RESEARCH METHODS Lecture 1: Introduction to Research by Daing Nasir Ibrahim, Phd, CA(M), FCPA http://www.management.usm.my/daing
What Is Research?
Definition: An organised, systematic, data-based critical scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the objective of finding answers or solutions to it.
Outcome: Information that enables managers to make decisions to rectify problems.
Data : Primary (first-hand) or Secondary (readily available); Quantitative or Qualitative
Research Methods: The ways in which research studies are designed and the procedures by which data are analysed Survey Methodology: Research conducted by collecting data and analysing them to come up with answers to various issues of interest to us.
Types of Research Applied Research: Research done with the intention of applying the results of its finding to solving specific problems currently being experienced in the organisation. Basic Research: Research done with the intention to generate more knowledge and understanding of the phenomena that occur and to build theories based on the research results. Both types of research follow the same steps of systematic inquiry to arrive at solutions to problems.
Managers and Research: The value of acquiring research skills Manager as research-based decision maker Subordinate employee as researcher Manager as research service buyer or evaluator Manager as evaluator of secondary data source Research specialist
Purpose of Research Reporting: elementary level; provide an account or summation of data or to generate statistics; simple when data is available; some inference and conclusion drawing. Descriptive Study: Tries to discover answers to the question who, what, when, where, and, sometimes, how.
Purpose of Research Explanatory: attempts to explain the reasons for the phenomenon that the descriptive study only observed. The researcher uses theories or at least hypotheses to account for the forces that caused a certain phenomenon to occur. Predictive: Is just as rooted in theory as explanation. Control: Being able to replicate a scenario and dictate a particular outcome is the objective of control
What is a Good Scientific Research? Purposiveness Started with a definite aim and purpose Rigor A good theoretical base and a sound methodological design Testability Lends itself to testing logically developed hypotheses Replicability Research results supported when research is repeated in other similar circumstances
What is a Good Scientific Research? Precision and Confidence Closeness of findings to reality and probability that estimations are correct, respectively Objectivity Conclusions drawn are based on facts resulting from the actual data Generalizability The scope of applicability of the research findings in one settings to other settings Parsimony Simple in explaining phenomena or problems that occur, and in the application of solutions to problems
Hypothetico-Deductive Method A method of scientific investigation via exposition and argument (deduction and induction) Deduction: – arrive at a conclusion by logically generalizing from a known fact. For a deduction to be correct, it must be true and correct. Induction:- on observing certain phenomena and on that basis arrive at conclusions. D and I are applied in scientific investigation. Theories based on D & I help us to understand, explain, or predict business phenomena.
Hypothetico-Deductive Method Seven steps in hypothetico-deductive method: Observation Preliminary information gathering Theory formulation Hypothesising Further scientific data collection Data analysis Deduction
Research Process OBSERVATION Broad area of research interest identified PROBLEM DEFINITION Research problem delineated THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Variables clearly identified and labeled HYPOTHESES GENERATION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING Interviewing & Literature Survey DEDUCTION Hypotheses substantiated? Research questions answered DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Stages in the Research Process The stages overlap continuously, i.e., overlap chronologically and functionally interrelated Forward linkage - early stages of the research process will influence the design of the later stages Backward linkage - the late stages of the research process will have an influence on the early stages