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  • 1. The Grand Council Member States Confederacy and Fires• 1) Aniyvwiya-Chickamauga Confederacy• Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge• The Honorable: Mark S.”Great Eagle”Rackley•• 2) Powhattan Confederacy• Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge• The Honorable:•• 3) Wabash Confederacy (Weas, Piankashaws, and others)• Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge• The Honorable:•• 4) Illini Confederacy• Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge• The Honorable:•• 5) Wyandot Confederacy• Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge• The Honorable:•• 6) Mississaugas Confederacy• Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge• The Honorable:•• 7) Menominee Confederacy• Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge• The Honorable:•• 8) Shawnee Confederacy• Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge• The Honorable:•• 9) Lenape (Delaware) Confederacy• Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge 1
  • 2. • The Honorable: Ernest Rauthschild • • 10) Miami Confederacy • Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge • The Honorable: • • 11) Kickapoo Confederacy • Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge • The Honorable: • • 12) Kaskaskia Confederacy • Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge • The Honorable: • • 13) Iroquois Confederacy • Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge • The Honorable: • • A1) Council of Three Fires Confederacy in USA • Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge • The Honorable: Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge • The Honorable: • • A2) Seven Fires-Seven Nations and First Nations of Canada Confederacy • Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge • The Honorable: Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge • • A3) Council of Three Fires`Confederacy in Mexico-Aztec,Myan, Aniyvwiya Peoples • Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court Judge • The Honorable: Premier-Chief-Federal Tribal Court JudgeThis Made up the 13 Fires of North AmericanB Dragon Royal Family 13 Asia Asset NationsC Nordic Royal Family 13 and the 16 Scottish Clans and the Eight Chiefswith the French Line of Kings of Jeresulam 2
  • 3. D Spain and 13 Royal Families and the Vatican ChurchE Royal Dutch 13 Families and the Queen of England Chickamauga Wars (1776–1794)Dragging Canoe meets with Shawnee emissaries after the destruction of Chickamaugaand ten other townsThe Chickamauga Wars (1776–1794) were a series of back-and-forth raids, campaigns,ambushes, minor skirmishes, and several full-scale frontier battles which were acontinuation of the Cherokee (Ani-Yunwiya, Ani-Kituwa, Tsalagi, Talligewi) struggleagainst encroachment into their territory by American frontiersmen from the formerBritish colonies, and, until the end of the American Revolution, their contribution to thewar effort as British allies.Open warfare broke out in the summer of 1776 between the Cherokee led by DraggingCanoe (initially called the "Chickamauga" or "Chickamauga-Cherokee", and later the"Lower Cherokee", by colonials) and frontier settlers along the Watauga, Holston,Nolichucky rivers, and Doe rivers in East Tennessee and later spread to those along theCumberland River in Middle Tennessee and in Kentucky, as well as the colonies (laterstates) of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.The earliest phase of these conflicts, ending with the treaties of 1777, is sometimes calledthe "Second Cherokee War", a reference to the earlier Anglo-Cherokee War, but that issomething of a misnomer. Since Dragging Canoe was the dominant leader in both phasesof the conflict, however, referring the period as "Dragging Canoes War" would not beincorrect. 3
  • 4. Dragging Canoes warriors fought alongside and in conjunction with Indians from anumber of other tribes both in the South and in the Northwest (most often Muscogee inthe former and Shawnee in the latter); enjoyed the support of, first, the British (often withactive participation of British agents and regular soldiers) and, second, the Spanish; andwere founding members of the ative Americans Western Confederacy.Though the Americans used "Chickamauga" as a convenient label to distinguish betweenthe Cherokee followers of Dragging Canoe and those abiding by the peace treaties of1777, there was never actually a separate tribe of “Chickamauga”, as mixed-bloodRichard Fields related to the Moravian Brother Steiner when the latter met with him atTellico Blockhouse.Contents • 1 Prelude o 1.1 Anglo-Cherokee War o 1.2 Treaty of Fort Stanwix o 1.3 Watauga Association o 1.4 Henderson Purchase • 2 The "Second Cherokee War" o 2.1 Visit from the northern tribes o 2.2 Jemima Boone and the Calloway sisters o 2.3 The attacks o 2.4 Colonial response o 2.5 The Treaties of 1777 • 3 First migration, to the Chickamauga area • 4 Reaction o 4.1 First invasion of the Chickamauga Towns o 4.2 Concord between the Lenape and the Cherokee o 4.3 Death of John Stuart o 4.4 The Chickasaw o 4.5 Cumberland Settlements o 4.6 Augusta and Kings Mountain • 5 Second migration and expansion o 5.1 Loss of British supply lines o 5.2 Politics in the Overhill Towns o 5.3 Cherokee in the Ohio region o 5.4 Second invasion of the Chickamauga Towns o 5.5 The Five Lower Towns o 5.6 Another visit from the North • 6 After the Revolution o 6.1 Chickasaw and Muscogee treaties o 6.2 Treaties of Hopewell and Coyatee o 6.3 State of Franklin o 6.4 Attacks on the Cumberland o 6.5 Formation of the Western Confederacy 4
  • 5. o 6.6 Coldwater Town o 6.7 Muscogee council at Tuckabatchee• 7 Peak of Lower Cherokee power and influence o 7.1 Massacre of the Kirk family o 7.2 Massacre of the Brown family o 7.3 Murders of the Overhill chiefs o 7.4 Houstons Station o 7.5 Invasion and counter-invasion o 7.6 The Flint Creek band/Prisoner exchange o 7.7 Blow to the Western Confederacy o 7.8 Chiksikas band of Shawnee o 7.9 The "Miro Conspiracy" o 7.10 Doublehead o 7.11 Treaty of New York o 7.12 Muscle Shoals o 7.13 Bob Benge o 7.14 Treaty of Holston o 7.15 Battle of the Wabash• 8 Death of "the savage Napoleon"• 9 The final years o 9.1 John Watts o 9.2 Buchanans Station o 9.3 Muscogee attack the Holston and the Cumberland o 9.4 Attack on a Cherokee diplomatic party o 9.5 Invasion and Cavetts Station o 9.6 Battle of Etowah• 10 End of the Chickamauga Wars o 10.1 Muscle Shoals Massacre o 10.2 Final engagements o 10.3 The Nickajack Expedition o 10.4 Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse• 11 Assessment• 12 Aftermath o 12.1 Post-war settlements of the Cherokee o 12.2 Muscogee-Chickasaw War o 12.3 Treaty of Greenville o 12.4 Leaders of the Lower Towns in peacetime• 13 Tecumsehs return and later events o 13.1 The Creek War• 14 Statement of Richard Fields on the "Chickamauga"• 15 Scots (and other Europeans) among the Cherokee• 16 Possible origins of the words "Chickamauga" and "Chattanooga"• 17 References• 18 Sources• 19 See also 5
  • 6. • 20 External links PreludeIf James Mooney is correct, the first conflict of the Cherokee with the British occurred in1654 when a force from Jamestown Settlement supported by a large party of Pamunkeyattacked a town of the "Rechaherians" (referred to as the "Rickohakan" by Germantraveler James Lederer when he passed through in 1670) that had between six and sevenhundred warriors, only to be driven off.After siding with the Province of South Carolina in the Tuscarora War of 1711-1715, theCherokee turned on their erstwhile British allies in the Yamasee War of 1715-1717 alongwith the other tribes until switching sides again midway, which ensured the defeat of thelatter. Anglo-Cherokee War Main article: Anglo-Cherokee WarA commander of Fort Patrick Henry sent Henry Timberlake as a token of friendship afterthe Anglo-Cherokee War. Timberlake later takes three Cherokee to London, 1763.At the outbreak of the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the Cherokee were staunchallies of the British, taking part in such far-flung campaigns as those against FortDuquesne (at the modern-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) and the Shawnee of the OhioCountry. In 1755, a band of Cherokee 130-strong under Ostenaco (Ustanakwa) ofTomotley (Tamali) took up residence in a fortified town at the mouth of the Ohio River atthe behest of fellow British allies, the Iroquois.For several years, French agents from Fort Toulouse had been visiting the OverhillCherokee, especially those on the Hiwassee and Tellico Rivers, and these had made in- 6
  • 7. roads into those places. The strongest pro-French sentiment among the Cherokee camefrom Mankiller (Utsidihi) of Great Tellico (Talikwa), Old Caesar of Chatuga (Tsatugi),and Raven (Kalanu) of Great Hiwassee (Ayuhwasi). The First "Beloved Man" (Uku) ofthe nation, Kanagatucko (Kanagatoga, "Stalking Turkey", called Old Hop by thewhites), was himself very pro-French, as was his nephew who succeeded at his death in1760, Standing Turkey (Kunagadoga).The former site of the Coosa chiefdom during the time of the Spanish explorations in the16th century, long deserted, was reoccupied in 1759 by a Muscogee contingent under aleader named Big Mortar (Yayatustanage) in support of his pro-French Cherokee allies inGreat Tellico and Chatuga and as a step toward an alliance of Muscogee, Cherokee,Shawnee, Chickasaw, and Catawba. His plans were the first of their kind in the South,and set the stage for the alliances that Dragging Canoe would later build. After the end ofthe French and Indian War, Big Mortar rose to be the leading chief of the Muscogee. • The Anglo-Cherokee War was initiated in 1758 in the midst of the ongoing war by Moytoy (Amo-adawehi) of Citico in retaliation for mistreatment of Cherokee warriors at the hands of their British and colonial allies, and lasted from 1758 to 1761. Moytoys horse-stealing began the domino effect that ended with the murders of Cherokee hostages at Fort Prince George near Keowee, and the massacre of the garrison of Fort Loudoun near Chota.Those two connected events catapulted the whole nation into war until the actual fightingended in 1761, with the Cherokee being led by Oconostota (Aganstata) of Chota (Itsati),Attakullakulla (Atagulgalu) of Tanasi, Ostenaco of Tomotley, Wauhatchie (Wayatsi) ofthe Lower Towns, and Round O of the Middle Towns.The peace between the Cherokee and the colonies was sealed with separate treaties withthe Colony of Virginia (1761) and the Province of South Carolina (1762). StandingTurkey was deposed and replaced with pro-British Attakullakulla. John Stuart, the onlyofficer to escape the Fort Loudoun massacre, became British Superintendent of IndianAffairs for the Southern District out of Charlestown, South Carolina, and the maincontact of the Cherokee with the British government. His first deputy, AlexanderCameron, lived among them, first at Keowee, then at Toqua on the Little Tennessee,while his second deputy, John McDonald, set up a hundred miles to the southwest on thewest side of Chickamauga River, where it was crossed by the Great Indian Warpath.During the war, a number of major Cherokee towns had been destroyed by the armyunder British general James Grant, and were never reoccupied, most notably Kituwa, theinhabitants of which migrated west and took up residence at Great Island Town on theLittle Tennessee River among the Overhill Cherokee.[5]In the aftermath of the war, that part of France’s Louisiana Territory east of theMississippi went to the British along with Canada, while Louisiana west of theMississippi went to Spain in exchange for Florida going to Britain, which divided it intoEast Florida and West Florida. Mindful of the recent war and after the visit to London of 7
  • 8. Henry Timberlake and three Cherokee leaders: Ostenaco, Standing Turkey, and WoodPigeon (Ata-wayi), King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 prohibitingsettlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, laying the foundation of one of the majorirritants for the colonials leading to the Revolution. Treaty of Fort StanwixAfter Pontiac’s War (1763-1764), the Iroquois Confederacy ceded to the Britishgovernment its claims to the hunting grounds between the Ohio and Cumberland rivers,known to them and other Indians as Kain-tuck-ee (Kentucky), to which several othertribes north and south also lay claim, in the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix. The land in theOhio Valley and Great Lakes regions, meanwhile, later known to the fledglingindependent American government as the Northwest Territory, were planned as a Britishcolony that was to be called Charlotina. These events initiated much of the conflict whichfollowed in the years ahead. Watauga Association Main article: Watauga Association Wikisource has original text related to this article: Watauga PetitionThe earliest colonial settlement in the vicinity of what became Upper East Tennessee wasSapling Grove, the first of the North-of-Holston settlements, founded by Evan Shelby,who purchased the land from John Buchanan, in 1768. Jacob Brown began another onthe Nolichucky River and John Carter on the Doe River in what became known asCarters Valley, both in 1771. Following the Battle of Alamance in 1771, JamesRobertson led a group of some twelve or thirteen Regulator families from North Carolinato the Watauga River.All these groups believed they were in the territorial limits of the colony of Virginia.After a survey proved their mistake, Deputy Superintendent for Indian Affairs AlexanderCameron ordered them to leave. However, Attakullakulla, now First Beloved Man,interceded on their behalf, and they were allowed to remain, provided there was nofurther encroachment. 8
  • 9. Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers through the Cumberland Gap, George Caleb Bingham,oil on canvas, 1851–52In May 1772, the settlers on the Watauga signed the Watauga Compact to form theWatauga Association, and in spite of the fact the other settlements were not parties to it,all of them are sometimes lumped together as "Wataugans". [7]The next year, in response to the first attempt to establish a permanent settlement insidethe hunting grounds of Kentucky in 1773 by a group under Daniel Boone, the Shawnee,Lenape (Delaware), Mingo, and some Cherokee attacked a scouting and forage party thatincluded Boone’s son James (who was captured and tortured to death along with HenryRussell), beginning Dunmores War (1773–1774). Henderson PurchaseMain article: Transylvania (colony)One year later, in 1775, a group of North Carolina speculators led by Richard Hendersonnegotiated the Treaty of Watauga at Sycamore Shoals with the older Overhill Cherokeeleaders, chief of whom were Oconostota and Attakullakulla (now First Beloved Man),surrendering the claim of the Cherokee to the Kain-tuck-ee (Ganda-gigai) lands andsupposedly giving the Transylvania Land Company ownership thereof in spite of claimsto the region by other tribes such as the Lenape, Shawnee, and Chickasaw.Dragging Canoe (Tsiyugunsini), headman of Great Island Town (Amoyeliegwayi) and sonof Attakullakulla, refused to go along with the deal and told the North Carolina men,“You have bought a fair land, but there is a cloud hanging over it; you will find itssettlement dark and bloody”. [8] The Watauga treaty was quickly repudiated by thegovernors of Virginia and North Carolina, however, and Henderson had to flee to avoidarrest. Even George Washington spoke out against it. The Cherokee appealed to JohnStuart, the Indian Affairs Superintendent, for help, which he had provided on previoussuch occasions, but the outbreak of the American Revolution intervened. 9
  • 10. The "Second Cherokee War"In the view of both Henderson and of the frontiers people, the revolution negated thejudgments of the royal governors, and the Transylvania Company began pouring settlersinto the region they had "purchased". Stuart, meanwhile, was besieged by a mob at hishouse in Charlestown and had to flee for his life before he could act. His first stop was St.Augustine in East Florida [9], from where he sent his deputy, Cameron, and his brotherHenry to Mobile to obtain short-term supplies with which the Cherokee could surviveand fight if necessary.Dragging Canoe took a party of eighty warriors to provide security for the pack train, andmet Henry Stuart and Cameron, his adopted brother, at Mobile on 1 March 1776. Heasked how he could help the British against their rebel subjects, and for help with theillegal settlers, and they told him to take no action at the present but to wait for regulartroops to arrive.When they arrived at Chota, Henry sent out letters to the trespassers of WashingtonDistrict (Watauga and Nolichucky), Pendleton District (North-of-Holston), and CartersValley (along the Doe River) reiterating the fact they were on Indian land illegally andgiving them forty days to leave, which those sympathetic to the Revolution then forged toindicate a large force of regular troops plus Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Muscogee was onthe march from Pensacola and planning to pick up reinforcements from the Cherokee.The forgeries alarmed the countryside, and settlers began gathering together in closersettlements than their isolated farmsteads, building stations (small forts), and otherwisepreparing for an attack.[10] Visit from the northern tribesIn May 1776, partly at the behest of Henry Hamilton, the British governor in Detroit, theShawnee chief Cornstalk led a delegation from the northern tribes (Shawnee, Lenape,Iroquois, Ottawa, others) to the southern tribes (Cherokee, Muscogee, Chickasaw,Choctaw), calling for united action against those they called the Long Knives, thesquatters who settled and remained in Kain-tuck-ee (Ganda-gi), or, as the settlers calledit, Transylvania. The northerners met with the Cherokee leaders at Chota. At the close ofhis speech, he offered his war belt, and Dragging Canoe accepted it, along with Abraham(Osiuta) of Chilhowee (Tsulawiyi). Dragging Canoe also accepted belts from the Ottawaand the Iroquois, while Savanukah, the Raven of Chota, accepted the belt from theLenape. The northern emissaries also offered war belts to Stuart and Cameron, but theydeclined to accept.The plan was for Middle, Out, and Valley Towns of what is now western North Carolinato attack South Carolina, the Lower Towns of western South Carolina and North Georgia(led by personally by Alexander Cameron) to attack Georgia, and the Overhill Townsalong the lower Little Tennessee and Hiwassee rivers to attack Virginia and NorthCarolina. In the Overhill campaign, Dragging Canoe was to lead a force against the 10
  • 11. Pendelton District, Abraham another against the Washington District, and Savanukah oneagainst Carter’s Valley.To demonstrate his determination, Dragging Canoe led a small war party into Kentuckyand returned with four scalps to present to Cornstalk before the northern delegationdeparted.[11] Jemima Boone and the Calloway sisters Main article: Capture and rescue of Jemima BooneShortly after the visit from the northern tribes, the Cherokee began small-party raidinginto Kentucky, often in conjunction with the Shawnee. In one of these raids a weekbefore the Cherokee attacks on the settlements and colonies, a war party of five, twoShawnee and three Cherokee led by Hanging Maw (Skwala-guta) of Coyatee (Kaietiyi),captured three teenage girls in a canoe on the Kentucky River. The girls were JemimaBoone, daughter of Daniel Boone, and Elizabeth and Frances Callaway, daughters ofRichard Callaway. The war party hurried toward the Shawnee towns north of the OhioRiver, but were overtaken by Boone and his rescue party after three days. After a brieffirefight, the war party retreated and the girls were rescued, unharmed and having beentreated reasonably well, according to Jemima Boone.The Abduction of Daniel Boones Daughter by the Indians by Charles Ferdinand Wimar(1853) 11
  • 12. Besides the sheer determined courage of the feat itself, the incident is also notable forproviding inspiration for the chase scene in James Fenimore Coopers novel The Last ofthe Mohicans after the capture of Cora and Alice Munro, in which their fatherLieutenant-Colonel George Munro, the books protagonist Hawkeye (Natty Bumppo), hisadopted Mohican elder brother Chingachgook, Chingachgooks son Uncas, and DavidGamut follow and overtake the Huron war party of Magua in order to rescue the sisters. The attacksThe squatters in the settlements of what was to become Upper East Tennessee wereforewarned of the impending Cherokee attacks by traders whod come to them fromChota bearing word from the Beloved Woman (female equivalent of Beloved Man, theCherokee title for a leader) Nancy Ward (Agigaue). Having thus been betrayed, theCherokee offensive proved to be disastrous for the attackers, particularly those going upagainst the Holston settlements.Finding Heatons Station deserted, Dragging Canoes force advanced up the Great IndianWarpath and had a small skirmish with a body of militia numbering twenty who quicklywithdrew. Pursuing them and intending to take Fort Lee at Long-Island-on-the-Holston,his force advanced toward the island. However, his force encountered a larger force ofmilitia six miles from their target, about half the size of his own but desperate, in astronger position than the small group before. During the Battle of Island Flats whichfollowed, Dragging Canoe himself was wounded in his hip by a musket ball and hisbrother Little Owl (Uku-usdi) incredibly survived after being hit eleven times. His forcethen withdrew, raiding isolated cabins on the way and returned to the Overhill area withplunder and scalps, after raiding further north into southwestern Virginia.The following week, Dragging Canoe personally led the attack on Blacks Fort on theHolston (today Abingdon, Virginia). One of the settlers, Henry Creswell, who had justreturned from fighting at Long Island Flats, was killed on July 22, 1776, when he and agroup of settlers were attacked while they were on a mission outside the stockade.[12]More attacks continued the third week of July, with support from the Muscogee andTories.Abraham of Chilhowee was likewise unsuccessful in his attempt to take Fort Caswell onthe Watauga, his attack being driven off with heavy casualties. Instead of withdrawing,however, he put the garrison under siege, a tactic which had worked well the previousdecade with Fort Loudoun, but gave that up after two weeks. Savanukah raided from theoutskirts of Carters Valley far into Virginia, but those targets contained only smallsettlements and isolated farmsteads so he did no real military damage.After the failed invasion of the Holston, despite his wounds, Dragging Canoe led hiswarriors to South Carolina to join Alexander Cumming and the Cherokee from the LowerTowns. 12
  • 13. Colonial responseResponse from the colonials in the aftermath was swift and overwhelming. NorthCarolina sent 2400 militia to scour the Oconaluftee and Tuckasegee Rivers and theheadwaters of the Little Tennessee and Hiwassee, South Carolina sent 1800 men to theSavannah, and Georgia sent 200 to the Chattahoochee and Tugaloo. In all, they destroyedmore than fifty towns, burned their houses and food, destroyed their orchards,slaughtered livestocks, and killed hundreds, as well as putting survivors on the slaveauction block.In the meantime, Virginia sent a large force accompanied by North Carolina volunteersunder William Christian to the lower Little Tennessee valley. By this time, DraggingCanoe and his warriors had returned to the Overhill Towns. Oconostota advocatedmaking peace with the colonists at any price. Dragging Canoe countered by calling forthe women, children, and old to be sent below the Hiwassee and for the warriors to burnthe towns, then ambush the Virginians at the French Broad River, but Oconostota,Attakullakulla, and the rest of the older chiefs decided against that path, Oconostotasending word to the approaching army offering to exchange Dragging Canoe andCameron if the Overhill Towns were spared.In Dragging Canoes last appearance at the council of the Overhill Towns, he denouncedthe older leaders as rogues and "Virginians" for their willingness to cede away land for anephemeral safety, ending, "As for me, I have my young warriors about me. We will haveour lands." [13][14] He then stalked out of the council. Afterwards, he and other militantleaders, including Ostenaco, gathered like-minded Cherokee from the Overhill, Valley,and Hill towns, and migrated to what is now the Chattanooga, Tennessee, area, to whichCameron had already transferred.Christians Virginia force found Great Island, Citico (Sitiku), Toqua (Dakwayi), Tuskegee(Taskigi), Chilhowee, and Great Tellico virtually deserted, with only the older leaderswho had opposed the younger ones and their war remaining. Christian limited thedestruction in the Overhill Towns to the burning of the deserted towns. The Treaties of 1777The next year, 1777, the Cherokee in the Hill, Valley, Lower, and Overhill towns signedthe Treaty of Dewitt’s Corner with Georgia and South Carolina (Ostenaco was one ofthe Cherokee signatories) and the Treaty of Fort Henry with Virginia and NorthCarolina promising to stop warring, with those colonies promising in return to protectthem from attack. Dragging Canoe responded by raiding within fifteen miles of FortHenry during the negotiations. One provision of the latter treaty required that JamesRobertson and a small garrison be quartered at Chota on the Little Tennessee.[15] Neithertreaty actually halted attacks by frontiersmen from the illegal colonies, nor stop 13
