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Introduction to professionalisation in education (PAMAOK003)

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Presentation to students in the Master in education studies, University of Groningen. Course PAMAOK003 (Professionalisation of teachers and raising the quality of care): Introductory lecture. November …

Presentation to students in the Master in education studies, University of Groningen. Course PAMAOK003 (Professionalisation of teachers and raising the quality of care): Introductory lecture. November 9th, 2011.

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  • Each week consists of one hour lecture and one hour co-generative dialogue / blog-preparations.
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    • 1. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 1Introduction to PAMAOK003PAMAOK003: Professionalising teachers and raising the quality of careWeek 1 | 9 November 2011Ernst D. ThoutenhoofdTo review this presentation see www.slideshare.net/ernstt
    • 2. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 2The paradox of learningThe paradox of learning a really new competence is this:1 that a learner cannot at first understand what he needs to learn;2 can learn it only by educating himself;3 and can educate himself only by beginning to do what he does not yet understand.Schön 1987:93
    • 3. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 3The central question of PAMAOK003The central question to be addressed in this course is:how can learning be taught?
    • 4. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 4 PAMAOK003 course meetings09-11 Co-generative dialogue & assessment for learning Ernst Thoutenhoofd16-11 Inquiring attitude & creativity Sanne Rikst Dooper23-11 Learning (how) to learn Ernst Thoutenhoofd30-11 Thinking skills Rob de Haas07-12 Teaching-oriented coaching Ernst Thoutenhoofd14-12 Coaching practicum Marieke van Roy21-12 What have we learned? Ernst Thoutenhoofd11-01 Assignment deadline You
    • 5. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 5Can ‘virtue’ can be taught or learned?In Plato’s Meno, young Meno asks Socrates how virtue is acquired. In reply,Socrates asks Meno for a definition, which Meno cannot give.For Socrates, we have an approximate sense of qualities (justice, virtue,friendships, love)—but all attempts to give definitions end up incontradiction.Hence, neither virtue nor any ‘real’ competence can be taught or learned.Woods 2011.For Bruno Latour, all information is retroactive construction based on earlieractions. In his constructivist perspective, anything taught and learned is acontextual, local and temporary ‘network’ achievement. Harman 2009.For neither Plato nor Latour there is ‘true’ (natural or real) knowledge.
    • 6. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 6Carl Rogers’ learner-centred education (1986)1 My experience has been that I cannot teach another person how to teach. To attempt it is for me, in the long run, futile.2 I have come to feel that only learning which significantly influences behavior is self-discovered, self-appropriated learning.3 As a consequence, I realize that I am only interested in being a learner, preferably learning things that matter, that have some significant influence on my own behavior.Rogers 1986
    • 7. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 7Towards a radical pedagogyIf others’ experience agrees with Carl Rogers we would do away with teaching,examinations, grades, credits, ‘the exposition of conclusions’, and the wholeapparatus of formal education.Schön 1987:91—Such a ‘radical’ conclusion about education coheres with a line of thoughtthat stretches from Plato to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, Ivan Illich,Paulo Freire, Carl Rogers, David Schön, Ken Robinson, Sugata Mitra, RonMiller, David Olson, Aharon Aviram and many others.
    • 8. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 8Expertise and the social sciencesAccording to Dreyfus & Dreyfus, true or ‘virtuoso’ expertise escapes formalresearch methods precisely because it is performance beyond rules andlawful, predictable behaviour. True competence is intuitive, embodied,sensed, creative, seemingly effortless and fluent.Dreyfus & Dreyfus 1986Social science should therefore reach beyond scientific methods towards newmeans for comprehending and influencing. Bent Flyvbjerg suggests Aristotle’sphronesis (φρόνησις)—the ‘prudence’ or ‘practical wisdom’ that shouldgovern both episteme (science) and techné (technology).Flyvbjerg 2001
    • 9. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educationaland social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 9
    • 10. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 10 Teaching skills in secondary education (N=520)4321 climate organisation instruction activation adjustment strategies involvement © Data courtesy of Wim van de Grift & Michelle Hems-Lorenz (UOCG 2011)
    • 11. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 11Learning (how) to learnThis course centres on learning as care for learners and teachers.The focus this year is on learning (how) to learn.At least four developments support this focus:1 Inclusive education is placing much greater demands on teaching skills;2 A life of learning calls for learning autonomy and self-regulation;3 New technologies and infrastructures diversify the means of social participation, including (re)sources of learning;4 The relevance and productivity of formal learning and curricula are increasingly questioned.
