American Institute of ChemicalEngineers – Delaware Valley Section   An Introduction to Green Chemistry   and Engineering  ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section  What is green chemistry and what is green   engineering...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry 1.    Prevent W...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Principle #1 - Prevent Waste    Design chemical synth...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Principle #2 – Safer Chemicals & Products    Design c...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section     Principle #3 - Less Hazardous Chemical     Syntheses...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Principle #4 - Use Renewable Feedstocks    Use raw ma...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Principle #5 - Use Catalytic Reactions    Catalysts a...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Principle # 6 - Avoid Chemical Derivatives    Avoid c...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Principle # 7 – Maximize Atom Economy    The final pr...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Principle # 8 – Use Safer Solvents and    Reaction Co...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section      Alternate ‘Green’ Solvents  •           Supercritic...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Biomimicry    Imitate Mother Nature ?    How about a ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Principle # 9 – Increased Energy Efficiency    Operat...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section     Principle # 10- Design Chemicals to     Degrade afte...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section     Principle # 11- Analyze in Real Time     Use real ti...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section     Principle # 12 - Minimize Accident     Potential    ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    ACS – GCI Pharma Roundtable    Much of the work in pr...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Concept of Process Mass Intensity    One of the conce...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    ACS-GCI Solvent Selection Guide    The Roundtable has...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers– Delaware Valley Section
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section      GCN & NNFCC in the UK      Two leading promoters of...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section  The Twelve Principles of Green Engineering  1. Ensure I...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section     Principle #1 - Ensure Inherent Safety     Strive to ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Inherent Safety as Applied to a Chemical    Process  ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section  Concepts of Inherent Safety  Intensification Using less...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section     Principle #2 - Prevent Waste rather than     Treat W...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section     Principle #3 - Separation & Purification            ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section     Principle #4 - Maximize Efficiencies     Processes a...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section  Principle #5 - Output Pulled not Input Pushed  Often a ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section     Principle #6 - Conserve Complexity     Value-conserv...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section  Industrial Symbiosis at Kalundborg, Denmark            ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section   Principle #7 - Durability rather than   Immortality   ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section  CFCs  These coolant chlorofluorocarbons are:   Non-fla...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section  Principle #8 - Meet the Need, Minimizing Excess  Design...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section     Principle #9 - Minimize Material Diversity     Mater...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –    Delaware Valley SectionPrinciple #10 - Integrate Material & Energy Flows•   ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Pinch Technology    Pinch technology, developed princ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section            Simple Heat Exchange System                  ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section         Integrated Heating and Cooling         Cold Stre...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section  Principle #11 - Design for a Commercial  Afterlife  Pro...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section  Principle #12 - Renewable not Depleting  Material and e...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Green Corrosion Inhibitors    Traditional corrosion p...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section      Biocatalysis – the use of enzymes or whole      cel...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Microchannel Reactors    The use of microchannel reac...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Metabolic Pathway Engineering    Genetic modification...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section    Acknowledgements    Jacobs & KBR for supporting this ...
American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section              Questions ?                                ...
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Green Chemistry & Engineering

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Green Chemistry & Engineering

  1. 1. American Institute of ChemicalEngineers – Delaware Valley Section An Introduction to Green Chemistry and Engineering November 18th 2011 Ken Rollins CEng, FIChemE 1
  2. 2. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section What is green chemistry and what is green engineering? Green chemistry/green engineering is concerned with the design and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while minimizing the risk to human health and the environment, and the generation of pollution at source. 2