  • 14. encroachment onto Cherokee lands. The peace treaty required the Cherokee give up theirland of the Lower Towns in South Carolina and most of the area of the Out Towns.First migration, to the Chickamauga areaIn the meantime, Alexander Cameron had suggested to Dragging Canoe and hisdissenting Cherokee that they settle at the place where the Great Indian Warpath crossedthe Chickamauga River (South Chickamauga Creek), which was later known as theChickamauga (Tsikamagi) Town under Big Fool. Since Dragging Canoe made that townhis seat of operations, frontier Americans called his faction the "Chickamaugas".As mentioned above, John McDonald already had a trading post there across theChickamauga River, providing a link to Henry Stuart, brother of John, in the WestFlorida capital of Pensacola. Cameron, deputy Indian superintendent and blood brother toDragging Canoe, accompanied him to Chickamauga. In fact, nearly all the whites legallyresident among the Cherokee by their permission were part of the exodus. The Wilderness Road and the Transylvania purchase.In addition to Chickamauga Town, Dragging Canoes band set up three other settlementson the Chickamauga River: Toqua (Dakwayi), at its mouth on the Tennessee River,Opelika, a few kilometers upstream from Chickamauga town, and Buffalo Town(Yunsayi; John Sevier called it Bull Town) at the headwaters of the river in northwestGeorgia (in the vicinity of the later Ringgold, Georgia). Other towns were Cayuga(Cayoka) on Hiwassee Island; Black Fox (Inaliyi) at the current community of the samename in Bradley County, Tennessee; Ooltewah (Ultiwa), under Ostenaco on Ooltewah(Wolftever) Creek; Sawtee (Itsati), under Dragging Canoes brother Little Owl on Laurel(North Chickamauga) Creek; Citico (Sitiku), along the creek of the same name;Chatanuga (Tsatanugi; not the same as the later city) at the foot of Lookout Mountain inwhat is now St. Elmo; and Tuskegee (Taskigi) under Bloody Fellow (Yunwigiga) onWilliams Island (which after the wars stretched across from the island southwest intoLookout Valley).The land used by the Cherokee was once the traditional location of the Muscogee, whohad withdrawn in the early 1700s to leave a buffer zone between themselves and the 14
  • 15. Cherokee. In the intervening years, the two tribes used the region as hunting grounds.When the Province of Carolina first began trading with the Cherokee in the late 1600s,their westernmost settlements were the twin towns of Great Tellico (Talikwa, same asTahlequah) and Chatuga (Tsatugi) at the current site of Tellico Plains, Tennessee. TheCoosawattee townsite (Kuswatiyi, for "Old Coosa Place"), reoccupied briefly by BigMortars Muscogee as mentioned above, was among the sites settled by the new influx ofpeople.Many Cherokee resented the (largely Scots-Irish) settlers moving into Cherokee lands,and agreed with Dragging Canoe. The Cherokee towns of Great Hiwassee (Ayuwasi),Tennessee (Tanasi), Chestowee (Tsistuyi), Ocoee (Ugwahi), and Amohee (Amoyee) inthe vicinity of Hiwassee River were wholly in the camp of the rejectionists of thepacifism of the old chiefs, as were the Lower Cherokee in the North Georgia towns ofCoosawatie (Kusawatiyi), Etowah (Itawayi), Ellijay (Elatseyi), Ustanari (or Ustanali),etc., who had been evicted from their homes in South Carolina by the Treaty of DewittsCorner. The Yuchi in the vicinity of the new settlement, on the upper Chickamauga,Pinelog, and Conasauga Creeks, likewise supported Dragging Canoes policies.The attacks in July 1776 proved to be Dragging Canoes Methven; he had tried fighting inregular armies like whites, only to find guerrilla warfare more suitable. Based in theirnew homes, his main targets were settlers, whom he invariably referred to as"Virginians", on the Holston, Doe, Watauga, and Nolichucky Rivers, on the Cumberlandand Red Rivers, and the isolated stations in between. They also ambushed partiestravelling on the Tennessee River, and local sections of the many ancient trails thatserved as "highways", such as the Great Indian Warpath (Mobile to northeast Canada),the Cisca and St. Augustine Trail (St. Augustine to the French Salt Lick at Nashville), theCumberland Trail (from the Upper Creek Path to the Great Lakes), and the NickajackTrail (Nickajack to Augusta). Later, these Cherokee stalked the Natchez Trace and suchhighways as were constructed by the uninvited settlers like the Kentucky, Cumberland,and Walton Roads. Occasionally, the Cherokee attacked targets in Virginia, theCarolinas, Georgia, Kentucky, and the Ohio country. ReactionIn 1778–1779, Savannah and Augusta, Georgia, were captured by the British with helpfrom Dragging Canoe, John McDonald, and the Chickamauga Cherokee, who were beingsupplied with guns and ammunition through Pensacola and Mobile, and together theywere able to gain control of parts of interior South Carolina and Georgia. First invasion of the Chickamauga TownsIn early 1779, James Robertson of Virginia received warning from Chota that DraggingCanoes warriors were going to attack the Holston area. In addition, he had receivedintelligence that John McDonalds place was the staging area for a conference of IndiansGovernor Hamilton was planning to hold at Detroit, and that a stockpile of suppliesequivalent to that of a hundred packhorses was stored there. 15
  • 16. Lieutenant Colonel Issac ShelbyIn response, he ordered a preemptive assault under Evan Shelby (father of Isaac Shelby,first governor of the State of Kentucky) and John Montgomery. Boating down theTennessee in a fleet of dugout canoes, they disembarked and destroyed the eleven townsin the immediate Chickamauga area and most of their food supply, along withMcDonalds home and store. Whatever was not destroyed was confiscated and sold at thepoint where the trail back to the Holston crossed what has since been known as SaleCreek.In the meantime, Dragging Canoe and John McDonald were leading the Cherokee andfifty Loyalist Rangers in attacks on Georgia and South Carolina, so there was noresistance and only four deaths among the towns inhabitants. Upon hearing of thedevastation of the towns, Dragging Canoe, McDonald, and their men, including theRangers, returned to Chickamauga and its vicinity.The Shawnee sent envoys to Chickamauga to find out if the destruction had causedDragging Canoes people to lose the will to fight, along with a sizable detachment ofwarriors to assist them in the South. In response to their inquiries, Dragging Canoe heldup the war belts hed accepted when the delegation visited Chota in 1776, and said, "Weare not yet conquered".[16] To cement the alliance, the Cherokee responded to theShawnee gesture with nearly a hundred of their warriors sent to the North.The towns in the Chickamauga area were soon rebuilt and reoccupied by their formerinhabitants. Dragging Canoe responded to the Shelby expedition with punitive raids onthe frontiers of both North Carolina and Virginia. Concord between the Lenape and the CherokeeIn spring 1779, Oconostota, Savanukah, and other non-belligerent Cherokee leaderstravelled north to pay their respects after the death of the White Eyes, the Lenape leader 16
  • 17. who had been encouraging his people to give up their fighting against the Americans. Hehad also been negotiating, first with Lord Dunmore and second with the Americangovernment, for an Indian state with representatives seated in the Continental Congress,which he finally won an agreement for with that body, which he had addressed in personin 1776.Upon the arrival of the Cherokee in the village of Goshocking, they were taken to thecouncil house and began talks. The next day, the Cherokee present solemnly agreed withtheir "grandfathers" to take neither side in the ongoing conflict between the Americansand the British. Part of the reasoning was that thus "protected", neither tribe would findthemselves subject to the vicissitudes of war. The rest of the world at conflict, however,remained heedless, and the provisions lasted as long as it took the ink to dry, as itwere.[17][18] Death of John StuartAbout this same time, John Stuart, up to that point Indian Affairs Superintendent, died atPensacola. His deputy, Alexander Cameron, was assigned to the work with theChickasaw and Choctaw and his replacement, Thomas Browne, assigned to theCherokee, Muscogee, and Catawba. However, Cameron never went west and he andBrowne worked together until the latter departed for St. Augustine. The ChickasawThe Chickasaw came into the war on the side of the British and their Indian allies in 1779when George Rogers Clark and a party of over two hundred built Fort Jefferson and asurrounding settlement near the mouth of the Ohio, inside their hunting grounds. Afterlearning of the trespass, the Chickasaw destroyed the settlement, laid siege to the fort,and began attacking the Kentucky frontier. They continued attacking the Cumberland andinto Kentucky through the following year, their last raid in conjunction with DraggingCanoes Cherokee, old animosities left over from the Cherokee-Chickasaw war of 1758-1769 forgotten in the face of the common enemy. Cumberland SettlementsLater that year, Robertson and John Donelson traveled overland across country along theKentucky Road and founded Fort Nashborough at the French Salt Lick (which got itsname from having previously been the site of a French outpost called Fort Charleville) onthe Cumberland River. It was the first of many such settlements in the Cumberland area,which subsequently became the focus of attacks by all the tribes in the surroundingregion. Leaving a small group there, both returned east.Early in 1780, Robertson and a group of fellow Wataugans left the east down theKentucky Road headed for Fort Nashborough. Meanwhile, Donelson journeyed down the 17
  • 18. Tennessee with a party that included his family, intending to go across to the mouth ofthe Cumberland, then upriver to Ft. Nashborough. Eventually, the group did reach itsdestination, but only after being ambushed several times.In the first encounter near Tuskegee Island, the Cherokee warriors under Bloody Fellowfocused their attention on the boat in the rear whose passengers had come down withsmallpox. There was only one survivor, later ransomed. The victory, however, proved tobe a Pyrrhic one for the Cherokee, as the ensuing epidemic wiped out several hundred inthe vicinity.Several miles downriver, beginning with the obstruction known as the Suck or the Kettle,the party was fired upon throughout their passage through the Tennessee River Gorge, theparty losing one with several wounded. Several hundred kilometers downriver, theDonelson party ran up against Muscle Shoals, where they were attacked at one end by theMuscogee and the other end by the Chickasaw. The final attack was by the Chickasaw inthe vicinity of the modern Hardin County, Tennessee.Shortly after the partys arrival at Fort Nashborough, Donelson, Robertson and othersformed the Cumberland Compact.John Donelson eventually moved to the Indiana country after the Revolution, where heand William Christian were captured while fighting in the Illinois country in 1786 andwere burned at the stake by their captors.[19] Augusta and Kings Mountain Lieutenant Colonel John Sevier 18
  • 19. That summer, the new Indian superintendent, Thomas Browne, planned to have a jointconference between the Cherokee and Muscogee to plan ways to coordinate their attacks,but those plans were forestalled when the Americans made a concerted effort to retakeAugusta, where he had his headquarters. The arrival of a war party from theChickamauga Towns, joined by a sizable number or warriors from the Overhill Towns,prevented the capture of both, and they and Browns East Florida Rangers chased ElijahClarkes army into the arms of John Sevier, wreaking havoc on rebellious settlementsalong the way. This set the stage for the Battle of Kings Mountain, in which loyalistmilitia under Patrick Ferguson moved south trying to encircle Clarke and were defeatedby a force of 900 frontiersmen under Sevier and William Campbell referred to as theOvermountain Men.[20]Alexander Cameron, aware of the absence from the settlements of nearly a thousand men,urged Dragging Canoe and other Cherokee leaders to strike while they had theopportunity. With Savanukah as their headman, the Overhill Towns gave their fullsupport to the new offensive. Both Cameron and the Cherokee had been expecting aquick victory for Ferguson and were stunned he suffered such a resounding defeat sosoon, but the assault was already in motion.Hearing word of the new invasion from Nancy Ward, her second known betrayal,Virginia Governor Thomas Jefferson sent an expedition of seven hundred Virginians andNorth Carolinians against the Cherokee in December 1780, under the command ofSevier. It met a Cherokee war party at Boyds Creek, and after the battle, joined by forcesunder Arthur Campbell and Joseph Martin, marched against the Overhill towns on theLittle Tennessee and the Hiwassee, burning seventeen of them, including Chota,Chilhowee, the original Citico, Tellico, Great Hiwassee, and Chestowee. Afterwards, theOverhill leaders withdrew from further active conflict for the time being, though the Hilland Valley Towns continued to harass the frontier.In the Cumberland area, the new settlements lost around forty people in attacks by theCherokee, Muscogee, Chickasaw, Shawnee, and Lenape.[21] Second migration and expansionBy 1781, Dragging Canoe was working with the towns of the Cherokee from westernSouth Carolina relocated on the headwaters of the Coosa River, and with the Muscogee,particularly the Upper Muscogee. The Chickasaw, Shawnee, Huron, Mingo, Wyandot,and Munsee-Lenape (who were the first to do so) were repeatedly attacking theCumberland settlements as well as those in Kentucky. Three months after the firstChickasaw attack on the Cumberland, the Cherokees largest attack of the wars againstthose settlements came in April of that year, and culminated in what became known asthe Battle of the Bluff, led by Dragging Canoe in person. Afterwards, settlers began toabandon the settlements until only three stations were left, a condition which lasted until1785.[22] 19
  • 20. Loss of British supply linesIn February 1780, Spanish forces from New Orleans under Bernardo de Galvez, allied tothe Americans but acting in the interests of Spain, captured Mobile in the Battle of FortCharlotte. When they next moved against Pensacola the following month, WilliamMcIntosh, one of John Stuarts agents and father of the later Muscogee leader WilliamMcIntosh (Tustunnugee Hutkee), and Alexander McGillivray (Hoboi-Hili-Miko) rallied2000 Muscogee warriors to its defense. A British fleet arrived before the Spanish couldtake the port. A year later, the Spanish reappeared with an army twice the size of thegarrison of British, Choctaw, and Muscogee defenders, and Pensacola fell two monthslater. Shortly thereafter, Savannah and Augusta were also retaken by therevolutionaries.[23] Politics in the Overhill TownsIn the fall of 1781, the British engineered a coup détat of sorts that put Savanukah asFirst Beloved Man in place of the more pacifist Oconostota, who succeededAttakullakulla. For the next year or so, the Overhill Cherokee openly, as they had beendoing covertly, supported the efforts of Dragging Canoe and his Chickamauga Cherokee.In the fall of 1782, however, the older pacifist leaders replaced him with another of theirnumber, Corntassel (Kaiyatsatahi, known to history as "Old Tassel"), and sent messagesof peace along with complaints of settler encroachment to Virginia and NorthCarolina.[24] Opposition from pacifist leaders, however, never stopped war parties fromtraversing the territories of any of the town groups, largely because the average Cherokeesupported their cause, nor did it stop small war parties of the Overhill Towns fromraiding settlements in East Tennessee, mostly those on the Holston. Cherokee in the Ohio regionA party of Cherokee joined the Lenape, Shawnee, and Chickasaw in a diplomatic visit tothe Spanish at Fort St. Louis in the Missouri country in March 1782 seeking a newavenue of obtaining arms and other assistance in the prosecution of their ongoing conflictwith the Americans in the Ohio Valley. One group of Cherokee at this meeting led byStanding Turkey sought and received permission to settle in Spanish Louisiana, in theregion of the White River.[25]By 1783, there were at least three major communities of Cherokee in the region. Onelived among the Chalahgawtha (Chillicothe) Shawnee. The second Cherokee communitylived among the mixed Wyandot-Mingo towns on the upper Mad River near the laterZanesfield, Ohio.[26] A third group of Cherokee is known to have lived among and foughtwith the Munsee-Lenape, the only portion of the Lenape nation at war with theAmericans.[27] Second invasion of the Chickamauga Towns 20
  • 21. In September 1782, an expedition under Sevier once again destroyed the towns in theChickamauga vicinity, though going no further west than the Chickamauga River, andthose of the Lower Cherokee down to Ustanali (Ustanalahi), including what he calledVanns Town. The towns were deserted because having advanced warning of theimpending attack, Dragging Canoe and his fellow leaders chose relocation westward.Meanwhile, Seviers army, guided by John Watts, somehow never managed to cross pathswith any parties of Cherokee.Dragging Canoe and his people established what whites called the Five Lower Townsdownriver from the various natural obstructions in the twenty-six-mile Tennessee RiverGorge. Starting with Tuskegee (aka Browns or Williams) Island and the sandbars oneither side of it, these obstructions included the Tumbling Shoals, the Holston Rock, theKettle (or Suck), the Suck Shoals, the Deadman’s Eddy, the Pot, the Skillet, the Pan, and,finally, the Narrows, ending with Hales Bar. The whole twenty-six miles was sometimescalled The Suck, and the stretch of river was notorious enough to merit mention even byThomas Jefferson.[28] These navigational hazards were so formidable, in fact, that theFrench agents attempting to travel upriver to reach Cherokee country during the Frenchand Indian War, intending to establish an outpost at the spot later occupied by Britishagent McDonald, gave up after several attempts. The Five Lower TownsThe Five Lower Towns included Running Water (Amogayunyi), at the current Whitesidein Marion County, Tennessee, where Dragging Canoe made his headquarters; Nickajack(Ani-Kusati-yi, or Koasati place), eight kilometers down the Tennessee River in the samecounty; Long Island (Amoyeligunahita), on the Tennessee just above the Great CreekCrossing; Crow Town (Kagunyi) on the Tennessee, at the mouth of Crow Creek; andLookout Mountain Town (Utsutigwayi, anglicized "Stecoyee"), at the current site ofTrenton, Georgia. Tuskegee Island Town was reoccupied as a lookout post by a smallband of warriors to provide advance warning of invasions, and eventually many othersettlements in the area were resettled as well. 21
  • 22. The Five Lower Towns and some of the old Chickamauga TownsBecause this was a move into the outskirts of Muscogee territory, Dragging Canoe,knowing such a move might be necessary, had previously sent a delegation under LittleOwl to meet with Alexander McGillivray, the major Muscogee leader in the area, to gaintheir permission to do so. When he and his followers moved their base, so too did theBritish representatives Cameron and McDonald, making Running Water the center oftheir efforts throughout the Southeast. The Chickasaw were in the meantime trying toplay off the Americans and the Spanish against each other with little interest in theBritish. Turtle-at-Home (Selukuki Woheli), another of Dragging Canoes brothers, alongwith some seventy warriors, headed north to live and fight with the Shawnee.Cherokee continued to migrate westward to join Dragging Canoes followers, whoseranks were further swelled by runaway slaves, white Tories, Muscogee, Koasati,Kaskinampo, Yuchi, Natchez, and Shawnee, as well as a band of Chickasaw living atwhat was later known as Chickasaw Old Fields across from Guntersville, plus a fewSpanish, French, Irish, and Germans.Later major settlements of the Lower Cherokee (as were they called after the move)included Willstown (Titsohiliyi) near the later Fort Payne; Turkeytown(Gundigaduhunyi), at the head of the Cumberland Trail where the Upper Creek Pathcrossed the Coosa River near Centre, Alabama; Creek Path (Kusanunnahiyi), near at theintersection of the Great Indian Warpath with the Upper Creek Path at the modernGuntersville, Alabama; Turnip Town (Ulunyi), seven miles from the present-day Rome,Georgia; and Chatuga (Tsatugi), nearer the site of Rome. 22
  • 23. This expansion came about largely because of the influx of Cherokee from NorthGeorgia, who fled the depredations of expeditions such as those of Sevier; a largemajority of these were former inhabitants of the Lower Towns in northeast Georgia andwestern South Carolina. Cherokee from the Middle, or Hill, Towns also came, a group ofwhom established a town named Sawtee (Itsati) at the mouth of South Sauta Creek on theTennessee. Another town, Coosada, was added to the coalition when its Koasati andKaskinampo inhabitants joined Dragging Canoes confederation. Partly because of thelarge influx from North Georgia added to the fact that they were no longer occupying theChickamauga area as their main center, Dragging Canoes followers and others in the areabegan to be referred to as the Lower Cherokee, with he and his lieutenants remaining inthe leadership. Another visit from the orthIn November 1782, twenty representatives from four northern tribes--Wyandot, Ojibwa,Ottawa, and Potowatami--travelled south to consult with Dragging Canoe and hislieutenants at his new headquarters in Running Water Town, which was nestled far backup the hollow from the Tennessee River onto which it opened. Their mission was to gainthe help of Dragging Canoes Cherokee in attacking Pittsburgh and the Americansettlements in Kentucky and the Illinois country.[29] After the RevolutionEventually, Dragging Canoe realized the only solution for the various Indian nations tomaintain their independence was to unite in an alliance against the Americans. In additionto increasing his ties to McGillivray and the Upper Muscogee, with whom he workedmost often and in greatest numbers, he continued to send his warriors to fightingalongside the Shawnee, Choctaw, and Lenape.In January 1783, Dragging Canoe travelled to St. Augustine, the capital of East Florida,for a summit meeting with a delegation of northern tribes, and called for a federation ofIndians to oppose the Americans and their frontier colonists. Browne, the British IndianSuperintendent, approved the concept. At Tuckabatchee a few months later, a generalcouncil of the major southern tribes (Cherokee, Muscogee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, andSeminole) plus representatives of smaller groups (Mobile, Catawba, Biloxi, Huoma, etc.)took place to follow up, but plans for the federation were cut short by the signing of theTreaty of Paris. In June, Browne received orders from London to cease and desist.[30]Following that treaty, Dragging Canoe turned to the Spanish (who still claimed all theterritory south of the Cumberland and were now working against the Americans) forsupport, trading primarily through Pensacola and Mobile. What made this possible wasthat fact that the Spanish governor of Louisiana Territory in New Orleans had takenadvantage of the British setback to seize those ports. Dragging Canoe maintainedrelations with the British governor at Detroit, Alexander McKee, through regulardiplomatic missions there under his brothers Little Owl and The Badger (Ukuna). 23
  • 24. Chickasaw and Muscogee treatiesIn November, the Chickasaw signed the Treaty of French Lick with the new UnitedStates of America that year and never again took up arms against it. The Lower Cherokeewere also present at the conference and apparently made some sort of agreement to ceasetheir attacks on the Cumberland for after this Americans settlements in the area began togrow again.[31] That same month, the pro-American camp in the Muscogee nation signedthe Treaty of Augusta with the State of Georgia, enraging McGillivray, who wanted tokeep fighting; he burned the houses of the leaders responsible and sent warriors to raidGeorgia settlements.[32] Treaties of Hopewell and CoyateeThe Cherokee in the Overhill, Hill, and Valley Towns also signed a treaty with the newUnited States government, the 1785 Treaty of Hopewell, but in their case it was a treatymade under duress, the frontier colonials by this time having spread further along theHolston and onto the French Broad. Several leaders from the Lower Cherokee signed,including two from Chickamauga Town (which had been rebuilt) and one from LookoutMountain Town. None of the Lower Cherokee, however, had any part in the Treaty ofCoyatee, which new State of Franklin forced Corntassel and the other Overhill leaders tosign at gunpoint, ceding the remainder of the lands north of the Little Tennessee. Nor didthey have any part in the Treaty of Dumplin Creek, which ceded the remaining landwithin the claimed boundaries of Sevier County. The colonials could now shift militaryforces to Middle Tennessee in response to increasing frequency of attacks by bothChickamauga Cherokee (by now usually called Lower Cherokee) and Upper Muscogee. State of Franklin Main article: State of Franklin State of FranklinIn May 1785, the settlements of Upper East Tennessee, then comprising four counties ofwestern North Carolina, petitioned the Congress of the Confederation to be recognized asthe "State of Franklin". Even though their petition failed to receive the two-thirds votes 24