    • 12. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 12Action-research on learning to learnThis course participates in a learning to learn action-research network.1. Teachers in the local area are experimenting in their classrooms with learning to learn didactics.2. We are, in this course, experimenting with assessment for learning.3. Master students write dissertations about each of the projects involved.4. Our collective action research focuses on assessment for learning (AfL).
    • 13. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 13Instructional designCogenerative dialogue (cogens)Each meeting starts with a short lecture, followed by structured dialogueaimed at steering our agenda for learning.Assessment for learning (AfL)The objective of co-generative dialogue is assessing the progress we aremaking with the course and our learning; its goal is agreement on how toevaluate the learning we have done.Blog-writingShared academic reflection, in which we all contribute blogposts about ideasthat emerge and connect those ideas to scholarly literature.
    • 14. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 14PAMAOK003 | The bloghttp://pamaok003.wordpress.com/Each group is expected to write a post and comment on another post at leastonce a week. Each new post must reference a relevant article or book.How you organise that is up to yourselves.
    • 15. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 15What are cogenerative dialogues?Cogenerative dialogues are theory-building conversations among participantsabout shared experiences for the purpose of changing praxis and are typicallyscheduled soon after particular lessons.Ritchie, Tobin, Roth and Carambo 2007:155Teachers and students assume collective responsibility for outcomes.Teaching and learning are examined, so that unhelpful strategies can bechallenged. Roth, Tobin, Carambo and Dalland 2005:700Teachers and students review evidence from class and cogenerate resolutionsfor shaping the course, taking collective responsibility for change. ‘Cogens’resolve contradictions and create consensus and solidarity about learning.Tobin 2006:133
    • 16. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 16Dimensions of cogens1. Dialogic practice aimed at a communal responsibility for learning.2. It gives all participants equal voice.3. It commits everyone to shared goals for doing learning.4. Cogens generate a feasible action plan for teaching and learning.5. The shared action plan is evaluated every week (revised and updated).In this course (because of numbers!) we will practice cogens in groups.
    • 17. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 17What is assessment for learning (AfL)?1 250 Studies on formative assessment were systematically reviewed.2 Factors considered included responsiveness, goal orientation, self- perceptions as learners, self- and peer-assessments, links to theories of learning, types of task, asking questions, the use of tests, quality of feedback, transparancy of teaching strategy.3 The observed effect sizes ranged 0.4–0.7 (larger than those found for other educational interventions).4 These factors were assembled into four dimensions, collectively called assessment for learning.Black & Williams 1998
    • 18. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 18AfL’s four (+1) dimensions1 Eliciting information —Where are we?2 Appropriate feedback —How are we doing (good and bad)?3 Shared aims and objectives —Where are we going; when are we there?4 Formative, (peer- and self-)assessment —What have we achieved?I will add a fifth, suitable for self-regulated learning in higher education:5 Shared decision-making —What are we going to do next (clear targets)?
    • 19. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 19Your personal learning contract (due next week)—Your first task is to set out a learning contract that reflects:1 What do you already know?2 What do you want to learn?3 What will you do to learn it?4 How will you later evaluate what you have learnt?You can set up these learning contracts individually, as a group, or in sub-groups, as you please. We then share them between us.
    • 20. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 20Thank you for your attentionPlease move to group-work mode
    • 21. faculty of behavioural pedagogy and educational and social sciences sciences date 09.11.2011 | 21ReferencesBlack, P. and Williams, D. (1998) Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in education: Principles, policy and practice. 5(1):7–74.Dreyfus, H.L. and Dreyfus, S.E. (1986) Mind over machine: The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer. Free press/Macmillan.Flyvbjerg, B. (2001) Making social science matter: Why social inquiry fails and how it can succeed again. Cambridge UP.Harman, G. (2009) Prince of networks: Bruno Latour and metaphysics. Re.press (book also available as free digital download).Ritchie, S.M., Tobin, K., Roth, W.M. and Carambo, C. (2007) Transforming an academy through the enactment ofcollective curriculum leadership. Journal of curriculum studies, 39(2):151-175.Rogers, C. (1986) Freedom to learn. Charles E. Merrill.Roth, W.M., Tobin, K., Carambo, C. and Dalland, C. (2005) Coordination in coteaching: producing alignment in realtime. Science education 89(4):675-702.Schön, D.A. (1987) Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. Jossey-Bass/Wiley.Tobin, K. (2006) Learning to teach through coteaching and cogenerative dialogue. Teaching education 17(2):133-142.Woods, C. (2011) Plato’s Meno. SSRN (free download).