RESEARCH METHODS<br />Lecture 1:<br />Introduction to Research<br />by<br />Daing Nasir Ibrahim, Phd, CA(M), FCPA<br />http://www.management.usm.my/daing<br />
What Is Research?<br /><ul><li>Definition: An organised, systematic, data-based critical scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the objective of finding answers or solutions to it.
Outcome: Information that enables managers to make decisions to rectify problems.
Data : Primary (first-hand) or Secondary (readily available); Quantitative or Qualitative </li></li></ul><li>Research Methods: The ways in which research studies are designed and the procedures by which data are analysed<br />Survey Methodology: Research conducted by collecting data and analysing them to come up with answers to various issues of interest to us.<br />
Types of Research<br />Applied Research: Research done with the intention of applying the results of its finding to solving specific problems currently being experienced in the organisation.<br />Basic Research: Research done with the intention to generate more knowledge and understanding of the phenomena that occur and to build theories based on the research results.<br />Both types of research follow the same steps of systematic inquiry to arrive at solutions to problems. <br />
Managers and Research: The value of acquiring research skills<br />Manager as research-based decision maker<br />Subordinate employee as researcher<br />Manager as research service buyer or evaluator<br />Manager as evaluator of secondary data source<br />Research specialist<br />
Purpose of Research<br />Reporting: elementary level; provide an account or summation of data or to generate statistics; simple when data is available; some inference and conclusion drawing.<br />Descriptive Study: Tries to discover answers to the question who, what, when, where, and, sometimes, how. <br />
Purpose of Research<br />Explanatory: attempts to explain the reasons for the phenomenon that the descriptive study only observed. The researcher uses theories or at least hypotheses to account for the forces that caused a certain phenomenon to occur.<br />Predictive: Is just as rooted in theory as explanation.<br />Control: Being able to replicate a scenario and dictate a particular outcome is the objective of control<br />
What is a Good Scientific Research?<br />Purposiveness<br />Started with a definite aim and purpose<br />Rigor<br />A good theoretical base and a sound methodological design<br />Testability<br />Lends itself to testing logically developed hypotheses<br />Replicability<br />Research results supported when research is repeated in other similar circumstances<br />
What is a Good Scientific Research?<br />Precision and Confidence<br />Closeness of findings to reality and probability that estimations are correct, respectively<br />Objectivity<br />Conclusions drawn are based on facts resulting from the actual data<br />Generalizability<br />The scope of applicability of the research findings in one settings to other settings<br />Parsimony<br />Simple in explaining phenomena or problems that occur, and in the application of solutions to problems<br />
Hypothetico-Deductive Method<br />A method of scientific investigation via exposition and argument (deduction and induction) <br />Deduction: – arrive at a conclusion by logically generalizing from a known fact. For a deduction to be correct, it must be true and correct.<br />Induction:- on observing certain phenomena and on that basis arrive at conclusions.<br />D and I are applied in scientific investigation.<br />Theories based on D & I help us to understand, explain, or predict business phenomena.<br />
Hypothetico-Deductive Method<br />Seven steps in hypothetico-deductive method:<br />Observation<br />Preliminary information gathering<br />Theory formulation<br />Hypothesising<br />Further scientific data collection<br />Data analysis<br />Deduction<br />
Research Process<br />OBSERVATION<br />Broad area of research interest identified<br />PROBLEM DEFINITION<br />Research problem delineated<br />THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK<br />Variables clearly identified and labeled<br />HYPOTHESES GENERATION<br />SCIENTIFIC<br />RESEARCH<br />DESIGN<br />PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING<br />Interviewing & Literature Survey<br />DEDUCTION<br />Hypotheses substantiated? Research questions answered<br />DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION<br />
Stages in the Research Process<br />The stages overlap continuously, i.e., overlap chronologically and functionally interrelated<br />Forward linkage - early stages of the research process will influence the design of the later stages<br />Backward linkage - the late stages of the research process will have an influence on the early stages<br />