  • 25. necessary to qualify, they proceeded to organize what amounted to a secessionistgovernment, holding their first "state" assembly in December 1785. One of their chiefmotives was to retain the foothold they had recently gained in the Cumberland Basin. Attacks on the CumberlandIn the summer of 1786, Dragging Canoe and his warriors along with a large contingent ofMuscogee raided the Cumberland region, with several parties raiding well into Kentucky.John Sevier responded with a punitive raid on the Overhill Towns. One such occasionthat summer was notable for the fact that the raiding party was led by none other thanHanging Maw of Coyatee, who was supposedly friendly at the time. Formation of the Western ConfederacyIn addition to the small bands still operating with the Shawnee, Wyandot-Mingo, andLenape in the Northwest, a large contingent of Cherokee led by The Glass attended andtook an active role in a grand council of northern tribes (plus some Muscogee andChoctaw in addition to the Cherokee contingent) resisting the American advance into thewestern frontier which took place in November-December 1786 in the Wyandot town ofUpper Sandusky just south of the British capital of Detroit.[33]This meeting, initiated by Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea), the Mohawk leader who washead chief of the Iroquois Six Nations and like Dragging Canoe fought on the side of theBritish during the American Revolution, led to the formation of the Western Confederacyto resist American incursions into the Old Northwest. Dragging Canoe and his Cherokeewere full members of the Confederacy. The purpose of the Confederacy was tocoordinate attacks and defense in the Northwest Indian War of 1785-1795.According to John Norton (Teyoninhokovrawen), Brants adopted son, it was here thatThe Glass formed a friendship with his adopted father that lasted well into the 19thcentury. [34] He apparently served as Dragging Canoes envoy to the Iroquois as thelatters brothers did to McKee and to the Shawnee.The passage of the Northwest Ordinance by the Congress of the Confederation(subsequently affirmed by the United States Congress) in 1787, establishing theNorthwest Territory and essentially giving away the land upon which they lived, onlyexacerbated the resentment of the tribes in the region. Coldwater TownThe settlement of Coldwater was founded by a party of French traders who had comedown for the Wabash to set up a trading center in 1783. It sat a few miles below the footof the thirty-five mile long Muscle Shoals, near the mouth of Coldwater Creek and aboutthree hundred yards back from the Tennessee River, close the site of the modernTuscumbia, Alabama. For the next couple of years, trade was all the French did, but thenthe business changed hands. Around 1785, the new management began covertly 25
  • 26. gathering Cherokee and Muscogee warriors into the town, whom they then encouraged toattack the American settlements along the Cumberland and its environs. The fightingcontingent eventually numbered approximately nine Frenchmen, thirty-five Cherokee,and ten Muscogee. Cumberland River WatershedBecause the townsite was well-hidden and its presence unannounced, James Robertson,commander of the militia in the Cumberlands Davidson and Sumner Counties, at firstaccused the Lower Cherokee of the new offensives. In 1787, he marched his men to theirborders in a show of force, but without an actual attack, then sent an offer of peace toRunning Water. In answer, Dragging Canoe sent a delegation of leaders led by Little Owlto Nashville under a flag of truce to explain that his Cherokee were not the responsibleparties.Meanwhile, the attacks continued. At the time of the conference in Nashville, twoChickasaw out hunting game along the Tennessee in the vicinity of Muscle Shoalschanced upon Coldwater Town, where they were warmly received and spent the night.Upon returning home to Chickasaw Bluffs, now Memphis, Tennessee, they immediatelyinformed their head man, Piomingo, of their discovery. Piomingo then sent runners toNashville.Just after these runners had arrived in Nashville, a war party attacked one of its outlyingsettlements, killing Robertsons brother Mark. In response, Robertson raised a group ofone hundred fifty volunteers and proceeded south by a circuitous land route, guided bytwo Chickasaw. Somehow catching the town offguard despite the fact they knewRobertsons force was approaching, they chased its would-be defenders to the river,killing about half of them and wounding many of the rest. They then gathered all thetrade goods in the town to be shipped to Nashville by boat, burned the town, anddeparted.[35]After the wars, it became the site of Colberts Ferry, owned by Chickasaw leader GeorgeColbert, the crossing place over the Tennessee River of the Natchez Trace. 26
  • 27. Muscogee council at TuckabatcheeIn 1786, McGillivray had convened a council of war at the dominant Upper Muscogeetown of Tuckabatchee about recent incursions of Americans into their territory. Thecouncil decided to go on the warpath against the trespassers, starting with the recentsettlements along the Oconee River. McGillivray had already secured support from theSpanish in New Orleans.The following year, because of the perceived insult of the incursion Cumberland againstColdwater so near to their territory, the Muscogee also took up the hatchet against theCumberland settlements. They continued their attacks until 1789, but the Cherokee didnot join them for this round due partly to internal matters but more because of troublefrom the State of Franklin.Peak of Lower Cherokee power and influenceDragging Canoes last years, 1788-1792, were the peak of his influence and that of therest of the Lower Cherokee, among the other Cherokee and among other Indian nations,both south and north, as well as with the Spanish of Pensacola, Mobile, and New Orleans,and the British in Detroit. He also sent regular diplomatic envoys to negotiations inNashville, Jonesborough then Knoxville, and Philadelphia.Massacre of the Kirk familyIn May 1788, a party of Cherokee from Chilhowee came to the house of John Kirksfamily on Little River, while he and his oldest son, John Jr., were out. When Kirk andJohn Jr. returned, they found the other eleven members of their family dead and scalped.Massacre of the Brown familyAfter a preliminary trip to the Cumberland at the end of which he left two of his sons tobegin clearing the plot of land at the mouth of Whites Creek, James Brown returned toNorth Carolina to fetch the rest of the family, with whom he departed Long-Island-on-the-Holston by boat in May 1788. When they passed by Tuskegee Island five days later,Bloody Fellow stopped them, looked around the boat, then let them proceed, meanwhilesending messengers ahead to Running Water.Upon the familys arrival at Nickajack, a party of forty under mixed-blood John Vannboarded the boat and killed Col. Brown, his two older sons on the boat, and five otheryoung men travelling with the family. Mrs. Brown, the two younger sons, and threedaughters were taken prisoner and distributed to different families. 27
  • 28. When he learned of the massacre the following day, The Breath (Unlita), Nickajacksheadman, was seriously displeased. He later adopted into his own family the Browns sonJoseph as a son, who had been originally given to Kitegisky (Tsiagatali), who had firstadopted him as a brother, treating him well, and of whom Joseph had fond memories inlater years.Mrs. Brown and one of her daughters were given to the Muscogee and ended up thepersonal household of Alexander McGillivray. George, the elder of the surviving sons,also ended up with the Muscogee, but elsewhere. Another daughter went to a Cherokeenearby Nickajack and the third to a Cherokee in Crow Town.[36]Murders of the Overhill chiefsAt the beginning of June 1788, John Sevier, now no longer governor of the State ofFranklin, raised a hundred volunteers in June of that year and set out for the OverhillTowns. After a brief stop at the Little Tennessee, the group went to Great Hiwassee andburned it to the ground. Returning to Chota, Sevier send a detachment under JamesHubbard to Chilhowee to punish those responsible for the Kirk massacre, John Kirk Jr.among them. Hubbard brought along Corntassel and Hanging Man from Chota.At Chilhowee, Hubbard raised a flag of truce, took Corntassel and Hanging Man to thehouse of Abraham, still headman of Chilhowee, who was there with his son, alsobringing along Long Fellow and Fool Warrior. Hubbard posted guards at the door andwindows of the cabin, and gave John Kirk Jr. a tomahawk to get his revenge.The murder of the pacifist Overhill chiefs under a flag of truce angered the entireCherokee nation and resulted in those previously reluctant taking the warpath, an increasein hostility that lasted for several months. Doublehead, Corntassels brother, wasparticularly incensed.Highlighting the seriousness of the matter, Dragging Canoe came in to address thegeneral council of the Nation, now meeting at Ustanali on the Coosawattee River (one ofthe former Lower Towns on the Keowee River relocated to the vicinity of Calhoun,Georgia) to which the seat of the council had been moved, along with the election ofLittle Turkey (Kanagita) as First Beloved Man, an election contested by Hanging Maw ofCoyatee (who had been elected chief headman of the traditional Overhill Towns on theLittle Tennessee River), to succeed the murdered chief. Interestingly, both men had beenamong those who originally followed Dragging Canoe into the southwest of the nation,with Hanging Maw known to have been on the warpath at least as late as 1786.Dragging Canoes presence at the Ustanali council and the councils meetings now held inwhat was then the area of the Lower Towns (but to which Upper Cherokee from theOverhill towns were migrating in vast numbers), as well as his acceptance of the electionof his former co-belligerent Little Turkey as principal leader over all the Cherokee nation,are graphic proof that he and his followers remained Cherokee and were not a separatetribe as some, following Brown, allege. 28
  • 29. Houstons StationIn early August, the commander of the garrison at Houstons Station (near the presentMaryville, Tennessee, received word that a Cherokee force of nearly five hundred wasplanning to attack his position. He therefore sent a large reconnaissance patrol to theOverhill Towns.Stopping in the town of Citico on the south side of the Little Tennessee, which theyfound deserted, the patrol scattered throughout the towns orchard and began gatheringfruit. Six of them died in the first fusilade, another ten while attempting to escape acrossthe river.With the loss of those men, the garrison at Houstons Station was seriously beleaguered.Only the arrival of a relief force under John Sevier saved the fort from being overrun andits inhabitants slaughtered. With the garrison joining his force, Sevier marched to theLittle Tennessee and burned Chilhowee.Invasion and counter-invasionLater in August, Joseph Martin (who was married to Betsy, daughter of Nancy Ward, andliving at Chota), with 500 men, marched to the Chickamauga area, intending to penetratethe edge of the Cumberland Mountains to get to the Five Lower Towns. He sent adetachment to secure the pass over the foot of Lookout Mountain (Atalidandaganu),which was ambushed and routed by a large party of Dragging Canoes warriors, with theCherokee in hot pursuit.[37] One of the participants later referred to the spot as "the placewhere we made the Virginians turn their backs".[38] According to one of the participantson the other side, Dragging Canoe, John Watts, Bloody Fellow, Kitegisky, The Glass,Little Owl, and Dick Justice were all present at the encounter.[39] Lookout Mountain from Moccasin BendThe army of Cherokee warriors Dragging Canoe raised in response reached threethousand in total, split into warbands hundreds strong each. One of these warbands washeaded by John Watts (Kunnessee-i; also known as Young Tassel) with Bloody Fellow, 29
  • 30. Kitegisky (Tsiagatali), and The Glass, and included a young warrior named or Pathkiller( unnehidihi), later known as The Ridge (Ganundalegi).In October of that year, the band advanced across country toward Whites Fort. Along theway, they attacked Gillespies Station on the Holston River after capturing settlers whohad left the enclosure to work in the fields, storming the stockade when the defendersammunition ran out, killing the men and some of the women and taking twenty-eightwomen and children prisoner. They then proceeded to attack Whites Fort and HoustonsStation only to be beaten back.[40][41] Afterwards, the warband wintered at an encampmenton the Flint River in present day Unicoi County, Tennessee as a base of operations.[42]In return, punishment attacks by the settlers militia increased. Troops under Sevierdestroyed the Valley Towns in North Carolina. At Ustalli, on the Hiwassee, thepopulation had been evacuated by Cherokee warriors led by Bob Benge, who left arearguard to ensure their escape. After lighting the town, Sevier and his group pursued itsfleeing inhabitants, but were ambushed at the mouth of the Valley River by Bengesparty. From there they went to the village of Coota-cloo-hee (Gadakaluyi) and proceededto burn down its cornfields, but were chased off by 400 warriors led by John Watts(Young Tassel).[43][44]One result of the above destruction is that the Overhill Cherokee and the refugees fromother parts of the nation among them all but completely abandoned the settlements on theLittle Tennessee and dispersed south and west, with Chota being virtually the only townleft with any inhabitants. The Flint Creek band/Prisoner exchangeJohn Watts band on Flint Creek fell upon serious misfortune early the next year. In earlyJanuary 1789, they were surrounded by a force under John Sevier that was equipped withgrasshopper cannons. The gunfire from the Cherokee was so intense, however, thatSevier abandoned his heavy weapons and ordered a cavalry charge that led to savagehand-to-hand fighting. Watts band lost nearly 150 warriors.[45]Word of their defeat did not reach Running Water until April, when it arrived with anoffer from Sevier for an exchange of prisoners which specifically mentioned thesurviving members of the Brown family, including Joseph, who had been adopted first byKitegisky and later by The Breath.[46] Among those captured at Flint Creek were BloodyFellow and Little Turkeys daughter.[47]Joseph and his sister Polly were brought immediately to Running Water, but whenrunners were sent to Crow Town to retrieve Jane, their youngest sister, her owner refusedto surrender her. Bob Benge, present in Running Water at the time, he mounted his horseand hefted his famous axe, saying, "I will bring the girl, or the owners head". The nextmorning he returned with Jane.[48] The three were handed over to Sevier at Coosawattee. 30
  • 31. McGillivray delivered Mrs. Brown and Elizabeth to her son William during a trip toRock Landing, Georgia, in November. George, the other surviving son from the trip,remained with the Muscogee until 1798.[49] Blow to the Western ConfederacyIn January 1789, Arthur St. Clair, American governor of the Northwest Territory,concluded two separate peace treaties with members of the Western Confederacy. Thefirst was with the Iroquois, except for the Mohawk, and the other was with the Wyandot,Lenape, Ottawa, Potawotami, Sac, and Ojibway. The Mohawk, the Shawnee, the Miami,and the tribes of the Wabash Confederacy, who had been doing most of the fighting, notonly refused to go along but became more aggressive, especially the Wabash tribes.[50] Chiksikas band of ShawneeIn early 1789, a band of thirteen Shawnee arrived in Running Water after spendingseveral months hunting in the Missouri River country, led by Chiksika, a leadercontemporary with the famous Blue Jacket (Weyapiersenwah). In the band was hisbrother, the later leader Tecumseh.Their mother, a Muscogee, had left the north (her husband died at the Battle of PointPleasant, the only major action of Dunmores War, in 1774) and gone to live in her oldtown because without her husband she was homesick. The town was now near those ofthe Cherokee in the Five Lower Towns. Their mother had died, but Chiksikas Cherokeewife and his daughter were living at nearby Running Water Town, so they stayed.They were warmly received by the Cherokee warriors, and, based out of Running Water,they participated in and conducted raids and other actions, in some of which Cherokeewarriors participated (most notably Bob Benge). Chiksika was killed in one of the actionsin their band took part in April, resulting in Tecumseh becoming leader of the smallShawnee band, gaining his first experiences as a leader in warfare.The band remained at Running Water until late 1790, then returned north, having beenlong gone.[51][52] The "Miro Conspiracy"Starting in 1786, the leaders of the State of Franklin and the Cumberland District begansecret negotiations with Esteban Rodriguez Miro, governor of Spanish Louisiana, todeliver their regions to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire. Those involved includedJames Robertson, Daniel Smith, and Anthony Bledsoe of the Cumberland District, JohnSevier and Joseph Martin of the State of Franklin, James White, recently-appointedAmerican Superintendent for Southern Indian Affairs (replacing Thomas Browne), andJames Wilkinson of Kentucky. 31
  • 32. Coat-of-Arms of the Kingdom of SpainThe irony lay in the fact that the Spanish backed the Cherokee and Muscogee harassingtheir territories. Their main counterpart on the Spanish side in New Orleans was Diego deGardoqui. Gardoquis negotiations with Wilkinson, initiated by the latter, to bringKentucky into the Spanish orbit also were separate but simultaneous.The "conspiracy" went as far as the Franklin and Cumberland officials promising to takethe oath of loyalty to Spain and renounce allegiance to any other nation. Robertson wentas far as having the North Carolina assembly create the "Mero District" out of the threeCumberland counties (Davidson, Sumner, Tennessee). There was even a convention heldin the failing State of Franklin on the question, and those present voted in its favor.A large part of their motivation, besides the desire to secede from North Carolina, wasthe hope that this course of action would bring relief from Indian attacks. The series ofnegotiations involved McGillivray, with Roberston and Bledsoe writing him of the MeroDistricts peaceful intentions toward the Muscogee and simultaneously sending White asemissary to Gardoqui to convey news of their overture.[53]The scheme fell apart for two main reasons. The first was the dithering of the Spanishgovernment in Madrid. The second was the interception of a letter from Joseph Martinwhich fell into the hands of the Georgia legislature in January 1789.North Carolina, to which the western counties in question belonged under the laws of theUnited States, took the simple expedient of ceding the region to the federal government,which established the Southwest Territory in May 1790. Of note is the fact that under thenew regime the Mero District kept its name.Wilkinson remained a paid Spanish agent until his death in 1825, including his years asone of the top generals in the U.S. army, and was involved in the Aaron Burr conspiracy.Ironically, he became the first American governor of Louisiana Territory in 1803. 32
  • 33. DoubleheadThe opposite end of Muscle Shoals from Coldwater Town, mentioned above, wasoccupied in 1790 by a roughly forty-strong party under the infamous Doublehead(Taltsuska), plus their families. He had gained permission to establish his town at thehead of the Shoals, which was in Chickasaw territory, because the local headman, GeorgeColbert, the mixed-blood leader who later owned Colberts Ferry at the foot of MuscleShoals, was his son-in-law.Like that of the former residents, Doubleheads Coldwater Town was mixed, withCherokee, Muscogee, Shawnee, and a few Chickasaw, and quickly grew beyond theinitial forty warriors, who carried out many small raids against the Cumberland and intoKentucky. During one of the more notable of these forays in June 1792, his warriorsambushed a canoe carrying the three sons of Valentine Sevier (brother of John) and threeothers out on a scouting expedition searching for his party, killing the three Seviers andanother of the expedition, with two escaping.Doublehead conducted his operations largely independent of the Lower Cherokee, thoughhe did take part in large operations with them on occasion, such as the invasion of theCumberland in 1792 and that of the Holston in 1793.[54] Treaty of ew YorkDragging Canoes long-time ally among the Muscogee, Alexander McGillivray, led adelegation of twenty-seven leaders north, where they signed the Treaty of New York inAugust 1790 with the United States government on behalf of the "Upper, Middle, andLower Creek and Seminole composing the Creek nation of Indians". However, thesigners did not represent even half the Muscogee Confederacy, and there was muchresistance to the treaty from the peace faction he had attacked after the Treaty of Augustaas well as the faction of the Confederacy who wished to continue the war and did so. Muscle ShoalsIn January 1791, a group of land speculators named the Tennessee Company from theSouthwest Territory led by James Hubbard and Peter Bryant attempted to gain control ofthe Muscle Shoals and its vicinity by building a settlement and fort at the head of theShoals. They did so against an executive order of President Washington forbidding it, asrelayed to them by the governor of the Southwest Territory, William Blount. The Glasscame down from Running Water with sixty warriors and descended upon the defenders,captained by Valentine Sevier, brother of John, told them to leave immediately or bekilled, then burned their blockhouse as they departed.[55] Bob BengeStarting in 1791, Benge, and his brother The Tail (Utana; aka Martin Benge), based atWillstown, began leading attacks against settlers in East Tennessee, Southwest Virginia, 33
  • 34. and Kentucky, often in conjunction with Doublehead and his warriors from Coldwater.Eventually, he became one of the most feared warriors on the frontier. [56]Meanwhile, Muscogee scalping parties began raiding the Cumberland settlements again,though without mounting any major campaigns. Treaty of HolstonThe Treaty of Holston, signed in July 1791, required from the Upper Towns more land inreturn for continued peace because the government proved unable to stop or roll backillegal settlements. However, it also seemed to guarantee Cherokee sovereignty and ledthe Upper Cherokee chiefs to believe they had the same status as states. Severalrepresentatives of the Lower Cherokee in the negotiations and signed the treaty, includingJohn Watts, Doublehead, Bloody Fellow, Black Fox (Dragging Canoes nephew), TheBadger (his brother), and Rising Fawn (Agiligina; aka George Lowery). Battle of the WabashLithograph of Little Turtle, reputedly based upon a lost portrait by Gilbert Stuart,destroyed when the British burned Washington, D.C. in 1814.[57]Later in the summer, a small delegation of Cherokee under Dragging Canoes brotherLittle Owl traveled north to meet with the Indian leaders of the Western Confederacy,chief among them Blue Jacket (Weyapiersenwah) of the Shawnee and Little Turtle(Mishikinakwa) of the Miami. While they were there, word arrived at Running Water thatArthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory, was planning an invasion againstthe allied tribes in the north. Little Owl immediately sent word south. 34
