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Judith e learning africa 2010

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  • 1. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ICT ACCESS AND USE IN PANAF SCHOOLS IN CAMEROON YEBA JUDITH SAMA MOUOKUIO MENO Researcher/Guidance Counsellor Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA) Cameroon Email: [email_address]
  • 2. Presentation outline
    • Introduction
    • Objectives
    • Method
    • Results/Findings
    • Conclusion
    • Implication to Policy and Practice
    • Future Research Directions
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • Not everybody benefits in the same way from the new opportunities that ICT hold. Gender digital divide between those who benefit and those who do not.
    • In Cameroon the changes brought in by ICTs, have not touched all of humanity. The results of a research undertaken in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Mali, Mauritania and Senegal, with the support of IDRC (Canada), and presented by the Gender and ICT Network (ENDA) in Dakar, July 25, 2005, revealed that women have globally one third chances less than men to benefit from ICT in francophone Africa.
    • If access to and use of ICTs is directly linked to social and economic development, then it is imperative to ensure that women and girls in developing countries understand the significance of these technologies and use them. If not, lack of access to ICTs leads to the further marginalization of women from the economic, social, and political mainstream of their countries.
    • The barriers which prevent women and girls from participating in ICT need to be identified and solutions developed to encourage them to study ICT.
  • 4. MAIN OBJECTIVE To find out whether there is a gender difference in ICT access and use for educators and learners in selected schools in Cameroon .
    • Specific Objectives
    • 1.To find out if there is a gender disparity in access to and use of ICTs for educators and learners in PanAf schools in Cameroon.
    • 2.To find out why this gender difference.
    • 3.To find out how access to and use of ICTs can be improved for girls and female educators in some schools in Cameroon.
  • 5. METHOD
    • Qualitative and quantitative data was collected from five Cameroonian Secondary Schools (a representative sample of the ten schools in the PanAf project).
    • The linguistic divide in Cameroon calls for two Francophone schools, two Bilingual schools and one Anglophone school.
    • Data already existing on the PanAf observatory was used.
    • The population of the study - educators and learners of five selected secondary schools in Cameroon
    • Interviews and focus group discussions
    • We used tables,percentages, and graphs to illustrate data
  • 6. Table 1: Information on the selected schools
    • We realize from table 1, above that all the schools are mixed as concerns student gender. In three of the schools the number of girls enrolled in school is more than that of the boys, while in two of the schools the number of girls enrolled is less than the boys.
    Name of school Level Location Language Student Gender No of male learners No of female learners Ecole les Champions FCB de Memiam Primary Rural French Mixed 148 132 Lycee Technique Bafoussam Secondary Urban French Mixed 1176 241 Ecole Normale Superieure Yaoundé Teacher’s Training Urban Bilingual Mixed 1700 2850 Lycee Bilingue Yaounde Secondary Urban Bilingual Mixed 3000 4000 Longla Comprehensive College Bamenda Secondary Urban English Mixed 1130 1296
  • 7. Figure 2: Percentage of students with access to Computers
    • Figure 2, shows that the percentage of female learners who have access to the computer is the same as the male learners.
  • 8. Table 2: Average ICT use by female and male learners per week (Indicator 4.2)
    • In table 2 above we realise that the average ICT use by female learners is the same as compared to the male learners except for Lycee Bilingue Yaoundé where there is a marked difference with a proportional gap of 2/1.
    School Average ICT use by male learners per week Average ICT use by female learners per week Proportional Gap In The Male/Female learners’ use of ICTS Ecole les Champions FCB de Memiam 2.0 2.0 2/2 Lycee Technique Bafoussam 2.0 2.0 2/2 Ecole Normale Superieure Yaoundé 2.0 2.0 2/2 Lycee Bilingue Yaoundé 1.0 2.0 2/1 Longla Comprehensive College 6.0 6.0 6/6
  • 9. Table 3: Percentage of female educators who have access to computers (Indicator 9.2)
    • In table 3 above male educators in three of the schools are more than the female, while in two of the schools the females are more. The percentage of female/male educators who access the computer is the same.