  3. 3. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry 1. Prevent Waste 2. Safer Chemicals and Products 3. Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses 4. Use Renewable Feedstocks 5. Use Catalytic Reactions 6. Avoid Chemical Derivatives 7. Maximise Atom Economy 8. Safer Solvents and Reaction Conditions 9. Increased Energy Efficiency 10. Design Chemicals to Degrade after Use 11. Pollution using Real Time Analysis 12. Minimize Accident Potential 3
  4. 4. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #1 - Prevent Waste Design chemical syntheses to prevent waste. Leave no waste to treat or to clean up 4
  5. 5. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #2 – Safer Chemicals & Products Design chemicals/products to be fully effective but with little or no toxicity 5
  6. 6. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #3 - Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses Design reactions to use and/or generate chemicals with little or no toxicity to humans, and with low environmental impact 6
  7. 7. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #4 - Use Renewable Feedstocks Use raw materials that are renewable rather than depleting. Bio-based materials or other processes’ waste materials, rather than fossil-based materials – oil, coal 7
  8. 8. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #5 - Use Catalytic Reactions Catalysts are renewable and can be re-used many times, in preference to the use of excess stoichiometric reagents which generate wstes 8
  9. 9. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle # 6 - Avoid Chemical Derivatives Avoid chemical derivatives used as ‘temporary by-products’, which generate wastes 9
  10. 10. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle # 7 – Maximize Atom Economy The final product should contain the maximum number of atoms in the the starting materials 10
  11. 11. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle # 8 – Use Safer Solvents and Reaction Conditions Avoid solvents if possible. Consider using water or other innocuous materials. Minimize 11
  12. 12. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Alternate ‘Green’ Solvents • Supercritical Carbon Dioxide • Supercritical Water • Ionic Liquids . 12
  13. 13. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Biomimicry Imitate Mother Nature ? How about a material with the strength of a Spider’s web ? One of Paul Anastas’ examples. A glue that mimicked the adhesive power of a limpet ? 13
  14. 14. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle # 9 – Increased Energy Efficiency Operate at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure where possible 14
  15. 15. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle # 10- Design Chemicals to Degrade after Use Choose materials that will degrade after use rather than those that will accumulate in the environment 15
  16. 16. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle # 11- Analyze in Real Time Use real time process analysis to monitor and control reactions rather than historical data 16
  17. 17. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle # 12 - Minimize Accident Potential Minimize the potential for fires, explosions and other hazards by selection of chemicals and their forms (gas/liquid ?) 17
  18. 18. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section ACS – GCI Pharma Roundtable Much of the work in promoting green chemistry and engineering is undertaken by the Green Chemistry Institute – an arm of the American Chemistry Society. Together with most of the major pharmaceutical manufacturers, they have established the ACS GCI Pharma Roundtable to catalyze the implementation of green chemistry and green engineering within that industry 18
  19. 19. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Concept of Process Mass Intensity One of the concepts to come out of the ACS GCI Pharma Roundtable is that of Process Mass Intensity. This is defined as the summation of the mass of all materials used in a process, including water, catalysts, solvents and reagents, divided by the mass of product. The PMI index is used as an indication of ‘greenness’ In the petroleum industry this PMI has a value a little over unity, and increases through general chemicals and specialty chemicals industries. The pharmaceutical industry demonstrates the highest PMIs – often over 100 19
  20. 20. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section ACS-GCI Solvent Selection Guide The Roundtable has also published, in April 2011, a Solvent Selection Guide. Industrial organic solvents are assessed in terms of safety, health, environmental impact on air, water, and waste. These assessments are ranked on a scale of 1- 10, with 1 being the most desirable and 10 the least. This guide is color coded with scores of 1-3 in green, 4-7 yellow and 8-10 in red. 20
  21. 21. American Institute of Chemical Engineers– Delaware Valley Section
  22. 22. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section GCN & NNFCC in the UK Two leading promoters of Green Chemistry and Engineering in the UK • Green Chemistry Network – based out of the University of York • National Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) 22
  23. 23. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section The Twelve Principles of Green Engineering 1. Ensure Inherent Safety 2. Prevent Waste rather than Treat Waste 3. Separation & Purification to Minimize Energy and Materials Use 4. Maximize Mass, Space, Energy and Time Efficiency 5. Output Pulled rather than Input Pushed 6. Conserve Complexity 7. Durability rather than Immortality 8. Meet the Need while Minimizing Excess 9. Minimize Material Diversity 10. Integrate Material and Energy Flows 11. Design for a Commercial Afterlife 12. Renewable rather than Depleting 23
  24. 24. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #1 - Ensure Inherent Safety Strive to ensure that all materials and energy inputs/outputs are as inherently non-hazardous as possible 24
  25. 25. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Inherent Safety as Applied to a Chemical Process A chemical process is inherently safer if it reduces or eliminates the hazards associated with materials used and operations, and that this reduction or elimination is a permanent and inseparable part of that process Per Trevor Kletz and Dennis Hendershot 25
  26. 26. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Concepts of Inherent Safety Intensification Using less of a hazardous material. Smaller (intensified) equipment can reduce the hazardous inventory and minimize the consequences of accidents Attenuation Using a hazardous material in a less hazardous form, for example, a diluted acid rather than a concentrated one. Larger particle size to minimize a dust explosion hazard. Substitution Using safer material. Water instead of a flammable solvent. 26
  27. 27. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #2 - Prevent Waste rather than Treat Waste Better to prevent waste streams occurring rather than treating them afterwards 27
  28. 28. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #3 - Separation & Purification Operations Selection Separation & Purification Operations Designed to Minimize Energy and Materials Use 28
  29. 29. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #4 - Maximize Efficiencies Processes and products should be designed to maximize Mass, Space, Energy and Time Efficiencies 29
  30. 30. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #5 - Output Pulled not Input Pushed Often a reaction or transformation is "driven" to completion by adding more energy/materials to shift the equilibrium to generate the desired output. However, this same effect can be achieved by designing reactions in which outputs are removed from the system, and the reaction is instead "pulled" to completion without the need for excess energy/materials. 30
  31. 31. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #6 - Conserve Complexity Value-conserving recycling, where possible, or beneficial disposition, when necessary, End-of-life design decisions for recycle, reuse, or beneficial disposal should be based on the invested material and energy and subsequent complexity 31
  32. 32. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Industrial Symbiosis at Kalundborg, Denmark 32
  33. 33. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #7 - Durability rather than Immortality Targeted durability should be a design goal 33
  34. 34. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section CFCs These coolant chlorofluorocarbons are:  Non-flammable  Non-toxic  Effective  Inexpensive  Stable – so stable that they migrate to the upper atmosphere, where UV-induced fragmentation causes ozone depletion 34
  35. 35. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #8 - Meet the Need, Minimizing Excess Designing for unnecessary overcapacity or over capability is a design flaw 35
  36. 36. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #9 - Minimize Material Diversity Material diversity in multi-component systems is to be minimized 36
  37. 37. American Institute of Chemical Engineers – Delaware Valley SectionPrinciple #10 - Integrate Material & Energy Flows• Water Loop Closure• Integrate Heat/Cool Loops• Cogeneration 37
  38. 38. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Pinch Technology Pinch technology, developed principally by Bodo Linnhoff at the University of Manchester in the UK, is a methodology for the integration of heating and cooling systems for maximizing energy efficiency. 38
  39. 39. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Simple Heat Exchange System Coolant 0.98MM Btu/hr Hot Stream 3500 lb/hr 70 deg F 400 deg F Heating 0.87MM Btu/hr Cold Stream 4000 lb/hr 400 deg F 90 deg F 39
  40. 40. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Integrated Heating and Cooling Cold Stream 4000 lb/hr Coolant 90 deg F 0.67MM Btu/hr Hot Stream 3500 lb/hr 70 deg F 290 deg F 400 deg F Heating 0.56MM Btu/hr 200 deg F 400 deg F 40
  41. 41. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #11 - Design for a Commercial Afterlife Products and processes should be designed for a commercial afterlife 41
  42. 42. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Principle #12 - Renewable not Depleting Material and energy inputs should be from renewable resources not depleting resources 42
  43. 43. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Green Corrosion Inhibitors Traditional corrosion protection methods often rely on hazardous substances, notably carginogenic chromates. Research in Europe is demonstrating the use of ‘intelligent’ self healing inhibitors. The controllable delivery is based on incorporating nano-containers of organic inhibitors in protective films of silica and zirconia – both benign and abundant. Release of material in triggered by pH. taken from GCN Newsletter (UK) April 2007 43
  44. 44. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Biocatalysis – the use of enzymes or whole cells in the manufacturing process . Bicatalysts can simplify or enable production of complex molecules. These often eliminate the requirement for elaborate separation and/or purification steps. Reactions may be undertaken under milder conditions of temperature, pressure and pH. Such biocatalytic reactions are by nature safer. 44
  45. 45. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Microchannel Reactors The use of microchannel reactors for catalytic hydrogenation reactions has the potential to improve a significant number of catalytic hydrogenation reactions in both the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. These reactors could significantly improve the efficiency and safety of such manufacturing processes. These reactors possess small transverse dimensions with high surface-to- volume ratios and consequently exhibit enhanced heat and mass-transfer rates. 45 Taken from a Promotional Brochure from US Dept. of Energy
  46. 46. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Metabolic Pathway Engineering Genetic modification of micro-organisms to make them produce the desired chemical. Many examples – ethanol, 1.3 PDO, 1,4 BDO, succinic acid etc etc. 46
  47. 47. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Acknowledgements Jacobs & KBR for supporting this webinar – hopefully they will continue throughout the series My peer reviewers – Linda, Jasmine and Bob Paul Anastas & David Shonnard – for their published works which have contributed so much to this material 47
  48. 48. American Institute of Chemical Engineers –Delaware Valley Section Questions ? 48

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