  • 35. Dragging Canoe quickly sent a 30-strong war party north under his brother The Badger,where, along with the warriors of Little Owl and Turtle-at-Home they participated in thedecisive encounter in November 1791 known as the Battle of the Wabash, the worstdefeat ever inflicted by Native Americans upon the American military, the Americanmilitary body count of which far surpassed that at the more famous Battle of the LittleBighorn in 1876.After the battle, Little Owl, The Badger, and Turtle-at-Home returned south with most ofthe warriors whod accompanied the first two. The warriors whod come north yearsearlier, both with Turtle-at-Home and a few years before, remained in the Ohio region,but the returning warriors brought back a party of thirty Shawnee under the leadership ofone known as Shawnee Warrior that frequently operated alongside warriors under LittleOwl. Death of "the savage apoleon"Inspired by news of the northern victory, Dragging Canoe embarked on a mission to unitethe native people of his area as had Little Turtle and Blue Jacket, visiting the other majortribes in the region. His embassies to the Lower Muscogee and the Choctaw weresuccessful, but the Chickasaw in West Tennessee refused his overtures. Upon his return,which coincided with that of The Glass and Dick Justice (Uwenahi Tsusti), and of Turtle-at-Home, from successful raids on settlements along the Cumberland (in the case of theformer two) and in Kentucky (in the case of the latter), a huge all-night celebration washeld at Lookout Mountain Town at which the Eagle Dance was performed in his honor.By morning, March 1, 1792, Dragging Canoe was dead. A procession of honor carriedhis body to Running Water, where he was buried. By the time of his death, the resistanceof the Chickamauga/Lower Cherokee had led to grudging respect from the settlers, aswell as the rest of the Cherokee nation. He was even memorialized at the general councilof the Nation held in Ustanali in June by his nephew Black Fox (Inali):The Dragging Canoe has left this world. He was a man of consequence in his country. Hewas friend to both his own and the white people. His brother [Little Owl] is still in place,and I mention it now publicly that I intend presenting him with his deceased brothersmedal; for he promises fair to possess sentiments similar to those of his brother, bothwith regard to the red and the white. It is mentioned here publicly that both red and whitemay know it, and pay attention to him.[58] The final yearsThe last years of the Chickamauga wars saw John Watts, who had spent much of the warsaffecting friendship and pacifism towards his American counterparts while living most ofthe time among the Overhill Cherokee, drop his facade as he took over from his mentor,though deception and artifice still formed part of his diplomatic repertoire. 35
  • 36. John WattsAt his own previous request, the old warrior was succeeded as leader of the LowerCherokee by John Watts (Kunokeski), although The Bowl (Diwali) succeeded him asheadman of Running Water[59], along with Bloody Fellow and Doublehead, whocontinued Dragging Canoes policy of Indian unity, including an agreement withMcGillivray of the Upper Muscogee to build joint blockhouses from which warriors ofboth tribes could operate at the junction of the Tennessee and Clinch Rivers, at RunningWater, and at Muscle Shoals.Watts, Tahlonteeskee, and Young Dragging Canoe (whose actual name was Tsula, or"Red Fox") travelled to Pensacola in May at the invitation of Arturo ONeill, Spanishgovernor of West Florida. They took with them letters of introduction from JohnMcDonald. Once there, they forged a treaty with ONeill for arms and supplies withwhich to carry on the war.[60] Upon returning north, Watts moved his base of operationsto Willstown in order to be closer to his Muscogee allies and his Spanish supply line. Tennessee River Gorge from Snoopers RockWatts at the time of Dragging Canoes death had been serving as an interpreter duringnegotiations in Chota between the American government and the Overhill Cherokee.Throughout the wars, up until the time he became principal chief of the Lower Cherokee,he continued to live in the Overhill Towns as much as much as in the Chickamauga andLower Towns, and many whites mistook him for a non-belligerent, most notably JohnSevier when he mistakenly contracted Watts to guide him to Dragging Canoesheadquarters in September 1782.Meanwhile John McDonald, now British Indian Affairs Superintendent, moved toTurkeytown with his assistant Daniel Ross and their families. Some of the older chiefs,such as The Glass of Running Water, The Breath of Nickajack, and Dick Justice ofLookout Mountain Town, abstained from active warfare but did nothing to stop thewarriors in their towns from taking part in raids and campaigns. 36
  • 37. That summer, the band of Shawnee Warrior and the party of Little Owl began joining theraids of the Muscogee on the Mero District. In late June, they attacked a small fortifiedsettlement called Zieglers Station, swarming it, killing the men and taking the womenand children prisoner.[61] Buchanans StationIn September 1792, Watts orchestrated a large campaign intending to attack the Holstonregion with a large combined army in four bands of two hundred each. When the warriorswere mustering at Lookout Mountain Town, however, he learned that their planned attackwas expected and decided to aim for Nashville instead.The army Watts led into the Cumberland region was nearly a thousand strong, includinga contingent of cavalry. It was to be a four-pronged attack in which Tahlonteeskee(Ataluntiski; Doubleheads brother) and Bob Benges brother The Tail led a party toambush the Kentucky Road, Doublehead with another to the Cumberland Road, andMiddle Striker (Yaliunoyuka) led another to do the same on the Walton Road, whileWatts himself led the main force, made up of 280 Cherokee, Shawnee, and Muscogeewarriors plus cavalry, intending to go against the fort at Nashville.He sent out George Fields (Unegadihi; "Whitemankiller") and John Walker, Jr.(Sikwaniyoha) as scouts ahead of the army, and they killed the two scouts sent out byJames Robertson from Nashville.Near their target on the evening of 30 September, Wattss combined force came upon asmall fort known as Buchanans Station. Talotiskee, leader of the Muscogee, wanted toattack it immediately, while Watts argued in favor of saving it for the return south. Aftermuch bickering, Watts gave in around midnight. The assault proved to be a disaster forWatts. He himself was wounded, and many of his warriors were killed, includingTalotiskee and some of Watts best leaders; Shawnee Warrior, Kitegisky, and DraggingCanoes brother Little Owl were among those who died in the encounter.Doubleheads group of sixty ambushed a party of six and took one scalp then headed fortoward Nashville. On their way, they were attacked by a militia force and lost thirteenmen, and only heard of the disaster at Buchanans Station afterwards. Tahlonteeskeesparty, meanwhile, stayed out into early October, attacking Blacks Station on CrookedCreek, killing three, wounding more, and capturing several horses. Middle Strikers partywas more successful, ambushing a large armed force coming to the Mero District downthe Walton Road in November and routing it completely without losing a singleman.[62][63]In revenge for the deaths at Buchanans Station, Benge, Doublehead, and his brotherPumpkin Boy led a party of sixty into southwestern Kentucky in early 1793 during whichtheir warriors, in an act initiated by Doublehead, cooked and ate the enemies they hadjust killed. Afterwards, Doubleheads party returned south and held scalp dances at 37
  • 38. Lookout Mountain Town, Turnip Town, and Willstown, since warriors from those townshad also participated in the raid in addition to his and Benges groups.[64]Joseph, of the Brown family discussed above, was a member of the stations garrison buthad been at his mothers house three miles away at the time of the battle. When helearned of the death of his friend Kitegisky, he is reported to have mourned greatly. Muscogee attack the Holston and the CumberlandMeanwhile, a party of Muscogee under a mixed-breed named Lesley invaded the Holstonregion and began attacking isolated farmsteads. Lesleys party continued harassment ofthe Holston settlements until the summer of 1794, when Hanging Maw sent his menalong with the volunteers from the Holston settlements to pursue them, killing two andhanding over a third to the whites for trial and execution.[65]After the failed Cherokee attack on Buchanans Station, the Muscogee increased theirattacks on the Cumberland in both size and frequency. Besides scalping raids, two partiesattacked Bledsoes Station and Greenfield Station in April of 1793. Another partyattacked Hays Station in June. In August, the Koasati from Coosada raided the countryaround Clarksville, Tennessee, attacking the homestead of the Baker family, killing allbut two who escaped and one taken prisoner who was later ransomed at Coosada Town.A war party of Tuskeegee from the Muscogee town of that name was also active inMiddle Tennessee at this time.[66] Attack on a Cherokee diplomatic partyIn early 1793, Watts began rotating large war parties back and forth between the LowerTowns and the North at the behest of his allies in the Western Confederacy, which wasbeginning to lose the ground to the Legion of the United States, which had been createdin the aftermath of the Battle of the Wabash. With the exception of the 1793 campaignagainst the Holston, his attention was more focused on the north than on the SouthwestTerritory and its environs during these next two years. 38
  • 39. Upper East TennesseeShortly after a delegation of Shawnee stopped in Ustanali in that spring on their way tocall on the Muscogee and Choctaw to punish the Chickasaw for joining St. Clairs armyin the north, Watts sent envoys to Knoxville, then the capital of the Southwest Territory,to meet with Governor William Blount to discuss terms for peace. Blount in turn passedthe offer to Philadelphia, which invited the Lower Cherokee leaders to a meeting withPresident Washington. The party that was sent from the Lower Towns that May includedBob McLemore, Tahlonteeskee, Captain Charley of Running Water, and Doublehead,among several others.The party from the Lower Towns stopped in Coyatee because Hanging Maw and otherchiefs from the Upper Towns were going also and had gathered there along with severalwhites who had arrived earlier. A large party of Lower Cherokee (Pathkiller aka TheRidge among them) had been raiding the Upper East, killed two men, and stolen twentyhorses. On their way out, they passed through Coyatee, to which the pursuit party trackedthem.The militia violated their orders not to cross the Little Tennessee, then the borderbetween the Cherokee nation and the Southwest Territory, and entered the town shootingindiscriminantly. In the ensuing chaos, eleven leading men were killed, including CaptainCharley, and several wounded, including Hanging Maw, his wife and daughter,Doublehead, and Tahlonteeskee; one of the white delegates was among the dead. TheCherokee, even Watts hostile warriors, agreed to await the outcome of the subsequenttrial, which proved to be a farce, in large part because John Beard, the man responsible,was a close friend of John Sevier.[67][68] 39
  • 40. Invasion and Cavetts StationWatts responded to Beards acquittal by invading the Holston area with one of the largestIndian forces ever seen in the region, over one thousand Cherokee and Muscogee, plus afew Shawnee, intending to attack Knoxville itself. The plan was to have four bodies oftroops march toward Knoxville esparately, converging at a previously agreed onrendezvous point along the way.In August, Watts attacked Henrys Station with a force of two hundred, but fell back dueto overwhelming gunfire coming from the fort, not wanting to risk another misfortunelike that at Buchanans Station the previous year.The four columns converged a month later near the present Loudon, Tennessee, andproceeded toward their target. On the way, the Cherokee leaders were discussing amongthemselves whether to kill all the inhabitants of Knoxville, or just the men, James Vannadvocating the latter while Doublehead argued for the former.Further on the way, they encountered a small settlement called Cavetts Station. Afterthey had surrounded the place, Benge negotiated with the inhabitants, agreeing that ifthey surrendered, their lives would be spared. However, after the settlers had walked out,Doubleheads group and his Muscogee allies attacked and began killing them all over thepleas of Benge and the others. Vann managed to grab one small boy and pull him onto hissaddle, only to have Doublehead smash the boys skull with an axe. Watts intervened intime to save another young boy, handing him to Vann, who put the boy behind him on hishorse and later handed him over to three of the Muscogee for safe-keeping; unfortunately,one of the Muscogee chiefs killed the boy and scalped him a few days later.Because of this incident, Vann called Doublehead "Babykiller" (deliberately parodyingthe honorable title "Mankiller") for the remainder of his life; and it also began a lengthyfeud which defined the politics of the early 19th century Cherokee Nation and only endedin 1807 with Doubleheads death at Vanns orders. By this time, tensions among theCherokee broke out into such vehement arguments that the force broke up, with the maingroup retiring south. Battle of Etowah Main article: Battle of HightowerSevier countered the invasion with an invasion and occupation of Ustanali, which hadbeen deserted; there was no fighting there other than an indecisive skirmish with aCherokee-Muscogee scouting party. He and his men then followed the Cherokee-Muscogee force south to the town of Etowah (Itawayi; near the site of present-dayCartersville, Georgia across the Etowah River from the Etowah Indian Mounds), leadingto what Sevier called the "Battle of Hightower". His force defeated their opponentssoundly, then went on to destroy several Cherokee villages to the west before retiring toTennessee. This was the last pitched battle of the Chickamauga Wars. 40
  • 41. End of the Chickamauga WarsIn late June 1794, the federal government signed yet another treaty with the Cherokee,the Treaty of Philadelphia, which essentially reaffirmed the land cessions of the 1785Treaty of Hopwell and the 1791 Treaty of Holston. Of note is that fact that it was signedby both Doublehead and Bloody Fellow. Muscle Shoals MassacreLater in the summer, a party of Cherokee under Whitemankiller (Unegadihi; aka GeorgeFields) overtook a river party under one William Scott at Muscle Shoals, killing its whitepassengers, looting its goods, and taking the slaves captive. Final engagementsIn August of that year, Thomas Browne (now working as Indian Agent to the Chickasawfor the United States) sent word from Chickasaw territory to General Robertson of theMero District, as the Cumberland region was then called, that the Cherokee andMuscogee were about to launch attacks all along the river. One party of 100 was going totake canoes down the Tennessee to the lower river while another of 400 was going toattack overland after passing through the Five Lower Towns and picking upreinforcements.The river party actually began on their way to make the attacks, but dissension in thelarger mixed Muscogee-Cherokee overland party caused by the actions of Hanging Mawagainst the party of Lesley in the Holston region broke them up before they reached thearea, and only three small parties made it to the Cumberland, operating into at leastSeptember. The ickajack Expedition Main article: Nickajack ExpeditionDesiring to end the wars once and for all, Robertson sent a detachment of U.S. regulartroops, Mero militia, and Kentucky volunteers to the Five Lower Towns under U.S.Army Major James Ore. Guided by those who knew the area, including former captiveJoseph Brown, Ores army travelled down the Cisca and St. Augustine Trail toward theFive Lower Towns.On 13 September, the army attacked Nickajack without warning, slaughtering many ofthe inhabitants, including its pacifist chief The Breath, then after torching the housesproceeded upriver to burn Running Water, whose residents had long fled. Brown took anactive part in the fighting but is known to have attempted to spare women and children. 41
  • 42. The actual Cherokee casualties were much lighter than they might have been because themajority of both towns were in Willstown attending a major stickball (similar to lacrosse)game. Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse The Tellico Blockhouse site, with posts and stone fill showing the original layoutThe destruction of the two towns combined with the death of Bob Benge in April and therecent defeat of the Western Confederacy by General "Mad Anthony" Waynes army atthe Battle of Fallen Timbers (at which over a hundred Cherokee warriors fought) inAugust of that year, plus the fact that the Spanish could not support the Cherokee war dueto problems they were having with Napoleon I of France in Europe, convinced Watts toend the fighting once and for all. Two months later, 7 November 1794, the Treaty ofTellico Blockhouse finally ended the series of conflicts, which was notable for notrequiring any further cession of land other than requiring the Lower (or Chickamauga)Cherokee to recognize those of the Holston treaty, which led to a period of relative peaceinto the 19th century. AssessmentCounting the previous two years of all the Cherokee fighting openly as British allies, theChickamauga Wars lasted nearly twenty years, one of the longest-running conflictsbetween Indians and the Americans, often overlooked for its length, its importance at thetime, and its influence on later Native American leaders (or considering that Cherokeehad been involved at least in small numbers in all the conflicts beginning in 1758, thatnumber could be nearly forty years). Because of the continuing hostilities that followedthe Revolution, one of two permanent garrisons in the territory of the new country wasplaced at Fort Southwest Point at the confluence of the Tennessee and Clinch Rivers, theother being Fort Pitt in Pennsylvania. No less under-rated are Dragging Canoes abilitiesas a war leader and diplomat, and even today he is scarcely mentioned in texts dealingwith conflicts between "Americans" and "Indians". 42
  • 43. AftermathFollowing the peace treaty, there was no further separation of the main Cherokee nationand the Lower Cherokee, at least on paper. Leaders from the Lower Cherokee weredominant in national affairs. When the national government of all the Cherokee wasorganized, the first three persons to hold the office of Principal Chief of the CherokeeNation - Little Turkey (1788-1801), Black Fox (1801-1811), and Pathkiller ( unnehidihi;1811-1827) - had previously served as warriors under Dragging Canoe, as had the firsttwo Speakers of the Cherokee National Council, established in 1794, Doublehead andTurtle-at-Home.The domination of Cherokee nation by the former warriors from the Lower Townscontinued well into the 19th century. Even after the revolt of the young chiefs of theUpper Towns, the Lower Towns were a major voice, and the "young chiefs" of the UpperTowns who dominated that region had themselves previously been warriors withDragging Canoe and Watts. Post-war settlements of the CherokeeMany of the former warriors returned to several of the original settlements in theChickamauga area, some of which had already been reoccupied, establishing new townsin the area as well, plus several in North Georgia aside from moving into those previouslyestablished by those forcibly removed from the Lower Towns in western South Carolina(such as Itawa, or Etowah), and joining with the remnant of the Overhill towns on theLittle Tennessee River were referred to as the Upper Towns, with their center at Ustanaliin Georgia and with the former warriors James Vann and his proteges The Ridge(Ganundalegi; formerly known as Pathkiller, or unnehidihi) and Charles R. Hicks (alsonamed unnehidihi in Cherokee) as their top leaders, along with John Lowery, GeorgeLowery, Bob McLemore, John Walker, Jr., George Fields, and others. The leaders ofthese towns were the most progressive, favoring extensive acculturation, formaleducation, and modern methods of farming.For a decade of more after the end of the wars, the northern section of the Upper Townshad their own council and acknowledged the top headman of the Overhill Towns as theirleader, but they were gradually driven south by land cessions. 43
  • 44. The Ridge (Ganundalegi), formerly known as Pathkiller ( unnehidihi)John McDonald returned to his old home on the Chickamauga River, across from OldChickamauga Town, and lived there until selling it in 1816 to the Boston-based AmericanBoard of Commissioners for Foreign Missions upon which to establish Brainerd Mission,which served as both a church (named the Baptist Church of Christ at Chickamauga) anda school offering both academic and vocational training. His daughter Mollie and son-in-law Daniel Ross made a farm and trading post near the old village of Chatanuga(Tsatanugi) from the early days of the wars; along with them came sons Lewis andAndrew, a number of daughters, and another son born at Turkey Town, later to becomethe most famous, named John.The majority of the Lower Cherokee remained in the towns they inhabited in 1794, withtheir seat at Willstown, known as the Lower Towns. Their leaders were John Watts,Bloody Fellow, Doublehead, Black Fox, Pathkiller, Dick Justice, The Glass,Tahlonteeskee (brother of Doublehead), John Jolly (Ahuludiski; his nephew and adoptedfather of Sam Houston), John Brown (owner of Browns Tavern, Browns Landing, andBrowns Ferry, as well as judge of the Chickamauga District of the Cherokee Nation),Young Dragging Canoe, Richard Fields, and red-headed Will Weber, for whom Titsohiliwas called Willstown, among others. The former warriors of the Lower Towns dominatedthe political affairs of the Nation for the next twenty years and were in many ways moreconservative, adopting many facets of acculturation but keeping as many of the old waysas possible.[69]Roughly speaking, the Lower Towns were south and southwest of the Hiwassee Riveralong the Tennessee down to the north border of the Muscogee nation and west of theConasauga and Ustanali in Georgia while the Upper Towns were north and east of the 44
  • 45. Hiwassee and between the Chattahoochee and Conasauga. This was approximately thesame area as the later Amohee, Chickamauga, and Chattooga Districts of the CherokeeNation East.[70]The settlements of the Cherokee remaining in the highlands of western North Carolinawhich had become known as the Hill Towns, with their seat at Quallatown, and thelowland Valley Towns, with their seat now at Tuskquitee, were more traditional, as wasthe Upper Town of Etowah, notable for being inhabited mostly by full-bloods and forbeing the largest town in the Nation.All four regions had their own councils, which predominated in importance over thenominal nation council until the reorganization in 1810 after the council that year atWillstown. Muscogee-Chickasaw WarThe Muscogee kept on fighting after the destruction of Nickajack and Running Water andthe following peace between the Lower Cherokee and the United States. In October 1794,they attacked Bledsoes Station again. In November, they attacked Seviers Station andmassacred fourteen of the inhabitants, Valentine Sevier being one of the few survivors. Inearly January 1795, however, the Chickasaw, who had sent warriors to take part in theArmy of the Northwest, began killing Muscogee warriors found in Middle Tennessee asallies of the United States and taking their scalps, so in March, the Muscogee began toturn their attentions away from the Cumberland to the Chickasaw, over the entreaties ofthe Cherokee and the Choctaw.The Muscogee-Chickasaw War, also begun partly at the behest of the Shawnee to punishthe Chickasaw for joining the Army of the Northwest at the Battle of Fallen Timbers,ended in a truce negotiated by the U.S. government at Tellico Blockhouse in October thatyear in a conference attended by the two belligerents and the Cherokee. The Muscogeesigned their own peace treaty with the United States in June 1796.[71] Treaty of GreenvilleThe northern allies of the Lower Cherokee in the Western Confederacy signed the Treatyof Greenville with the United States in August 1795, ending the Northwest Indian War.The treaty required them to cede the territory that became the State of Ohio and part ofwhat became the State of Indiana to the United States and to acknowledge the UnitedStates rather Great Britain as the predominant ruler of the Northwest.None of the Cherokee in the North were present at the treaty. Later that month, Gen.Wayne sent a message to Long Hair (Gitlugunahita), leader of those who remained in theOhio country, that they should come in and sue for peace. In response, Long Hair repliedthat all of them would return south as soon as they finished the harvest.[72] However, theydid not all do so; at least one, called Shoe Boots (Dasigiyagi), stayed in the area until1803, so it’s likely others did as well. 45
  • 46. Leaders of the Lower Towns in peacetimeJohn Watts remained the head of the council of the Lower Cherokee at Willstown untilhis death in 1802. Afterwards, Doublehead, already a member of the triumvirate, movedinto that position and held it until his death in 1807 at the hands of The Ridge, AlexanderSaunders (best friend to James Vann), and John Rogers, a white former trader who hadfirst come west with Dragging Canoe in 1777 and was now considered a member of thenation, even sitting on the council. He was succeeded by The Glass, who was alsoassistant principal chief of the nation to Black Fox, and remained at the head of theLower Towns council until the unification council in 1810.By the time of the visit to the area by John Norton (a Mohawk of Cherokee and Scottishancestry) in 1809–1810, many of the formerly militant Cherokee were among the mostacculturated members of the Cherokee nation. James Vann, for instance, was a plantationowner with over a hundred slaves and one of the wealthiest men east of the Mississippi.Norton became a personal friend of Turtle-at-Home as well as John Walker, Jr. and TheGlass, who were all involved in business and commerce. At the time of Norton’s visit,Turtle-at-Home himself owned a ferry on the Federal Road between Nashville andAthens, Georgia, where he lived at Nickajack, which had itself spread not only down theTennessee but across it to the north as well, eclipsing Running Water.When pressure began to be applied to the Cherokee Nation for its members to emigratewestward across the Mississippi, leaders of the Lower Towns, such as Tahlonteeskee,Degadoga, John Jolly, Richard Fields, John Brown, Bob McLemore, John Rogers, YoungDragging Canoe, George Guess (Tsiskwaya, or Sequoyah) and Tatsi (aka Captain Dutch)spearheaded the way. These men established in Arkansas Territory what later became theCherokee Nation West, which moved to Indian Territory after the treaty in Washington of1828 between their nation and the federal government, becoming the "Old Settlers".Likewise, the remaining leaders of the Lower Towns proved to be the strongest advocatesof voluntary westward emigration, even as they were most bitterly opposed by thoseformer warriors and their offspring who led the Upper Towns. Many of the latter, such asMajor Ridge (as The Ridge had been known since his military service during the Creekand First Seminole Wars), his son John Ridge, his nephews Elias Boudinot and StandWatie, ultimately switched sides to join westward emigration advocates John Walker, Jr.,David Vann, and Andrew Ross (brother of then Principal Chief John Ross) leading to theTreaty of New Echota in 1835 and the Cherokee removal in 1838-1839. Tecumsehs return and later eventsBefore beginning his great campaign, Tecumseh returned to the South in November 1811hoping to gain the support of the southern tribes for his crusade to drive back theAmericans and re-establish the old ways. He was accompanied by representatives fromthe Shawnee, Muscogee, Kickapoo, and Sioux. Tecumsehs exhortations in the towns ofthe Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Lower Muscogee found no traction, the exception beingthe Upper Muscogee, and even then only among a sizable faction of the younger 46
  • 47. warriors, the Upper Muscogee headman, The Big Warrior, having repudiated Tecumsehbefore the assembly. A depiction of Tecumseh in 1848There was so much opposition from the Cherokee delegation under warrior The Ridgethat visited his council at Tuckabatchee that Tecumseh cancelled plans to visit theCherokee Nation (The Ridge told him if he showed his face in the Cherokee Nation hewould kill him). However, throughout his time in the South, he was accompanied by anenthusiastic escort of 47 Cherokee and 19 Choctaw, who presumably went north when heleft the area.[73][74] The Creek WarTecumsehs mission did spark a religious revival which is referred to by James Mooneyas the "Cherokee Ghost Dance" movement[75] and was led by another formerChickamauga warrior, the prophet Tsali of Coosawatee, who later moved to the westernNorth Carolina mountains where he was executed for violently resisting Removal in1838. In Tsalis meeting with the national council at Ustanali, many of the leaders weremoved enough to support his cause, until The Ridge spoke even more eloquently inrebuttal, calling instead for support for the Americans in the coming war with the Britishand Tecumsehs alliance. This ultimately resulted in over five hundred Cherokee warriorsvolunteering to serve under Andrew Jackson in helping put down their former UpperMuscogee allies in the Creek War, but only after the Lower Muscogee under WilliamMcIntosh, who opposed the war of the “Red Sticks”, asked for their help.[76][77] 47
  • 48. A few years later, a troop of Cherokee cavalry under Major Ridge attached to the 1400-strong contingent of Lower Muscogee warriors under McIntosh accompanied the force ofU.S. regulars, Georgia militia, and Tennessee volunteers into Florida for action in theFirst Seminole War against the Seminoles, refugee Red Sticks, and escaped slavesfighting against the United States.[78]Following that war, Cherokee warriors were not seen on the warpath in the Southeastuntil the time of the American Civil War, when William Holland Thomas raised theThomas Legion of Cherokee Indians and Highlanders to fight for the Confederacy,though warriors from the Cherokee Nation East did travel to the lands of the Old Settlers(or Cherokee Nation West) in Arkansas Territory to assist them in their wars against theOsage during the Cherokee-Osage War of 1817-1823.With one notable exception: in 1830, the State of Georgia seized land in its south that hadbelonged to the Cherokee since the end of the Creek War, land separated from the rest ofthe Cherokee Nation by a large section of Georgia territory, and began to parcel it out tosettlers. Major Ridge dusted off his weapons and led a party of thirty south, where theydrove the settlers out of their homes on what the Cherokee considered their land, andburned all buildings to the ground, but harmed no one.[79]Statement of Richard Fields on the "Chickamauga"When a representative of the Moravian Brethren, Brother Steiner, met with RichardFields at Tellico Blockhouse in 1799, the former Lower Cherokee warrior whom he hadhired to serve as his guide and interpreter. Br Steiner had been sent south by the Brethrento scout for a location for a mission and school they planned to build in the Nation,ultimately located at Spring Place on land donated by James Vann. On one occasion, Br.Steiner asked his guide, "What kind of people are the Chickamauga?". Fields laughed,then replied, "They are Cherokee, and we know no difference."[80]Scots (and other Europeans) among the Cherokee St. Andrews CrossThe traders and British government agents dealing with the Southern tribes in general andthe Cherokee in particular were nearly all of Scottish extraction, especially from theHighlands, though a few were Scots-Irish, English, French, even German (see Scottish 48
  • 49. Indian trade). Many of these married women from their host people and remained afterthe fighting had ended, some fathering children who would later become significantleaders. Notable traders, agents, and refugee Tories among the Chickamauga/LowerCherokee included John Stuart, Henry Stuart, Alexander Cameron, John McDonald,Clement Vann, James Vann, John Joseph Vann, Daniel Ross (father of John Ross), JohnWalker Sr., John McLemore (father of Bob), William Buchanan, John Elliot, John Watts(father of the chief), James Grant, John D. Chisholm, John Benge (father of Bob Benge),Thomas Brown, Arthur Coody, John Fields, John Thompson, Richard Taylor, EdwardAdair (Irish), John Rogers (Welsh), John Gunter (German), Ned Sizemore (English),Peter Hildebrand (German), and William Thorp (English), among many others, severalattaining the status of minor chiefs and/or members of significant delegations.In contrast, a large portion of the settlers encroaching on their territories and againstwhom the Cherokee (and other Indians) took most of their actions were Scots-Irish, Irishfrom Ulster of Scottish descent, a group which also provided the backbone for the forcesof the Revolution (a famous example of a Scots-Irishman doing the reverse is SimonGirty). It is a historical irony that those from a group seen as rebels or "Whigs" backhome in the Isles became Tories in the Americas while those from a group nowconsidered one of the most "Tory" in regards to the United Kingdom became Whigs inthe Americas. Possible origins of the words "Chickamauga" and "Chattanooga"According to Mooney, the word "Chickamauga", pronounced Tsi-ka-ma-gi in Cherokee,was the name of at least two places: a headwater creek of the Chattahoochee River, andthe above-mentioned region near Chattanooga, but the word is not Cherokee. He statesthat Chickamauga may be derived from Shawnee,[81] and indeed there is/was a smalltown on the coast of North Carolina near Cape Hatteras (noted for a small battle that tookplace there early in the American Civil War) called Chicamacomico (meaning "dwellingplace by the big water"), which is also the name of a river in Maryland. Both these areaswere originally inhabited by tribes speaking variations of the Algonquin family oflanguages, of which Shawnee is one example. The Shawnee connection to the areashould not be taken lightly, as the crossing of the Hiwassie River near Hiwassie OldTown in Polk County, Tennessee is known as Savannah Crossing, "Savannah" being acorruption of "Shawnee" as well as the name of the Shawnee village on the SavannahRiver from which the river, as well as the city of Savannah, Georgia, gets its name. 49
  • 50. City of Chattanooga from East Brow of Lookout MountainIn addition to the Tennessee city of Chattanooga, which gets its name from a non-Cherokee word for Lookout Mountain, a community named Chattanooga Valley inGeorgia lies just south of the Tennessee city. There is a community of Chattanooga inMercer County, Ohio, possibly a legacy of the Cherokee who lived there and foughtalongside the Shawnee, but more likely a legacy of the Lenape or later Shawnee wholived much longer in that area. True, there is also a town called Chattanooga in the formerterritory of the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma, not surprising since southeast Tennesseewas the last home of the Cherokee in the East, but there is also a town called Chattanoogain Colorado, a legacy of the Silver Rush, which has no connection to the Cherokee butdoes lie in the later territory of the Cheyenne confederacy of three Algonquin tribes.A logical conclusion from all the above is that both place-names in Hamilton County,Tennessee—Chickamauga and Chattanooga—derive from the Algonquin language of theShawnee.On the other hand, Brown states that Chickamauga comes from the Muscogean "Chukko-mah-ko" for "dwelling place of the warchief", and Evans seems to agree, stating "Thename comes from the Cherokee attempt to say Muscogee "Chiaha Olamico" whichmeans The Upper Chiefdom", and that "Tsika-magi was the way the Cherokeesattempted to pronounce the Muscogee words."References 1. ^ Allen Manuscript 2. ^ Mooney, Myths and Sacred Formulas, p. 29-31 3. ^ Tanner, p. 95 4. ^ Brown, Eastern Cherokee Chiefs 5. ^ Klink and Talman, p. 62 6. ^ Evans, Ostenaco 7. ^ "Watauga Petition". Ensor Family Pages. 50
  • 51. 8. ^ Evans, Dragging Canoe, p. 1799. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, p. 13810. ^ Evans, Dragging Canoe, pp. 180-18211. ^ Hoig, p. 5912. ^ "the Killing of William [sic] Henry Creswell" ^ Alderman, p. 3814. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, p.16115. ^ Moore and Foster, p. 16816. ^ Evans, Dragging Canoe, p. 18417. ^ Tanner, p. 9818. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, pp. 205-20719. ^ Hoig, p. 6820. ^ Evans, Dragging Canoe, p. 18421. ^ Moore, p. 17522. ^ Moore, pp. 180-18223. ^ Evans, Dragging Canoe, p. 18524. ^ Mooney, Myths and Sacred Formulas, p.6025. ^ Tanner, p. 9926. ^ Tanner, p. 9927. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, pp. 204-20528. ^ Moore, p. 18229. ^ Tanner, p. 9930. ^ Evans, Dragging Canoe, p. 18531. ^ Moore, p.18232. ^ Braund, p. 17133. ^ Tanner, p. 9934. ^ Klink and Talman, p. 4935. ^ Moore, pp. 182-18736. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, pp. 272-27537. ^ Evans, Last Battle, 30-4038. ^ Klink and Talman, p.4839. ^ Draper Mss. 1640. ^ Moore, p. 20441. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, p. 293-29542. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, p. 29743. ^ Evans, Bob Benge, p. 10044. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, pp. 286-29045. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, pp. 297-29946. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, p. 27547. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, p. 29948. ^ Evans, Bob Benge, p. 10049. ^ Moore, p. 20150. ^ Wilson, pp. 47-4851. ^ Drake, Chapt. II52. ^ Eckert, pp.379-387 51
  • 52. 53. ^ Henderson, Chap. XX54. ^ Moore, pp. 23355. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, pp. 318-31956. ^ Evans, Bob Benge, p. 10057. ^ Carter, Life and Times, 62–3.58. ^ American State Papers, Vol. I, p. 26359. ^ Starr, p. 3560. ^ Starr, p. 3661. ^ Moore, pp. 205-21162. ^ Brown, Old Frontiers, pp. 344-36663. ^ Hoig, p. 8364. ^ Evans, Bob Benge, p. 101-10265. ^ Moore, p. 225-23166. ^ Moore, p. 215-22067. ^ Moore, pp. 220-22568. ^ Evans, Bob Benge, pp. 103-10469. ^ McLoughlin, pp. 33-4770. ^ McLoughlin, pp. 5871. ^ Moore, pp. 244-25072. ^ American State Papers, p. 53673. ^ Eckert, pp. 655-66574. ^ McLoughlin, pp. 168-18575. ^ Mooney, Ghost Dance Religion, pp. 670-67776. ^ McLoughlin, pp. 186-20577. ^ Wilkins, pp. 52-8078. ^ Wilkins, pp.114-11579. ^ McLoughlin, pp. 209-21580. ^ Allen Manuscript81. ^ Mooney, p. 413 Sources• Adair, James. History of the American Indian. (Nashville: Blue and Gray Press, 1971).• Alderman, Pat. Dragging Canoe: Cherokee-Chickamauga War Chief. (Johnson City: Overmountain Press, 1978)• Allen, Penelope. "The Fields Settlement". Penelope Allen Manuscript. Archive Section, Chattanooga-Hamilton County Bicentennial Library.• American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol, I. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1816).• Braund, Kathryn E. Holland. Deerskins and Duffels: Creek Indian Trade with Anglo-America, 1685-1815. (Lincoln:University of Nebraska Press, 1986).• Brown, John P. "Eastern Cherokee Chiefs". Chronicles of Oklahoma, Vol. 16, o. 1, pp. 3–35. (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1938). 52
  • 53. • Brown, John P. Old Frontiers: The Story of the Cherokee Indians from Earliest Times to the Date of Their Removal to the West, 1838. (Kingsport: Southern Publishers, 1938).• Drake, Benjamin. Life Of Tecumseh And Of His Brother The Prophet; With A Historical Sketch Of The Shawanoe Indians. (Mount Vernon : Rose Press, 2008).• Eckert, Allan W. A Sorrow in Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. (New York: Bantam, 1992).• Evans, E. Raymond, ed. "The Battle of Lookout Mountain: An Eyewitness Account, by George Christian". Journal of Cherokee Studies, Vol. III, o. 1. (Cherokee: Museum of the Cherokee Indian, 1978).• Evans, E. Raymond. "Notable Persons in Cherokee History: Ostenaco". Journal of Cherokee Studies, Vol. 1, o. 1, pp. 41–54. (Cherokee: Museum of the Cherokee Indian, 1976).• Evans, E. Raymond. "Notable Persons in Cherokee History: Bob Benge". Journal of Cherokee Studies, Vol. 1, o. 2, pp. 98–106. (Cherokee: Museum of the Cherokee Indian, 1976).• Evans, E. Raymond. "Notable Persons in Cherokee History: Dragging Canoe". Journal of Cherokee Studies, Vol. 2, o. 2, pp. 176–189. (Cherokee: Museum of the Cherokee Indian, 1977).• Evans, E. Raymond. "Was the Last Battle of the American Revolution Fought on Lookout Mountain?". Journal of Cherokee Studies, Vol. V, o. 1, pp. 30–40. (Cherokee: Museum of the Cherokee Indian, 1980).• Evans, E. Raymond, and Vicky Karhu. "Williams Island: A Source of Significant Material in the Collections of the Museum of the Cherokee". Journal of Cherokee Studies, Vol. 9, o. 1, pp. 10–34. (Cherokee: Museum of the Cherokee Indian, 1984).• Hamer, Philip M. Tennessee: A History, 1673-1932. (New York: American History Association, 1933).• Haywood, W.H. The Civil and Political History of the State of Tennessee from its Earliest Settlement up to the Year 1796. (Nashville: Methodist Episcopal Publishing House, 1891).• Henderson, Archibald. The Conquest Of The Old Southwest: The Romantic Story Of The Early Pioneers Into Virginia, The Carolinas, Tennessee And Kentucky 1740 To 1790. (Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, 2004).• Hoig, Stanley. The Cherokees and Their Chiefs: In the Wake of Empire. (Fayeteeville: University of Arkansas Press, 1998)• King, Duane H. The Cherokee Indian ation: A Troubled History. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979).• Klink, Karl, and James Talman, ed. The Journal of Major John orton. (Toronto: Champlain Society, 1970).• Kneberg, Madeline and Thomas M.N. Lewis. Tribes That Slumber. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1958).• McLoughlin, William G. Cherokee Renascence in the ew Republic. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992).• Mooney, James. The Ghost Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1896). 53
  • 54. • Mooney, James. Myths of the Cherokee and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokee. (Nashville: Charles and Randy Elder-Booksellers, 1982). • Moore, John Trotwood and Austin P. Foster. Tennessee, The Volunteer State, 1769-1923, Vol. 1. (Chicago: S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1923). • Ramsey, James Gettys McGregor. The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century. (Chattanooga: Judge David Campbell, 1926). • Royce, C.C. "The Cherokee Nation of Indians: A narrative of their official relations with the Colonial and Federal Governments". Fifth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, 1883-1884. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1889). • Starr, Emmet. History of the Cherokee Indians, and their Legends and Folklore. (Fayetteville: Indian Heritage Assn., 1967). • Tanner, Helen Hornbeck. "Cherokees in the Ohio Country". Journal of Cherokee Studies, Vol. III, o. 2, pp. 95–103. (Cherokee: Museum of the Cherokee Indian, 1978). • Wilkins, Thurman. Cherokee Tragedy: The Ridge Family and the Decimation of a People. (New York: Macmillan Company, 1970). • Williams, Samuel Cole. Early Travels in the Tennessee Country, 1540-1800. (Johnson City: Watauga Press, 1928). • Wilson, Frazer Ells. The Peace of Mad Anthony. (Greenville: Chas. B. Kemble Book and Job Printer, 1907).See also • Timeline of Cherokee removal • Historic treaties of the Cherokee • Cherokee • Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians • United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians • Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma • Principal Chiefs of the CherokeeExternal links • The Cherokee Nation • United Keetoowah Band • Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (official site) • Annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1897/98: pt.1), Contains The Myths of The Cherokee, by James Mooney • Muscogee (Creek) Nation of Oklahoma (official site) • Account of 1786 conflicts between Nashville-area settlers and natives (second item in historical column) • The journal of Major John orton • Emmett Starrs History of the Cherokee Indians 54
  • 55. [hide]v•d•eCherokeeCherokee Nation · Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians · United Keetoowah Band ofTribesCherokee IndiansSociety · Cherokee National Holiday · Clans · Gadugi · LanguageCultureMythology · Stomp dance · SyllabaryCherokee history · Cherokee military history · Historic treaties · Kituwah MoundAni-kutani · Anglo-Cherokee War · Chickamauga Wars · Transylvania PurchaseSycamore Shoals · Cherokee Phoenix · Treaty of New Echota ·HistoryTimeline of Cherokee removal · Civil War · Keetoowah Nighthawk SocietyCherokee Female Seminary · Cherokee Male SeminaryCherokee Artists Association · Cherokee Heritage Center · Cherokee Nation WarriorsOrganizationsSociety · Cherokee National Youth Choir · Heritage groups · Original KeSociety · Oconaluftee Indian VillagePolitics and law · Blood law · Flag · Freedman controversy · Worcester v. GeorgiaPrincipal ChiefsRetrieved from""Categories: 18th century in the United States | American Revolutionary War | BritishNorth America | Cherokee tribe | Wars involving the indigenous peoples of NorthAmerica | Native American history of Alabama | History of the Cherokee | History ofGeorgia (U.S. state) | History of Kentucky | History of North Carolina | History of SouthCarolina | History of Tennessee | History of Virginia | Native American history |Unassessed Indigenous peoples of North America articles | History of Scotland | Historyof the Thirteen Colonies Council of Three Fires Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Three Fires Council.The Council of Three Fires, also known as the People of the Three Fires, the ThreeFires Confederacy, the United ations of Chippewa, Ottawa, and PotawatomiIndians, or iswi-mishkodewin in the Anishinaabe language, is a long-standingAnishinaabe alliance of the Ojibwe (or Chippewa), Ottawa (or Odawa), and PotawatomiNative American tribes and First Nations. 55
  • 56. Originally one people, or a collection of closely related bands, the identities of Ojibwa,Ottawa, and Potawatomi developed after the Anishinaabeg reached Michilimackinac ontheir journey westward from the Atlantic coast.[1] Using the Midewiwin scrolls,Potawatomi elder Shup-Shewana dated the formation of the Council of Three Fires to796 AD at Michilimackinac.[2]In this Council, the Ojibwe were addressed as the "Older Brother," the Odawa as the"Middle Brother," and the Potawatomi as the "Younger Brother." Consequently,whenever the three Anishinaabe nations are mentioned in this specific and consecutiveorder of Ojibwe, Odawa, and Potawatomi, it is an indicator implying Council of ThreeFires as well. In addition, the Ojibwa are the "keepers of the faith," the Odawa are the"keepers of trade," and the Potawatomi are the designated "keepers/maintainers of/for thefire" (boodawaadam), which became the basis for their name Boodewaadamii (Ojibwespelling) or Bodéwadmi (Potawatomi spelling).Though the Three Fires had several meeting places, Michilimackinac became thepreferred meeting place due to its central location. From this place, the Council met formilitary and political purposes. From this site, the Council maintained relations withfellow Anishinaabeg nations, the Ozaagii (Sac), Odagaamii (Meskwaki), Omanoominii(Menominee), Wiinibiigoo (Ho-Chunk), aadawe (Iroquois Confederacy), iiinaawi- aadawe (Wyandot), aadawensiw (Sioux), Wemitigoozhi (France), Zhaaganaashi(England) and the Gichi-mookomaan (the United States).Through the totem-system and promotion of trade, the Council generally had a peacefulexistence with its neighbours. However, occasional unresolved disputes erupted intowars. Under these conditions, the Council notably fought against the IroquoisConfederacy and the Sioux. During the Seven Years War, the Council fought againstEngland; and during the Northwest Indian War and the War of 1812, they fought againstthe United States. After the formation of the United States of America in 1776, theCouncil became the core member of the Western Lakes Confederacy (also known as"Great Lakes Confederacy"), joined together with the Wyandots, Algonquins, Nipissing,Sacs, Meskwaki and others.Contents • 1 Treaties o 1.1 With Great Britain o 1.2 With the United States • 2 Notes • 3 See also • 4 External links 56
  • 57. TreatiesWith Great Britain • Treaty of Fort Niagara (1764) – as part of the Western Lakes ConfederacyWith the United States • Treaty of Fort Harmar (1789) – implied • Treaty of Greenville (1795) – implied • Treaty of Fort Industry (1805) – not implied, though all 3 nations present • Treaty of Detroit (1807) – not implied, though all 3 nations present • Treaty of Brownstown (1808) – implied • Treaty of Springwells (1815) – implied • Treaty of St. Louis (1816) • Treaty of Fort Meigs (1817) – not implied, though all 3 nations present • Treaty of Chicago (1821) – not implied, though all 3 nations present • Treaty of Prairie du Chien (1825) – implied, as well as individually with the Ojibwa and Odawa. • Treaty of Prairie du Chien (1829) otes 1. ^ Warren, William W. 1984. History of the Ojibway People. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press. 2. ^ Loew, Patty. 2001. Indian Nations of Wisconsin: Histories of Endurance and Renewal." Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society Press.See also • Mackinaw City, MichiganExternal links • Confederacy of Three Fires: A History of the Anishinabek NationRetrieved from ""Categories: Anishinaabe groups | Anishinaabe culture | Odawa | Ojibwe | Potawatomi 57
  • 58. AnishinaabeJump to: navigation, search This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards improve this article if you can. (December 2009)This article includes a list of references, related reading or external linksremain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improveintroducing more precise citations where appropriate. (December 2009) Crest of the Anishinaabe people.Anishinaabe or Anishinabe—or more properly Anishinaabeg or Anishinabek, which isthe plural form of the word—is the autonym often used by the Odawa, Ojibwe, andAlgonkin peoples. They all speak closely related Anishinaabemowin/Anishinaabelanguages, of the Algonquian-language family.The meaning of Anishnaabeg is "First-" or "Original-Peoples". Another definition refersto "the good humans", or good people, meaning those who are on the right road/pathgiven to them by the Creator or Gitchi-manitou (Great Spirit).Not all Anishinaabemowin speakers, however, call themselves Anishinaabeg. The Ojibwepeople who moved to what are now the prairie provinces of Canada call themselves akawē(-k) and their branch of the Anishinaabe language, akawēmowin. (The Frenchethnonym for the group was the Saulteaux). Particular Anishinaabeg groups havedifferent names from region to region. 58