    School No of male educators in the institution No of female educators in the institution Percentage of male educators who have access to computers Percentage of female educators who have access to computers Ecole les Champions FCB de Memiam 7 2 100% 100% Lycee Technique Bafoussam 43 68 100% 100% Ecole Normale Superieure Yaoundé 115 10 100% 100% Lycee Bilingue Yaoundé 75 175 100% 100% Longla Comprehensive College Bamenda 69 25 100% 100%
  • 10. Table 4: The Frequency of ICT use by Educators for Academic purposes (Indicator 4.1)
    • There is a proportional gap in the Male/Female average ICT use by educators per week. The average ICT use by male educators per week is more than that of the female.
    School Average ICT use by male educators per week Average ICT use by female educators per week Proportional gap in the Male/Female average ICT use by educators Ecole les Champions FCB de Memiam 4.0 12.0 3.00 (12/4) Lycee Technique Bafoussam 4.0 2.0 0.50(2/4) Ecole Normale Superieure Yaoundé 4.0 3.0 0.75(3/4) Lycee Bilingue Yaoundé 4.0 2.0 0.50(4/2) Longla Comprehensive College 6.0 6.0 1.00(6/6)
  • 11. Qualitative data from interviews and focus group discussions
    • Female learners said ICTs is very boring and it is meant for boys.
    • lack of female role models reinforcing gender-stereotyping in school. where ICT is taught in different parts of the curriculum it is often men who organize access to the hardware and networks.
    • Female educators-they don’t feel comfortable going to cyber cafes because people have the impression that they go there to scam, hyke and look for husbands(indicator 4.4.3 to 4.4.6)
    • Lack of time to attend seminars and workshops which could encourage them to learn ICTs.
  • 12. FINDINGS Specific objective one: To find out if there is a gender disparity in access to and use of ICTs for educators and learners in selected schools in Cameroon.
    • Quantitative data revealed that the percentage of female/male learners who access the computer is the same(100%).
    • The proportional gap in the male/female learners’ use of ICTS is the same in four of the schools. In one of the schools precisely Lycee Bilingue Essos the gap is 2/1.
    • The percentage of female/male educators who access the computer is the same.
    • There is a proportional gap in the Male/Female average ICT use by educators per week. The average ICT use by male educators per week is more than that of the female.
  • 13. Specific objective one continues:
    • Qualitative data reveal that there is a gender difference
    • From group discussions and interviews,female and male learners/educators acknowledge that women are few in the computer rooms and cyber cafes as compared to men.
  • 14. Specific objective two To find out why this gender difference in ICT use and access:
    • -The perception of the female learners and educators about ICTs;
    • -Male teachers of ICT still vastly out-number their female counterparts, and where ICT is taught in different parts of the curriculum it is often men that are in charge of organizing access to the hardware and networks. This reinforces gender-stereotyping in school.
    • -Female educators are shy to go to cyber cafes.
    • - Most educators are still at the phase of initiation (indicator 2.3.4) into computer use.
  • 15. Specific Objective 3 To find out how access to and use of ICTs can be improved
    • Training more female teachers on ICTs to encourage the girls,
    • Increasing the number of computers in schools will widen access,
    • Allot more time for ICT classes
  • 16. Conclusion
    • -The main objective of this study was find out whether there is a gender difference in ICT access and use for educators and learners in selected schools in Cameroon .
    • -Quantitative data reveal access is same for male learners and female learners and educators(100%)
    • -There is a slight proportional gap in the male/female learners’ use of ICTS.
    • -There is a proportional gap in the Male/Female average ICT use by educators per week.
    • -Qualitative data reveal a gender disparity in ICT access and use.
    • -The reasons for this are the perception of the girls themselves about ICTs; computers are few; Male teachers of ICT still vastly out-number their female counterparts, women are shy to go to cyber cafes.
  • 17. Policy Implications
    • The study is expected to make a significant contribution to current thinking and encourage international organizations, the Cameroonian government to implement strategies to ensure equitable access to and use of ICTs.
    • The findings will also encourage policymakers to implement actions towards a more inclusive and fair society in terms of gender.
    • National ICT strategies to address the divide need to specifically tackle gender disparities and unequal access and set specific targets for enhancing opportunities for women.
  • 18. THANKS FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION