Continuing Professional Training
      • Kenya – Male teachers with professional training are 40% while females are 31.69%,
      • Uganda – Male teachers with professional training are 58.56%, while females are 41.14%
      • Total for both countries is Males= 47%
      • Total females is = 40%
      • Shows more male teachers have received professional training than female teachers
    •  
    • Discussion
      • The socio-cultural and economic context reflects differential use of ICTs by men and women
        • Different roles for males and females in society
        • Females have triple role of domestic, productive and community responsibilities, hence longer workdays
        • Time limitations due to dual roles
        • Misconceptions that women are less suited to technology hence attitude problems leading to lack of interest
    • Discussion……
        • Limited disposable income by female teachers
        • Differentials arise from structural gender inequalities in society
        • Unequal power relations in society
    • Discussion……
      • Geographical location of institution influences use
      • of ICT in several ways
      • Endemic challenges of rural schools affect both male and female teachers in the same way
        • infrastructure
        • connectivity
    • Conclusions
      • It is apparent that structural differences that occur at lower levels of education translate into unintended disparity among male and female teachers in ICT use
      • Socio-cultural factors are intertwined with ICT use in schools
      • ICT in education is a gendered terrain
    • Recommendations
      • Educational institutions should introduce gender sensitive policies and regulations
      • ICTs in education should be designed with women’s needs in mind
    • Focus group discussions with teachers at Uthiru Girls
      • Thank you for listening
    • Teachers in an ICT training session
    • Examinations Performance Analysis
    • Focus Group discussion at Ruaraka Academy
    • Focus Group Discussion with Teachers of St. Joseph’s, Githunguri
    • Computer resources used in a school
    • Focus Group Discussion in a School
    • Pupils doing art using computers