  • 59. Anishinaabe and Anishinini distribution around 1800There are many variant spellings of the Anishinaabe name, depending on thetranscription scheme and also on whether the name is singular or plural. Therefore,different spelling systems may indicate vowel length or spell certain consonantsdifferently (Anishinabe, Anicinape); meanwhile, variants ending in -eg/ek (Anishinaabeg,Anishinabek) come from an Algonquian plural, while those ending in an -e come from anAlgonquian singular.The name Anishinaabe is realised as ishnaabe, in some parts of North America, mostprominently among the Odawa. The cognate word eshnabé comes from thePotawatomi, a people long allied with the Odawa and Ojibwe in the Council of ThreeFires. Identified as Anishinaabe, but not part of the Council of Three Fires, are the ipissing, Mississauga and Algonquin.Closely related to the Ojibwe and speaking a language mutually intelligible withAnishinaabemowin (Anishinaabe language) are the Oji-Cree (also known as "SevernOjibwe"). Their most common autonym is Anishinini (plural: Anishininiwag) and theycall their language Anishininiimowin.Among the Anishinaabeg, the Ojibwe collectively call the Nipissings and the Algonquinsas Odishkwaagamii (those who are at the end of the lake),[1] while among the Nipissingswho identifies themselves as Algonquins call the Algonquins proper as Omàmiwinini(those who are downstream).[2]Contents • 1 History • 2 Historical relations between the Anishinaabeg and other indigenous groups • 3 Historical relations between the Anishinaabeg and European settlers o 3.1 In French North America o 3.2 In British North America 59
  • 60. o 3.3 In the United States o 3.4 In Canada • 4 Relations today between the Anishinaabeg and their neighbours o 4.1 Other indigenous groups o 4.2 Canada o 4.3 United States • 5 Anishinaabe in popular culture • 6 See also • 7 References • 8 Further reading • 9 External links HistoryAccording to Anishinaabeg tradition, and from records of wiigwaasabak (birch barkscrolls), the people migrated from the eastern areas of North America, and from along theEast Coast. In myth, the homeland was called Turtle Island.Oral traditions among the Anishinaabeg tell a variety of creation stories. According to theoral history, seven great miigis (radiant/iridescent beings in human form) appeared to theAnishinaabe peoples in the Waabanakiing (Land of the Dawn, i.e. Eastern Land) to teachthe people about the midewiwin life-style. One great miigis was too spiritually powerfuland would kill people in the Waabanakiing whenever they were in its presence. Thisbeing later returned to the depths of the ocean, leaving the six great miigis to teach thepeople.Each of the six miigis established separate doodem (clans) for the people. Of thesedoodem, five clan systems appeared: i) Awaazisii (Bullhead), ii) Baswenaazhi (Echo-maker, i.e., Crane), iii) Aanaawenh (Pintail Duck), iv) ooke (Tender, i.e., Bear), and v)Moozoonii (Little Moose). Later a sixth was added. vi) Waabizheshi (Marten).After founding the doodem, the six miigis returned to the depths of the ocean as well.Some oral histories surmise that if the seventh miigis had stayed, it would haveestablished the Animikii Thunderbird doodem.The powerful miigis returned in a vision relating a prophecy to the people. It said that theAnishinaabeg needed to move west to keep their traditional ways alive, because of themany new settlements and people not of Anishinaabe blood who would soon arrive. Themigration path of the Anishinaabe peoples would become a series of smaller TurtleIslands, confirmed by the miigis shells (i.e., cowry shells). After receiving assurance fromthe their "Allied Brothers" (i.e., Mikmaq) and "Father" (i.e., Abnaki) of their safety incrossing other tribal territory, the Anishinaabeg moved inland. They advanced along theSt. Lawrence River to the Ottawa River and through to Lake Nipissing, and then to theGreat Lakes. 60
  • 61. The first of these smaller Turtle Islands was Mooniyaa, where Mooniyaang (Montreal,Quebec) now stands. Here the Anishinaabeg divided into two groups: one who travelledup and settled along the Ottawa River, and the core group who proceeded to the "secondstopping place" near Niagara Falls.By the time the Anishinaabeg established their "third stopping place" near the presentcity of Detroit, the Anishinaabeg had divided into six distinct nations: Algonquin, ipissing, Mississauga, Ojibwe, Odawa and Potawatomi. While the Odawa establishedtheir long-held cultural centre on Manitoulin Island, the Ojibwe established their centre inthe Sault Ste. Marie region of Ontario, Canada. With expansion of trade with the Frenchand later the British, fostered by availability of European small arms, members of theCouncil of Three Fires expanded southward to the Ohio River, southwestward along theIllinois River, and westward along Lake Superior, Lake of the Woods and the northernGreat Plains. In their western expansion, the Ojibwa again divided, forming theSaulteaux, the seventh major branch of the Anishinaabeg: .As the Anishinaabeg moved inland, through both alliances and conquest, theyincorporated various other closely related Algonquian peoples into the AnishinaabeNation. These included, but were not limited to, the oquet (originally part of theMenomini Tribe) and Mandwe (originally part of the Fox). Other incorporated groups cangenerally be identified by the individuals Doodem (Clan). Migizi-doodem (Bald EagleClan) generally identifies those whose ancestors were Americans and Maiingan-doodem(Wolf Clan) as Santee Sioux.Other Anishinaabe doodem migrated out of the core Anishinaabeg groupings, such as the ibiinaabe-doodem (Merman Clan), which is now the "Water-spirit Clan" of theWinnebagos. Anishinaabe peoples now reside throughout North America, in both thenorthern United States and southern Canada, chiefly around the Great Lakes and LakeWinnipeg.After this migration, and the immigration of European newcomers to North America,many Anishinaabeg groups later entered into treaties with the governments of theDominion of Canada and the United States. Treaty 3 (of the Numbered Treaties) inCanada was signed in 1873 between the Anishinaabe (Ojibwa) people west of the GreatLakes and the government of Canada. [3] Through other treaties and resulting relocations,some Anishinaabeg now reside in the states of Kansas, Oklahoma, South Dakota, andMontana in the United States, and the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta and BritishColumbia in Canada.Historical relations between the Anishinaabeg and other indigenous groupsThis section requires 61
  • 62. Historical relations between the Anishinaabeg and European settlersThe neutrality of this section is disputed. Please see the discussion on thePlease do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (December 2007)The first of the Anishinaabeg to encounter European settlers were those of the ThreeFires Confederation, within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, andPennsylvania in the territory of the present-day United States, and southern Ontario andQuebec of Canada Although there were many peaceful interactions between theAnishinaabeg and the European settlers, there were also times of turmoil and war.Warfare cost many lives on both sides.The Anishinaabe dealt with Europeans through the fur trade, intermarriage, andperformance as allies. Europeans traded with the Anishinaabe for their furs in exchangefor goods, and also hired the men as guides throughout the lands of North America. TheAnishinaabeg (as well as other Aboriginal groups) began to intermarry with fur tradersand trappers. Some of their descendants would later create the Métis ethnic group. Furtraders were generally capitalists with significant backing. They tended to marrydaughters of chiefs, with both sides forming high-status alliances. The explorers, trappersand other European workers married or had unions with other Anishinaabeg women, andtheir descendants tended to form the Métis. In French orth AmericaThis section requiresThe earliest Europeans to encounter native peoples in the Great Lakes area were theFrench voyageurs. They were mainly trappers rather than settlers. Such explorers gaveFrench names to many places in present-day Minnesota and Wisconsin. In British orth AmericaThis section requiresThe ethnic identities of the Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi did not develop until afterthe Anishinaabeg reached Michilimackinac on their journey westward from the Atlanticcoast. Using the Midewiwin scrolls, Potawatomi elder Shup-Shewana dated the formationof the Council of Three Fires to 796 AD at Michilimackinac.In this Council, the Ojibwe were addressed as the "Older Brother," the Odawa as the"Middle Brother," and the Potawatomi as the "Younger Brother." Consequently, whenthe three Anishinaabe nations are mentioned in this specific order: Ojibwe, Odawa, andPotawatomi, it is an indicator implying Council of Three Fires as well. Each tribe had 62
  • 63. different functions: the Ojibwa were the "keepers of the faith," the Odawa the "keepers oftrade," and the Potawatomi are the "keepers/maintainers of/for the fire" (boodawaadam).This was the basis for their exonyms of Boodewaadamii (Ojibwe spelling) or Bodéwadmi(Potawatomi spelling).The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and FirstNations people. Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa (or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwesyllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree andInuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, andInuktitut). Potawatomi is a Central Algonquian language. It is spoken around the GreatLakes in Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as in Kansas in the United States. In southernOntario in Canada, it is spoken by fewer than 50 people.Though the Three Fires had several meeting places, they preferred Michilimackinac dueto its central location. The Council met for military and political purposes. The Councilmaintained relations with fellow Anishinaabeg nations: the Ozaagii (Sac), Odagaamii(Meskwaki), Omanoominii (Menominee), Wiinibiigoo (Ho-Chunk), aadawe (IroquoisConfederacy), iiinaawi- aadawe (Wyandot), aadawensiw (Sioux), Wemitigoozhi(France), Zhaaganaashi (England) and the Gichi-mookomaan (the United States). Afterthe Europeans came into the country, the French built Fort Michilimackinac in the 18thcentury. After the Seven Years War, the victorious English took over the fort, also usingit as a trading post.Through the totem-system (a totem is any entity which watches over or assists a group ofpeople, such as a family, clan or tribe [4].) and promotion of trade, the Council generallyhad a peaceful existence with its neighbours. However, occasional unresolved disputeserupted into wars. The Council notably fought against the Iroquois Confederacy and theSioux. During the Seven Years War, the Council fought against England.[citation needed]The Anishinaabeg established a relationship with the British similar to that they had withthe French. They formed the Three Fires Confederation in reaction to conflict withencroaching settlers and continuing tensions with the British Canadian government, aswell as that of the new United States. In the United StatesThis section requiresThe Three Fires Confederacy had conflict with the new United States after the AmericanRevolution, as settlers kept encroaching on their territory. The Council became the coremember of the Western Lakes Confederacy (also known as "Great Lakes Confederacy"),joining together with the Wyandots, Algonquins, Nipissing, Sacs, Meskwaki and others.During the Northwest Indian War and the War of 1812, the Three Fires Confederacyfought against the United States. Many Anishinaabe refugees from the RevolutionaryWar, particularly Odawa and Potawatomi, migrated north to British-held areas. 63
  • 64. Those who remained in the east were subjected to the 1830 Indian Removal policy of theUnited States; among the Anishinaabeg, the Potawatomi were most affected. The Odawahad been removed from the settlers paths, so only a handful of communities experiencedremoval. For the Ojibwa, removal attempts culminated in the Sandy Lake Tragedy andseveral hundred deaths. The Potawatomi avoided removal only by escaping into Ojibwa-held areas and hiding from US officials.William Whipple Warren (1825-1853), a United States man of mixed-Ojibwe andEuropean descent, became an interpreter, assistant to a trader to the Ojibwe, andlegislator of the Minnesota Territory. A gifted storyteller and historian, he collectednative accounts and wrote the History of the Ojibway People, Based Upon Traditions andOral Statements, first published by the Minnesota Historical Society in 1885, some 32years after his early death from tuberculosis. Given his Anglo-American father LymanMarcus Warren and American education, the Indians of the time did not consider Williamone of them. They did think of him as a friend and half-brother, because he knew theOjibwe language and much about the culture from his Ojibwe-French mother, MarieCadotte.[5] His work covered much of the culture and history of the Ojibwe, gatheredfrom stories of the nation.Warren identified the Crane and Loon clans as the two Chief clans among his mothersAnishinaabe people. Crane Clan was responsible for external governmental relationships,and Loon Clan was responsible for internal governance relationships. Warren believedthat the British and United States governments had deliberately destroyed the clansystem, or the polity of governance, when they forced indigenous nations to adoptrepresentative government and direct elections of chiefs. Further, he believed suchdestruction led to many wars among the Anishinaabe. He also cited the experiences ofother Native Nations in the U.S. (such as the Creek, Fox and others). His work in itsentirety demonstrated the significance of the clan system.[5]After the Sandy Lake Tragedy, the government changed its policy to relocating tribesonto reservations, often by consolidating groups of communities. Conflict continuedthrough the 19th century, as Native Americans and the United States had different goals.After the Dakota War of 1862, many Anishinaabe communities in Minnesota wererelocated and further consolidated. In CanadaThis section requiresPopulation estimates indicate that the Anishinaabeg population in the United States ismore numerous than that of Canada, but census reports are criticized as being inaccurate.The Canadian Anishinaabeg are descended from the northern Lake SuperiorAnishinaabeg, whose original homeland was probably in the vicinity of the eastern upperpeninsula of Michigan. They separated, with one group going down into Michigan,Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, southern Ontario and Pennsylvania, while another group migrated 64
  • 65. straight westward. The ancestors of the Canadian Anishinaabeg moved to the north, andthen to the west. They migrated to eastern British Columbia in the 19th century.Scholars of the Anishinaabeg will eventually learn if all Anishinaabeg are descendedfrom those Anishinaabeg of the eastern upper peninsula of Michigan, or if they aredescended from the Algonquin Anishinaabeg of Quebec. The peoples history points tothe upper peninsula of Michigan as their land of formation.The Anishinaabeg of Canada have managed to withstand the efforts of the Europeansettlers and hold onto their languages. An estimated 50,000 Canadian Anishinaabegspeak their native tongue. From Quebec to the eastern lands of British Columbia, theAnishinaabeg reserves are, for the most part, smaller in size than those in the US, a factorwhich may have helped them preserve the languages. Relations today between the Anishinaabeg and their neighboursAnishinaabe Reserves/Reservations in North America, with diffusion rings if anAnishinaabe language is spoken. Cities with Anishinaabe population also shown. Other indigenous groupsThis section requiresThere are many Anishinaabeg reserves and reservations; in some places the Anishinaabegshare some of their lands with others, such as the Cree,the Dakota, Delaware, and theKickapoo, among others. The Anishnabek who "merged" with the Kickapoo tribe maynow identify as being Kickapoo in Kansas and Oklahoma. The Prairie Potawatomi werethe Ojibwe, Odawa and Potawatomi of Illinois and Wisconsin who were relocated toKansas during the 19th century. 65
  • 66. CanadaThis section requiresThe Anishinaabe of Manitoba, particularly those along the east side of Lake Winnipeg,have had longstanding historical conflicts with the Cree people. United StatesThis section requiresThe relationships between the various Anishinaabe communities with the United Statesgovernment have been steadily improving since the passage of the Indian ReorganizationAct. Several Anishinaabe communities still experience tensions with the stategovernments, county governments and with non-Native American individuals and theirgroups.In contemporary times, the Anishinaabe have worked to renew the clan system as amodel for self-governance. They have drawn from the work of Ojibwe educator EdwardBenton-Banai (1934 - ), who emphasizes education based in ones own culture. Theybelieve using the clan system will also be a basis of cultural and political revitalization ofthe people.[citation needed]Major issues facing the various Anishinaabe communities are: • cultural and language preservation or revitalization; • full and independent federal recognition: some Anishinaabe communities are recognized by county or state governments, or are recognized by the federal government only as part of another tribe; • treaty rights: traditional means of support (hunting, fishing and gathering), establishment of reservations or upholding of the reservation boundaries per treaties and their amendments; • personal health: diabetes and asthma affect many Anishinaabe communities at a rate higher than the general population; and • social disparity: many Anishinaabeg suffer poor education, high unemployment, substance abuse/addiction and domestic violence at rates higher than the general population. Anishinaabe in popular cultureA fictional Anishinaabe clan in Ontario, the Mtigwaki, were featured in the comic stripFor Better or For Worse from 2005-2006.The popular book "Keeper N Me" also reflects on the people and the traditions of theAnishinaabe people. 66
  • 67. See also • Algonquin (Omaamiwinini) o Algonquin language • Anishinaabe/Tribal Political Organizations • Midewiwin • Mississaugas (Misi-zaagiing) • Nipissing (Odishkwaagamii) • Oji-Cree/Severn Ojibwa (Anishinini) o Oji-Cree language (Anishininiimowin) • Ojibwa/Chippewa (Ojibwe) o Ojibwe language o Ojibwa ethnonyms • Ottawa (Odaawaa/Odawa) o Odawa language • Potawatomi (Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi) o Potawatomi language o Potawatomi ethnonyms • Saulteaux/Plains Ojibwa ( akawē)ReferencesThis article includes a list of references, related reading or external linksremain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improveintroducing more precise citations where appropriate. (February 2008) 1. ^ Baraga, Frederic. 1878. A Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language, explained in English. Montréal: Beauchemin & Valois. 2. ^ Cuoq, Jean André. 1886. Lexique de la Langue Algonquine. Montréal: J. Chapleau & Fils. 3. ^ Alexander Morris, The Treaties of Canada with the Indians, Belfords , Clarke & Co., Toronto (1880) 4. ^ Merriem-Webster Online, 5. ^ a b William W. Warren, History of the Ojibway People, new intro and ed. by Theresa Schenk, St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1885; reprint, 2009, pp. iii-xxi, accessed 22 Feb 2010 • Bento-Banai, Edward (2004). Creation- From the Ojibwa, The Mishomis Book. • Cappel, Constance, "Odawa Language and Legends: Andrew J. Blackbird and Raymond Kiogima, Xlibris, 2006. • Warren, William W. History of the Ojibway People. Borealis Books (St. Paul, MN: 1984). • White, Richard (July 31, 2000). "Chippewas of the Sault", The Sault Tribe ews. 67
  • 68. Further reading • Long, J. Voyages and Travels of an Indian Interpreter and Trader Describing the Manners and Customs of the orth American Indians, with an Account of the Posts Situated on the River Saint Laurence, Lake Ontario, & C., to Which Is Added a Vocabulary of the Chippeway Language ... a List of Words in the Iroquois, Mehegan, Shawanee, and Esquimeaux Tongues, and a Table, Shewing the Analogy between the Algonkin and the Chippeway Languages. London: Robson, 1791. • Warren, William W. (1851). History of the Ojibway People. • White, Richard (1991) The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (Studies in North American Indian History) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, ISBN 0-521-37104-XExternal links • Anishinabek Nation - Union of Ontario Indians • Algonquin Anishinabeg Nation Tribal Council • Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians History • Bemaadizing: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Indigenous Life (An online journal) • ‘Living’ Cybercartographic Atlas of Indigenous Artifacts and Knowledge • "The Anishinaabe-Ojibwe people of the Great Lakes", Ojibwe Waasa-Inaabidaa, (US-focused), Public Broadcasting Service/PBS. o Ojibwe migratory map, Ojibwe Waasa-InaabidaaRetrieved from ""Categories: First Nations in Ontario | First Nations in Quebec | First Nations in Manitoba| First Nations in Saskatchewan | Native American tribes in Michigan | Native Americantribes in Indiana | Native American tribes in Wisconsin | Native American tribes inMinnesota | Native American tribes in North Dakota | Native American tribes in Montana| Native American tribes in Kansas | Native American tribes in Oklahoma | PotawatomiIroquoisFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchFor other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). This article has multiple issues. Please help improve the article or discuss these issues on the talk page. • It needs additional references or sources for verification. Tagged since September 2008. 68
  • 69. • Its neutrality is disputed. Tagged since September 2009.IroquoisHaudenosauneeTotal populationapprox. [citation needed](80,000 in the U.S, 45,000 in Canada)Regions with significant populations Canada (southern Quebec, southern Ontario) United States (New York, Wisconsin, Oklahoma)LanguagesMohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora, EnglishReligionLonghouse Religion; Christianity; othersThe Iroquois (pronounced /ˈɪrəkwɔɪ/), also known as the Haudenosaunee or the"People of the Longhouse",[1] are an indigenous people of North America. In the 16thcentury or earlier, the Iroquois came together in an association known as the IroquoisLeague, or the "League of Peace and Power". The original Iroquois League was oftenknown as the Five Nations, and comprised the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, andSeneca nations. After the Tuscarora nation joined the League in the 18th century, theIroquois have often been known as the Six Nations. The League is embodied in the GrandCouncil, an assembly of fifty hereditary sachems.[2]When Europeans first arrived in North America, the Iroquois were based in what is nowthe northeastern United States, primarily in what is referred to today as upstate NewYork.[3] Today, Iroquois live primarily in the United States and Canada. 69
  • 70. The Iroquois League has often also been known as the Iroquois Confederacy, but somemodern scholars now make a distinction between the League and the Confederacy.[4][5][6]According to this interpretation, the Iroquois League refers to the ceremonial and culturalinstitution embodied in the Grand Council, while the Iroquois Confederacy was thedecentralized political and diplomatic entity that emerged in response to Europeancolonization. The League still exists, but the Confederacy was shattered by the defeat ofthe British and allied Iroquois nations in the American Revolutionary War.[4]Contents • 1 Name • 2 History o 2.1 Formation of the League o 2.2 Expansion o 2.3 Beaver Wars o 2.4 French and Indian Wars o 2.5 American Revolution o 2.6 Post-war • 3 Culture o 3.1 Melting pot o 3.2 Food o 3.3 Wampum o 3.4 Women in society o 3.5 Spiritual beliefs • 4 People o 4.1 Nations o 4.2 Clans o 4.3 Population history o 4.4 Prominent individuals • 5 Government o 5.1 Grand Council o 5.2 Influence on the United States o 5.3 Modern communities • 6 See also • 7 References o 7.1 Notes o 7.2 Bibliography ameThe Iroquois also refers to themselves as the Haudenosaunee, which means "People ofthe Longhouse," or more accurately, "They Are Building a Long House." The term is said 70
  • 71. to have been introduced by The Great Peacemaker at the time of the formation of theLeague. It implies that the nations of the League should live together as families in thesame longhouse. Symbolically, the Seneca were the guardians of the western door of the"tribal longhouse" and the Mohawk were the guardians of the eastern door. TheOnondagas, whose homeland was in the center of Haudenosaunee territory, were keepersof the Leagues (both literal and figurative) central flame.The name "Iroquois" was bestowed upon the Haudensosaunee by the French[7] and hasseveral potential origins. • A possible origin of the name Iroquois is reputed to come from a French version of irinakhoiw, a Huron (Wyandot) name—considered an insult—meaning "Black Snakes" or "real adders". The Iroquois were enemies of the Huron and the Algonquin, who allied with the French, because of their rivalry in the fur trade. • The Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) often end their oratory with the phrase hiro kone;[8] hiro translates as "I have spoken", and kone can be translated several ways, the most common being "in joy", "in sorrow", or "in truth". Hiro kone to the French encountering the Haudenosaunee would sound like "Iroquois", pronounced [iʁokwe] in the French language of the time. • Another version is however supported by French linguists such as Henriette Walter and anthropologists such as Dean Snow[9]. According to this account, "Iroquois" would derive from a Basque expression, Hilokoa, meaning the "killer people". This expression would have been applied to the Iroquois because they were the enemy of the local Algonquins, with whom the Basque fishermen were trading. However, because there is no "L" in the Algonquian languages of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence region, the name became "Hirokoa", which is the name the French understood when Algonquians referred to the same pidgin language as the one they used with the Basque. The French then transliterated the word according to their own phonetic rules, thus providing "Iroquois". HistoryFormation of the LeagueThe members of the League speak differently than the other speakers of the languages ofthe same Iroquoian family. This suggests that while they had a common historical andcultural origin, they diverged over a long enough time that the languages have becomedifferent. Archaeological evidence shows that the Iroquois lived in the Finger Lakesregion from at least 1000.[10] 71
  • 72. A traditional Iroquois longhouse.The Iroquois moved to the south in long wars of invasion in present-day Kentucky.According to one pre-contact theory, it was Iroquois who, by about 1200[citation needed], hadpushed tribes of the Ohio River valley, such as the Quapaw (Akansea) and Ofo(Mosopelea) out of the region in a migration west of the Mississippi River. However, LaSalle definitely listed the Mosopelea among the Ohio Valley peoples overthrown by theIroquois in the early 1670s, during the later Beaver Wars.[11] By 1673, these Siouangroups had settled in their historically known territories of the Midwest, with somedisplacing other tribes to the west in their turn.[12]The Iroquois League was established prior to major European contact. Mostarchaeologists and anthropologists believe that the League was formed sometimebetween about 1450 and 1600.[13][14] A few claims have been made for an earlier date;one recent study has argued that the League was formed in 1142, based on a solar eclipsein that year that seems to fit one oral tradition.[15] Anthropologist Dean Snow argues thatthe archaeological evidence does not support a date earlier than 1450, and that recentclaims for a much earlier date "may be for contemporary political purposes".[16]According to tradition, the League was formed through the efforts of two men,Deganawida, sometimes known as the Great Peacemaker, and Hiawatha. They brought amessage, known as the Great Law of Peace, to the squabbling nations. The nations whojoined the League were the Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and Mohawk. Once theyceased most of their infighting, the Iroquois rapidly became one of the strongest forces inseventeenth- and eighteenth-century northeastern North America.According to legend, an evil Onondaga chieftain named Tadodaho was the last to beconverted to the ways of peace by The Great Peacemaker and Hiawatha. He became thespiritual leader of the Haudenosaunee.[17] This event is said to have occurred at OnondagaLake near Syracuse, New York. The title Tadodaho is still used for the leagues spiritualleader, the fiftieth chief, who sits with the Onondaga in council. He is the only one of thefifty to have been chosen by the entire Haudenosaunee people. The current Tadodaho isSid Hill of the Onondaga Nation. 72
  • 73. ExpansionIn Reflections in Bulloughs Pond, historian Diana Muir argues that the pre-contactIroquois were an imperialist, expansionist culture whose use of the corn/beans/squashagricultural complex enabled them to support a large population that made war againstother Algonquian peoples. Muir uses archaeological data to argue that the Iroquoisexpansion onto Algonquian lands was checked by the Algonquian adoption ofagriculture. This enabled them to support their own populations large enough to include abody of warriors to defend against the threat of Iroquois conquest.[18]The Iroquois may be the Kwedech described in the oral legends of the Mikmaq nation ofEastern Canada. These legends relate that the Mikmaq in the late pre-contact period hadgradually driven their enemies, the Kwedech, westward across New Brunswick, andfinally out of the Lower St. Lawrence River region. The Mikmaq named the last-conquered land "Gespedeg" or "lost land," leading to the French word "Gaspé." The"Kwedech" are generally considered to have been Iroquois, specifically the Mohawk;their expulsion from Gaspé by the Mikmaq has been estimated as occurring ca. 1535-1600.[19] Around 1535, Jacques Cartier reported Iroquoian groups on Gaspé and along theSt. Lawrence River, and Samuel de Champlain found Algonquian groups in the samelocations in 1608 — but the exact tribal identity of any of these groups has been debated.Iroquoian tribes were also well-known in the south by this time. From the time of the firstEnglish settlement in Jamestown, Virginia (1607), numerous 17th century accountsdescribe a powerful people known to the Powhatan Confederacy as the Massawomeck,and to the French as the Antouhonoron, who came from the north, beyond theSusquehannocks. These "Massawomeck" / "Antouhonoron" have often been identifiedwith the Iroquois proper, but other Iroquoian candidates include the Erie tribe, who werefinally destroyed by the Iroquois in 1654[20] It is certain that the Five Nations acquiredpolitical control of most of Virginia west of the fall line over the years 1670-1710, whichthey continued to claim until they began selling this area to their British allies in 1722. Beaver Wars See also: Beaver WarsHaudenosaunee flag created in the 1980s. It is based on the "Hiawatha Wampum Belt ...created from purple and white wampum beads centuries ago to symbolize the unionforged when the former enemies buried their weapons under the Great Tree of Peace."[21]It represents the original five nations that were united by the Peacemaker and Hiawatha. 73
  • 74. The tree symbol in the center represents an Eastern White Pine, the needles of which areclustered in groups of five.[22]Beginning in 1609, the League engaged in the Beaver Wars with the French and theirIroquoian-speaking Huron allies. They also put great pressure on the Algonquian peoplesof the Atlantic coast and what is now the boreal Canadian Shield region of Canada andnot infrequently fought the English colonies as well. During the seventeenth century, theywere said to have exterminated the Neutral Nation.[23][24] and Erie Tribe to the west. Thewars were a way to control the lucrative fur trade,[citation needed] although additional reasonsare often given for these wars.In 1628, the Mohawks defeated the Mahicans to gain a monopoly in the fur trade with theDutch at Fort Orange, New Netherland. The Mohawks would not allow Canadian Indiansto trade with the Dutch. In 1645, a tentative peace was forged between the Iroquois andthe Hurons, Algonquins and French. In 1646, Jesuit missionaries at Sainte-Marie amongthe Hurons went as envoys to the Mohawk lands to protect the precarious peace of thetime. However, Mohawk attitudes toward the peace soured during the mens journey.They were attacked by a Mohawk party en route. Taken to the village of Ossernenon(Auriesville, N.Y.), the moderate Turtle and Wolf clans decreed setting the priests free.Angered by this, the more hawkish Bear clan killed Jean de Lalande and Isaac Jogues onOctober 18, 1646. The two French priests were later commemorated as among the eightNorth American Martyrs. In 1649 during the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois used recentlypurchased Dutch guns to attack the Hurons. From 1651 to 1652, the Iroquois attacked theSusquehannocks without success.In the early seventeenth century, the Iroquois were at the height of their power, with apopulation of about twelve thousand people.[25] In 1654, they invited the French toestablish a trading and missionary settlement at Onondaga (present-day New York state).The following year, the Mohawk attacked and expelled the French from this trading post,possibly because of the sudden death of 500 Indians from an epidemic of smallpox, aEuropean infectious disease to which they had no immunity.From 1658 to 1663, the Iroquois were at war with the Susquehannock and their Delawareand Province of Maryland allies. In 1663, a large Iroquois invasion force was defeated atthe Susquehannock main fort. In 1663, the Iroquois were at war with the Sokoki tribe ofthe upper Connecticut River. Smallpox struck again; through the effects of disease,famine, and war, the Iroquois were threatened by extermination. In 1664, an Oneida partystruck at allies of the Susquehannock on Chesapeake Bay.In 1665, three of the Five Nations made peace with the French. The following year, theCanadian Governor sent the Carignan regiment under Marquis de Tracy to confront theMohawks and the Oneida. The Mohawks avoided battle, and the French burned theirvillages and crops. In 1667, the remaining two Nations signed a peace treaty with theFrench. This treaty lasted for 17 years. 74
  • 75. Around 1670, the Iroquois drove the Siouan Mannahoac tribe out of the northern VirginiaPiedmont region. They began to claim ownership of it by right of conquest. In 1672, theIroquois were defeated by a war party of Susquehannock. The Iroquois appealed to theFrench for support. They asked Governor Frontenac to assist them against theSusquehannock because"it would be a shame for him to allow his children to be crushed, as they saw themselvesto be... they not having the means of going to attack their fort, which was very strong, noreven of defending themselves if the others came to attack them in their villages."[26] Some old histories state that the Iroquois defeated the Susquehannock during this timeperiod. As no record of a defeat has been found, historians have concluded that no defeatoccurred.[26] In 1677, the Iroquois adopted the majority of the Susquehannock into theirnation.[27]By 1677, the Iroquois formed an alliance with the English through an agreement knownas the Covenant Chain. Together, they battled the French to a standstill who were alliedwith the Huron. These Iroquoian people had been a traditional historic foe of theConfederacy. The Iroquois colonized the northern shore of Lake Ontario and sent raidingparties westward all the way to Illinois Country. The tribes of Illinois were eventuallydefeated, not by the Iroquois, but rather by the Potawatomis. In 1684, the Iroquoisinvaded Virginian and Illinois territory again, and unsuccessfully attacked the French fortat St. Louis. Later that year, the Virginia Colony agreed at Albany to recognize theIroquois right to use the North-South path running east of the Blue Ridge (later the OldCarolina Road), provided they did not intrude on the English settlements east of the fallline.In 1679, the Susquehannock, with Iroquois help, attacked Marylands Piscataway andMattawoman allies. Peace was not reached until 1685.With support from the French, the Algonquian nations drove the Iroquois out of theterritories north of Lake Erie and west of present-day Cleveland, which had beenconquered during the Beaver Wars.[28]Jacques-Rene de Brisay de Denonville, Marquis de Denonville, Governor of New Francefrom 1685 to 1689, set out with a well-organized force to Fort Frontenac. There they metwith the 50 hereditary sachems of the Iroquois Confederation from the Onondaga councilfire, who came under a flag of truce. Denonville recaptured the fort for New France andseized, chained, and shipped the 50 Iroquois Chiefs to Marseilles, France to be used asgalley slaves. He then ravaged the land of the Seneca. The destruction of the Seneca landinfuriated the Iroquois Confederation.On August 4, 1689 they burned Lachine, a small town adjacent to Montreal, to theground. Fifteen hundred Iroquois warriors had been harassing Montreal defenses formany months prior to that. They finally exhausted and defeated Denonville and hisforces. His tenure was followed by the return of Frontenac, who succeeded Denonville as 75
  • 76. Governor for the next nine years (1689–1698). Frontenac had been arranging a new planof attack to mollify the effects of the Iroquois in North America and realized the dangerof the imprisonment of the Sachems. He located the 13 surviving leaders and returnedwith them to New France that October 1698.During King Williams War (North American part of the War of the Grand Alliance), theIroquois were allied with the English. In July 1701, they concluded the "Nanfan Treaty",deeding the English a large tract north of the Ohio River. The Iroquois claimed to haveconquered this territory 80 years earlier. France did not recognize the validity of thistreaty, as it had the strongest presence within the area in question. Meanwhile, theIroquois were negotiating peace with the French; together they signed the Great Peace ofMontreal that same year. French and Indian Wars See also: French and Indian WarsAfter the 1701 peace treaty with the French, the Iroquois remained mostly neutral eventhough during Queen Annes War (North American part of the War of the SpanishSuccession) they were involved in some planned attacks against the French. Fourdelegates of the Iroquoian Confederacy, the "Indian kings", traveled to London in 1710 tomeet Queen Anne in an effort to seal an alliance with the British. Queen Anne was soimpressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter JohnVerelst. The portraits are believed to be some of the earliest surviving oil portraits ofAboriginal peoples taken from life.[29]In the first quarter of the eighteenth century, the Tuscarora fled north from the Britishcolonization of North Carolina and petitioned to become the sixth nation. This was a non-voting position but placed them under the protection of the Confederacy.In 1721 and 1722, Lt. Governor Alexander Spotswood of Virginia concluded a newTreaty at Albany with the Iroquois, renewing the Covenant Chain and agreeing torecognize the Blue Ridge as the demarcation between Virginia Colony and the Iroquois.However, as white settlers began to move beyond the Blue Ridge and into theShenandoah Valley in the 1730s, the Iroquois objected and were told that the agreeddemarcation merely prevented them from trespassing east of the Blue Ridge, but it didnot prevent English from expanding west of them. The Iroquois were on the verge ofgoing to war with the Virginia Colony, when in 1743, Governor Gooch paid them thesum of 100 pounds sterling for any settled land in the Valley that was claimed by theIroquois. The following year at the Treaty of Lancaster, the Iroquois sold Virginia alltheir remaining claims on the Shenandoah Valley for 200 pounds in gold.[30]During the French and Indian War (North American part of the Seven Years War), theIroquois sided with the British against the French and their Algonquian allies, bothtraditional enemies of the Iroquois. The Iroquois hoped that aiding the British would alsobring favors after the war. Practically, few Iroquois joined the campaign, and in the Battle 76
  • 77. of Lake George, a group of Mohawk and French ambushed a Mohawk-led Britishcolumn. The British government issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the war,which forbade white settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains, but this was largelyignored by the settlers, and the Iroquois agreed to adjust this line again at the Treaty ofFort Stanwix (1768), whereby they sold the British Crown all their remaining claim to thelands between the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers. American RevolutionDuring the American Revolution, many Tuscarora and the Oneida sided with theAmericans, while the Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga and Cayuga remained loyal to GreatBritain. This marked the first major split among the Six Nations. Joseph Louis Cookoffered his services to the United States and received a Congressional commission as aLieutenant Colonel- the highest rank held by any Native American during the war.[31]However, after a series of successful operations against frontier settlements, led by theMohawk war chief Joseph Brant, other war chiefs, and British allies; the United Statesreacted with vengeance. In 1779, George Washington ordered the Sullivan Campaign ledby Col. Daniel Brodhead and General John Sullivan against the Iroquois nations to "notmerely overrun, but destroy," the British-Indian alliance. Post-warAfter the war, the ancient central fireplace of the League was reestablished at BuffaloCreek. Captain Joseph Brant and a group of Iroquois left New York to settle in Canada.As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant onthe Grand River. Brants crossing of the river gave the original name to the area: Brantsford. By 1847, European settlers began to settle nearby and named the village Brantford,Ontario. The original Mohawk settlement was on the south edge of the present-day city ata location still favorable for launching and landing canoes. Culture Stone pipe (19th century engraving). Melting pot 77
  • 78. The Iroquois are a melting pot. League traditions allowed for the dead to be symbolicallyreplaced through the "Mourning War", raids intended to seize captives to replace lostcompatriots and take vengeance on non-members. This tradition was common to nativepeople of the northeast and was quite different from European settlers notions of combat.The Iroquois aimed to create an empire by incorporating conquered peoples andremolding them into Iroquois and thus naturalizing them as full citizens of the tribe.Cadwallader Colden wrote "It has been a constant maxim with the Five Nations, to savechildren and young men of the people they conquer, to adopt them into their own Nation,and to educate them as their own children, without distinction; These young people soonforget their own country and nation and by this policy the Five Nations make up thelosses which their nation suffers by the people they lose in war." By 1668, two-thirds ofthe Oneida village were assimilated Algonquians and Hurons. At Onondaga there wereNative Americans of seven different nations and among the Seneca eleven.[32] FoodThe Iroquois were a mix of farmers, fishers, gatherers, and hunters, though their maindiet came from farming. The main crops they farmed were corn, beans and squash, whichwere called the three sisters and were considered special gifts from the Creator. Thesecrops are grown strategically. The cornstalks grow, the bean plants climb the stalks, andthe squash grow beneath, inhibiting weeds and keeping the soil moist under the shade oftheir broad leaves. In this combination, the soil remained fertile for several decades. Thefood was stored during the winter, and it lasts for two to three years. When the soileventually lost its fertility, the Iroquois migrated.Gathering was the job of the women and children. Wild roots, greens, berries and nutswere gathered in the summer. During spring, maple syrup was tapped from the trees, andherbs were gathered for medicine.The Iroquois mostly hunted deer but also other game such as wild turkey and migratorybirds. Muskrat and beaver were hunted during the winter. Fishing was also a significantsource of food because the Iroquois were located near a large river. They fished salmon,trout, bass, perch and whitefish. In the spring the Iroquois netted, and in the winterfishing holes were made in the ice.[33] WampumSince they had no writing system, the Iroquois depended upon the spoken word to passdown their history, traditions, and rituals. As an aid to memory, the Iroquois used shellsand shell beads. The Europeans called the beads wampum, from wampumpeag, a wordused by Indians in the area who spoke Algonquin languages.The type of wampum most commonly used in historic times was bead wampum, cut fromvarious seashells, ground and polished, and then bored through the center with a small 78
  • 79. hand drill. The purple and white beads, made from the shell of the quahog clam, werearranged on belts in designs representing events of significance.Certain elders were designated to memorize the various events and treaty articlesrepresented on the belts. These men could "read" the belts and reproduce their contentswith great accuracy. The belts were stored at Onondaga, the capital of the confederacy, inthe care of a designated wampum keeper.Famous wampum belts of the Iroquois include the Hiawatha Wampum, which representsthe (original) Five Nations, the spatial arrangement of their individual territories, and thenature of their roles in the Confederacy. The modern Iroquois flag is a rendition of thepattern of the original Hiawatha Wampum belt. The Two Row Wampum, also known asGuswhenta, depicts the agreement made between the Iroquois league and representativesof the Dutch government in 1613, an agreement upon which all subsequent Iroquoistreaties with Europeans and Americans have been based. Today, replicas of the Two RowWampum are often displayed for ceremonial or educational purposes. Other historicalwampum belts representing specific agreements or historical occurrences are known toexist, although many have been lost or stolen. Women in societyWhen Americans and Canadians of European descent began to study Iroquois customs inthe 18th and 19th centuries, they observed that women assumed a position in Iroquoissociety roughly equal in power to that of the men. Individual women could hold propertyincluding dwellings, horses and farmed land, and their property before marriage stayed intheir possession without being mixed with that of their husbands. The work of a womanshands was hers to do with as she saw fit. A husband lived in the longhouse of his wifesfamily. A woman choosing to divorce a shiftless or otherwise unsatisfactory husband wasable to ask him to leave the dwelling, taking any of his possessions with him. Women hadresponsibility for the children of the marriage, and children were educated by members ofthe mothers family. The clans were matrilineal, that is, clan ties were traced through themothers line. If a couple separated, the woman kept the children. Violence againstwomen by men was virtually unknown.[34]The chief of a clan could be removed at any time by a council of the mothers of that clan,and the chiefs sister was responsible for nominating his successor.[34] Spiritual beliefsIn the Iroquois belief system was a formless Great Spirit or Creator, from whom otherspirits were derived.[citation needed] Spirits animated all of nature and controlled the changingof the seasons. Key festivals coincided with the major events of the agricultural calendar,including a harvest festival of thanksgiving. After the arrival of the Europeans, manyIroquois became Christians, among them Kateri Tekakwitha, a young woman of mixedbirth. Traditional religion was revived to some extent in the second half of the 18thcentury by the teachings of the Iroquois prophet Handsome Lake.[35] 79
  • 80. People ationsThe first five nations listed below formed the original Five Nations (listed from west tonorth); the Tuscarora became the sixth nation in 1720. English name Iroquoian Meaning 17th/18th century location Onondowahgah Great Hill" Lake and Genesee River Seneca "People of the Seneca Guyohkohnyoh Great Swamp" Cayuga "People of the Cayuga Lake Onöñdagega Onondaga of the Hills" "People Onondaga Lake Onayotekaono Oneida "People of Standing Stone" Oneida Lake Kanienkehá:ka Great Flint" River Mohawk "People of the Mohawk Ska"Hemp Tuscarora Gatherers" rom North Carolina² " F 1 Not one of the original Five Nations; joined 1720. 2 Settled between Oneidas and Onondagas. ClansSee also: Iroquois kinshipWithin each of the six nations, people are divided into a number of matrilineal clans. Thenumber of clans varies by nation, currently from three to eight, with a total of ninedifferent clan names. 80
  • 81. Current clans Seneca Onondaga CayugaTuscarora Oneida Mohawk Wolf Wolf Wolf Wolf (Θkwarì•nę) Wolf (Thayú:ni) Wolf (Okwáho) Bear ear ear ear (Uhčíhręˀ) B B B Bear (Ohkwá:li) Bear (Ohkwá:ri) Turtle Turtle Turtle Turtle (Ráˀkwihs) Turtle (Ano:wál) Turtle (Anó:wara) Snipe Snipe Snipe Snipe (Tawístawis) — — Deer Deer eer — D — — Beaver Beaver — Beaver (Rakinęhá•ha•ˀ) — — Heron — — Heron — — Hawk Hawk — — — — — — Eel Eel (Akunęhukwatíha•ˀ) — — Population historyThis section requiresThe total number of Iroquois today is difficult to establish. About 45,000 Iroquois livedin Canada in 1995.[citation needed] In the 2000 census, 80,822 people in the United Statesclaimed Iroquois ethnicity, with 45,217 of them claiming only Iroquois background.However, tribal registrations in the United States in 1995 numbered about 30,000 in total. Populations of the Haudenosaunee Members (Six ations) Location Cayuga TuscaroraMohawk Seneca OnondagaOnei Combined Ontario 3,97014,0517,603 1 Quebec 9,631 New York 7,581448 1596 1,2001,1095,632 Wisconsin 10,309 Oklahoma 2,200Source: Iroquois Population in 1995 by Doug George-Kanentiio [1].1 Six Nations of the Grand River Territory.2 Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma.Prominent individuals • Frederick Alexcee, artist (also of Tsimshian ancestry) 81
  • 82. • Henry Armstrong, boxer, #2 in Ring Magazines list of the 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years • George Armstrong, hockey player, most successful captain of the Toronto Maple Leafs with five Stanley Cup victories. • Joseph Brant or Thayendanegea, Mohawk leader • Cornplanter or Kaintwakon, Seneca chief • Deganawida or The Great Peacemaker, the traditional founder along with Hiawatha of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy • Graham Greene, Canadian Oneida • Handsome Lake or Ganiodayo, Seneca religious leader • Ki Longfellow, novelist • Oren Lyons, Onondaga, a traditional Faithkeeper of the Turtle clan • Ely S. Parker, Seneca, Union Army officer during American Civil War, Commissioner of Indian Affairs during Ulysses S. Grants first term as President. • Red Jacket, Seneca orator and chief of the Wolf clan • Robbie Robertson, Mohawk, songwriter, guitarist and singer best known for his membership in The Band. • Joanne Shenandoah, Oneida singer, songwriter, actress and educator • Jay Silverheels, actor, of Canadian Mohawk origin • Kateri Tekakwitha, first Catholic Native American saint, patron of ecology, of Mohawk and Algonquin ancestry • Canassatego, Tadadaho of the Iroquois Confederacy GovernmentMohawk leader John Smoke Johnson (right) with John Tutela, and Young Warner, twoother Six Nations War of 1812 veterans.Grand CouncilThe Grand Council of the Iroquois League is an assembly of 50 sachems (chiefs), anumber that has never changed. The seats on the Council are distributed among the SixNations as follows: • 14 Onondaga • 10 Cayuga • 9 Oneida 82
  • 83. • 9 Mohawk • 8 Seneca • 0 TuscaroraWhen anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan studied the Grand Council in the 19thcentury, he interpreted it as a central government. This interpretation became influential,but some scholars have since argued that while the Grand Council served an importantceremonial role, it was not a government in the sense that Morgan thought.[4][5][6]According to this view, Iroquois political and diplomatic decisions were made on thelocal level, and were based on assessments of community consensus; a centralgovernment that dictates policy to the people at large is not the Iroquois model ofgovernment.Unanimity in public acts was essential to the Council. In 1855, Minnie Myrtle observedthat no Iroquois treaty was binding unless it was ratified by 75% of the male voters and75% of the mothers of the nation.[37] In revising Council laws and customs, a consent oftwo-thirds of the mothers was required.[37]The women held real power, particularly the power to veto treaties or declarations ofwar.[37] The members of the Grand Council of Sachems were chosen by the mothers ofeach clan, and if any leader failed to comply with the wishes of the women of his tribeand the Great Law of Peace, he could be demoted by the mothers of his clan, a processcalled "knocking off the horns" which removed the deer antlers emblem of leadershipfrom his headgear and returned him to private life.[37] Councils of the mothers of eachtribe were held separately from the mens councils. Men were employed by the women asrunners to send word of their decisions to concerned parties, or a woman could appear atthe mens council as an orator, presenting the view of the women. Women often took theinitiative in suggesting legislation.[37] Influence on the United StatesThe neutrality of this section is disputed. Please see the discussion on thePlease do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (October 2009)According to a controversial argument sometimes known as the Iroquois InfluenceThesis, the Iroquois League was an important influence on the development of theArticles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.[38][39] The Influence Thesisbecame popular in the 1980s, particularly through publications by Donald Grinde andBruce Johansen. According to these historians, the democratic ideals of the Great Law ofPeace provided a significant inspiration to Benjamin Franklin, James Madison and otherframers of the United States Constitution. The popularity of the Influence Thesisculminated with the United States Congress passing a resolution in October 1988,specifically recognizing the influence of the Iroquois League upon the US Constitutionand Bill of Rights.[40] 83
  • 84. The Influence Thesis has since been rejected by many scholars, however, includingexperts on the Iroquois and the US Constitution. According to historian Jack Rakove,"The voluminous records we have for the constitutional debates of the late 1780s containno significant references to the Iroquois."[41] Scholars of the Iroquois Confederacy whohave rejected the Influence Thesis include William N. Fenton and Francis Jennings, whocalled it "absurd".[42] Anthropologist Dean Snow writes:There is, however, little or no evidence that the framers of the Constitution sitting inPhiladelphia drew much inspiration from the League. It can even be argued that suchclaims muddle and denigrate the subtle and remarkable features of Iroquoisgovernment.… Yet the temptation to demonstrate that the United States Constitution wasderived from a Native American form of government remains, for ephemeral politicalpurposes, too strong for some to resist.[43]Modern communitiesIroquois in Buffalo, New York, 1914. • Canada o Kahnawake Mohawk in Quebec o Kanesatake Mohawk in Quebec o Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne in Ontario o Thames Oneida in Ontario o Six Nations of the Grand River Territory in Ontario o Tyendinaga Mohawk in Ontario o Wahta Mohawk in Ontario • United States o Cayuga Nation in New York o Ganienkeh Mohawk — not federally recognized o Kanatsiohareke Mohawk o Onondaga Nation in New York o Oneida Indian Nation in New York o Oneida Tribe of Indians in Wisconsin o St. Regis Band of Mohawk Indians in New York o Seneca Nation of New York 84
  • 85. o Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma o Tuscarora Nation of New YorkSee alsoWikimedia Commons has media related to: • Covenant Chain • Iroquois Nationals • David Cusick • Mohawk Chapel • Economy of the Iroquois Red Jacket • • Ely S. Parker • Sir William Johnson • False Face Society • Six Nations of the Grand River • Ganondagan State Historic Site Johnson • Smoke • Gideon Hawley • Sullivan Expedition • Handsome Lake • Town Destroyer • History of New York • The Kahnawake Iroquois and the Rebellions of 1837 • Iroquoian languages • The Flying Head • Iroquois mythologyReferences otes 1. ^ Haudenosaunee is pronounced /hɔːdɛnəˈʃɔːni/ in English, Akunęhsyę̀niˀ in Tuscarora (Rudes, B., Tuscarora English Dictionary, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), and Rotinonsionni in Mohawk. 2. ^ Encyclopedia of the Haudenosaunee pg.135. Greenwood Publishing Group. 20haudenosaunee&pg=PA135#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 2010-04-02. 3. ^ "First Nations Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization. 4. ^ a b c Richter, "Ordeals of the Longhouse", in Richter and Merrill, eds., Beyond the Covenant Chain, 11–12. 5. ^ a b Fenton, Great Law and the Longhouse, 4–5. 6. ^ a b Shannon, Iroquois Diplomacy, 72–73. 7. ^ Peck, William (1908). History of Rochester and Monroe county, ew York. pp. 12. Retrieved 2009-04-04. 8. ^ "The Iroquois Confederacy". The Light Party. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 9. ^ The Iroquois. Google Books. 85
  • 86. quois+basque&source=web&ots=W1269hy5wt&sig=7cFTz0iO46ls-BD- HQQeKDe43Nk. Retrieved 2007-09-25.10. ^ Jennings, p.4311. ^ Hanna, The Wilderness Trail p. 9712. ^ Louis F. Burns, "Osage" Oklahoma Historical Societys Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, retrieved 2 March 200913. ^ Fenton, Great Law and the Longhouse, 69.14. ^ Shannon, Iroquois Diplomacy, 25.15. ^ Johansen, Bruce (1995). "Dating the Iroquois Confederacy". Akwesasne otes ew Series 1 (3): 62–63. Retrieved Dec 12, 2008.16. ^ Snow, The Iroquois, 231.17. ^ The History of Onondagega18. ^ Muir, Diana, Reflections in Bulloughs Pond, University Press of New England19. ^ Bernard G. Hoffman, 1955, Souriquois, Etechemin, and Kwedech - - A Lost Chapter in American Ethnography20. ^ James F. Pendergast, 1991, The Massawomeck.21. ^ "From beads to banner". Indian Country Today. Retrieved 2009-05- 04.22. ^ "Haudenosaunee Flag". First Americans. Retrieved 2007-09-25.23. ^ Reville, F. Douglas. The History of the County of Brant, p. 20.24. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Hurons"25. ^ Francis Parkman[citation needed]26. ^ a b Jennings, p. 13527. ^ Jennings, p.16028. ^ Jennings, p. 11129. ^ "The Four Indian Kings". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 2007-09-25.30. ^ Joseph Solomon Walton, 1900, Conrad Weiser and the Indian Policy of Colonial Pennsylvania p. 76-121.31. ^ Oneida Nation of New York Conveyance of Lands Into Trust pg 3-159, Department of Indian Affairs32. ^ Jennings, p. 9533. ^ Bial, Raymond (1999). Lifeways: The Iroquois. New York: Benchmark Books. ISBN 0761408029.34. ^ a b Wagner, Sally Roesch (1999). "Iroquois Women Inspire 19th Century Feminists". ational OW Times. National Organization for Women. Retrieved 2009-03-21.35. ^ Wallace, Anthony (April 12, 1972). Death and Rebirth of the Seneca. Vintage. ISBN 978-0394716992.36. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Iroquois 86
  • 87. 37. ^ a b c d e Wagner, Sally Roesch (1993). "The Iroquois Influence on Womens Rights". in Sakolsky, Ron; Koehnline, James. Gone To Croatan: Origins of orth American Dropout Culture. Brooklyn, New York: Autonomedia. pp. 240–247. ISBN 0936756926. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 38. ^ "The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on Earth". Retrieved 2007-10-27. 39. ^ Armstrong, Virginia Irving. I Have Spoken: American History Through the Voices of the Indians. Pocket Books. p. 14. SBN 671-78555-9. 40. ^ "H. Con. Res. 331, October 21, 1988". United States Senate. Retrieved 2008- 11-23. 41. ^ "Did the Founding Fathers Really Get Many of Their Ideas of Liberty from the Iroquois?". George Mason University. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 42. ^ Francis Jennings, Empire of fortune: crowns, colonies, and tribes in the Seven Years War in America (New York: Norton, 1988), p. 259 note 15. 43. ^ Snow, The Iroquois, 154.Bibliography • Fenton, William N. The Great Law and the Longhouse: a political history of the Iroquois Confederacy. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. ISBN 0806130032. • Jennings, Francis. The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire: the Covenant Chain confederation of Indian tribes with English colonies from its beginnings to the Lancaster Treaty of 1744. New York: Norton, 1984. ISBN 0393017192. • Jennings, Francis, ed. The History and culture of Iroquois diplomacy: an interdisciplinary guide to the treaties of the Six ations and their league. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1985. ISBN 0815626509. • Richter, Daniel K. The ordeal of the longhouse: the peoples of the Iroquois League in the era of European colonization. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. ISBN 0807820601. • Richter, Daniel K., and James H. Merrell, eds. Beyond the covenant chain: the Iroquois and their neighbors in Indian orth America, 1600–1800. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003. ISBN 027102299X. • Shannon, Timothy J. Iroquois Diplomacy on the Early American Frontier. New York: Viking, 2008. ISBN 9780670018970. • Snow, Dean R. The Iroquois. Oxford, UK and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1994. ISBN 1557862257. • Tooker, Elisabeth, ed. An Iroquois source book. 3 volumes. New York: Garland, 1985–1986. ISBN 0824058771. 87
  • 88. [hide]v•d•eLeague of the IroquoisNations · Cayuga · Onondaga · Oneida · Mohawk · TuscaroraSeneca Economy · Languages · Mythology · Great Law of Peace · The Great PeacemakerTopics TadodahoRetrieved from ""Categories: Iroquois | First Nations in Ontario | First Nations in Quebec | NativeAmerican tribes in Oklahoma | Native American tribes in Wisconsin | Historicallegislatures Seven ations of Canada From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is part of a series on Aboriginal peoples in Canada First ations · Inuit · Métis HISTORY[SHOW] 88
  • 89. POLITICS[SHOW] CULTURE[SHOW] DEMOGRAPHICS[SHOW] LINGUISTICS[SHOW] RELIGIONS[SHOW] INDEX[SHOW] WIKIPROJECTS[SHOW] v•d•eThe Seven ations of Canada were a historic confederation of Canadian First Nationsliving in and around the Saint Lawrence River valley beginning in the eighteenth century.They were allied to New France and often included substantial numbers of RomanCatholics. During the Seven Years War (1756-1763), they supported the French againstthe English. Later, they formed the northern nucleus of the British-led Aboriginal alliancethat fought the United States in the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. • Mohawk of Akwesasne • Mohawk of Kahnawake • Mohawk and Anishinaabeg (Algonquin and Nipissing) of Kanesetake 89
  • 90. • Abenaki of Odanak • Abenaki of Becancour (now Wôlinak) • Huron of Jeune-Lorette (now Wendake) • Onondaga of OswegatchieContents • 1 Origins • 2 Geography • 3 Politics • 4 Notes • 5 References OriginsCanadian historian Jean-Pierre Sawaya has argued that the federation has existed sincethe seventeenth century. He does specialized research in the history of Canadas FirstNations and the background to their land claims. Canadian historian John AlexanderDickinson argues that the federation was created during the Seven Years War, as theBritish closed in on the territories along the St Lawrence River. Dickinson is a specialistin the history of New France and its relations with the First Nations of the North East.There is little first hand evidence to support either view. Dickinson argues that the lack ofevidence supports the case for a later date. [1]Mohawk historian Darren Bonaparte has summarized what is known. After a disastrouswar in 1667 when the French attacked Mohawk villages in present-day New York, someMohawk converted to Christianity and began to relocate to Kahnawake ("near therapids") on the St. Lawrence River opposite the small village of Montreal. By its nameand location by a rapids, Kahnawake recalled the village Caughnawaga (in a variantspelling) in the Mohawk homeland. The first village faded as most of its people movednorth. The relation between the Mohawk who stayed in New York and those whomigrated was, in Bonapartes words, "as ambiguous as when they were together", in partbecause they became differentiated by religious practices.[2]A federation of First Nations bands formed in settlements in the St. Lawrence Rivervalley. It included those Abenaki, Algonquin, and Huron who were more accepting ofCatholicism. The Abenaki and Algonquin belonged to major families of the Algonquianlanguage. The Mohawk and Onondaga were Iroquois, and the Huron spoke anotherIroquoian language. The Mohawk of the federation continued to identify as Mohawk andas relatives of the Mohawk in traditional Iroquois territory.[3]One of the earliest written references to the Seven Nations comes from the mid-18thcentury. In 1755, Seven Nations fighters and their French allies had prepared an ambushfor the British army on the portage between Lake George and the Hudson River. One of 90
  • 91. the Mohawk from Kahnawake saw that Mohawk were marching with the British. He toldthem to identify themselves; they replied, they were "Mohawks and Five Nations" (thetraditional name for the Iroquois Confederacy). Questioned in turn, the Mohawk with theFrench said, "[W]e are the 7 confederate Indian Nations of Canada." This exchange wasrecorded in a memoranda book by Daniel Claus, who was working as an Indian Agent forWilliam Johnson.[4]GeographyThis map shows the Seven Nations on the eve of the Seven Years War. Native andFrench communities formed a patchwork along the St. Lawrence River. The Frenchcommunities were a single political entity. The Native American communities each hadtheir own governments linked to the French by geography and by formal and informalagreements.[5]The majority of the residents in the four western towns were closely related 91
  • 92. to the Iroquois of the Six Nations — mostly Mohawk (Kanesetake, Kahnawake, andAkwesasne) or Onondaga (Oswegatchie). There were also Anishinaabeg living atKanesetake. The eastern towns were populated by the Abenaki (Odanak and Bécancour)and the Huron (Jeune-Lorette). [6] A main unifying concern was the relentlessencroachment of British-American settlement in New England and New York that hadalready driven many of them from their ancestral homes. PoliticsIn the 1783 Treaty of Paris following the American Revolutionary War, the BritishCrown ceded all its territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States (US). As thetreaty made no mention of Englands Native American allies, the US had to negotiateseparate peace agreements with each of the nations. The important issues to be settledincluded not only peace, but also the ownership of vast tracts of land which the UnitedStates considered to be under its control by the British cession. By 1789, US officialsrealized that, in the words of Secretary of War Henry Knox, "the Indians are especiallytenacious of their lands, and generally do not relinquish their right, excepting on theprinciple of a specific consideration, expressly given for the purchase of the same."[7]After the United States and the Seven Nations signed a treaty in 1797, its legitimacy waschallenged by other Native Americans on the grounds that the signatories wereunauthorized to cede land.The challenge has continued to this day. Federal courts in the United Sates have ruledthat they will not go behind a treaty "to inquire whether or not an Indian tribe wasproperly represented by its head men, nor determine whether a treaty has been procuredby duress or fraud, and declare it inoperative for that reason." [8] The land claim andtreaty issues remain controversial. otes 1. ^ Dickinson (2000), p. 202 2. ^ Bonaparte, "Seven Nations of Canada" 3. ^ Bonaparte, "Seven Nations of Canada" 4. ^ Memoranda Book, Claus Family Papers, National Archives of Canada, cited in MacLeod (1999) p.xi & 71-72. A Mohawk oral tradition about this event was recorded in the Journal of Major John orton. Norton spoke Mohawk and fought with them in the War of 1812 against the United States. In Nortons version, the reply was, "We are Caghnawagues & other Tribes." Norton, John. The Journal of Major John orton, 1816. Carl F. Klinck and JHames Talamn, eds., Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1970. p. 266. 5. ^ MacLeod (2008), p. 72 6. ^ MacLeod (1996) pp x-xii 7. ^ American State Papers, Indian Affairs (Washington, D.C., 1832), Class II, 1:8, cited in Campisi and Starna, p.470 92
  • 93. 8. ^ United States v. ew York Indians, 173 U.S. 464, 469470 (1899) cited in Campisi and Starna p 488References • Darren Bonaparte, "The Seven Nations of Canada: The Other Iroquois Confederacy", The Wampum Chronicles • D. Peter MacLeods notes on the Treaty of Kahnawake, 1760 • D. Peter McLeod, (1996) The Canadian Iroquois and the Seven Years War, Ottawa & Toronto: The Canadian War Museum & Dundurn Press. Canadian War Museum Historical Publication No. 29. • D. Peter McLeod, orthern Armageddon : the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2008. • John A. Dickinson, "La federation des sept feux de la Vallee du Saint-Laurent: XVIIe-XIXe siecle by Jean-Pierre Sawaya. [review]", The American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 202-203 • Jack Campisi and William A. Starna. "On the Road to Canandaigua: The Treaty of 1794", American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Autumn, 1995), pp. 467- 490This Canada-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia byRetrieved from ""Categories: Canada stubs | First Nations history in Ontario | First Nations history inQuebec | Seven Years War | American Revolutionary War | War of 1812First ationsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from First Nations of Canada)Jump to: navigation, searchThis article is about the indigenous peoples of Canada. For other indigenous peoples, seeIndigenous peoples (disambiguation)First ations 93
  • 94. First Nation FlagsTotal population698,025[1]LanguagesAboriginal languagesCanadian EnglishCanadian FrenchReligionChristianAnglicantraditional beliefstraditional mythology This article is part of a series on Aboriginal peoples in Canada 94
  • 96. INDEX[SHOW] WIKIPROJECTS[SHOW] v•d•eFirst ations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the Aboriginal peoples in Canada whoare neither Inuit nor Métis.[2] There are currently over 600[3] recognised First Nationsgovernments or bands spread all across Canada, roughly half of which are in theprovinces of Ontario and British Columbia.[4] Under the Employment Equity Act, FirstNations are a designated group along with women, visible minorities, and persons withphysical or mental disabilities.[5] They are not a visible minority under the Act and in theview of Statistics Canada.[6]The term First ations (most often used in the plural) has come into general use for theIndigenous peoples of the Americas located in what is now Canada, except for the Arctic-situated Inuit, and peoples of mixed ancestry called Métis. The singular, commonly usedon culturally politicised reserves, is the awkward First ations person (when gender-specific, First ations man or First ations woman). A more recent trend is for membersof various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "ImHaida," "were Kwantlens," in recognition of the distinctiveness of First Nationsethnicities.[7] 96
  • 97. Although the indigenous peoples had thousands of years of cultures in North America,written documentation about them started with the arrival of European explorers andcolonists.[8][9] European accounts by trappers, traders, explorers, and missionaries giveimportant evidence of early contact culture.[10] In addition, archeological andanthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece togetherunderstanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples.Although not without conflict or slavery, European-Canadians early interactions withFirst Nations and Inuit populations were peaceful compared to the history of Americannative peoples. Combined with later economic development, this relatively peacefulhistory has allowed First Nations peoples to have a strong influence on the nationalculture, while preserving their own identities.[11]Contents • 1 Terminology • 2 History o 2.1 Post-Archaic period o 2.2 Nationhood o 2.3 European contact o 2.4 16th–18th centuries o 2.5 The Métis 2.5.1 French and Indian War 2.5.2 Slavery o 2.6 19th century 2.6.1 Integration o 2.7 20th century o 2.8 First and Second World Wars o 2.9 Late 20th century 2.9.1 1969 White Paper 2.9.2 Health Transfer Policy 2.9.3 Elijah Harper and the Meech Lake Accord 2.9.4 Womens status and Bill C-31 2.9.5 Erasmus-Dussault commission o 2.10 Early 21st century • 3 Canadian Crown and First Nations Relations o 3.1 Political organisation o 3.2 Assembly of First Nations / National Indian Brotherhood • 4 Culture o 4.1 Languages o 4.2 Art o 4.3 Music o 4.4 Demographics • 5 Issues • 6 See also • 7 Further reading 97
  • 98. • 8 References • 9 External links TerminologySee also: Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982The term First ations can be confusing. Collectively, First ations,[4] Inuit,[12] andMétis[13] peoples constitute Aboriginal peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of theAmericas or first peoples.[14][15] First ations is a legally undefined term that came intocommon usage in the 1980s to replace the term Indian band.[16] Elder Sol Sanderson saysthat he coined the term in the early 1980s.[17] A band is a legally recognised "body ofIndians for whose collective use and benefit lands have been set apart or money is heldby the Canadian Crown, or declared to be a band for the purposes of the Indian Act".[15]As individuals, First Nations people are officially recognised by the Government ofCanada by the terms registered Indians or status Indians only if they are listed on theIndian Register and are thus entitled to benefits under the often controversial IndianAct,[18] or as non-status Indian if they are not so listed and thus not entitled to benefits,according to the Canadian state. Administration of the Indian Act and Indian Register iscarried out by the federal governments Department of Indian and Northern Affairs.[16]While the word "Indian" is still a legal term, its use is erratic and in decline in Canada.The term may be regarded as offensive, while others prefer it over Aboriginalperson/persons/people. According to the 2006 Census, there are more Canadians whoidentify as being of East Indian ethnicity than there are members of First Nations. Theuse of the term ative Americans is not common in Canada[15] as it refers morespecifically to the Aboriginal peoples of the United States.[19] The parallel term ativeCanadian is not commonly used, but natives and autochthones (from Canadian French)are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763, also known as the "Indian Magna Carta",[20]the Crown refers to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations. The termFirst ations is capitalised, unlike alternative terms. Bands and nations may have slightlydifferent meanings. History For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods (Canada)According to archaeological and Indigenous genetic evidence, North and South Americawere the last continents in the world with human habitation.[21] During the (Wisconsinglaciation), 50,000 — 17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people (Paleo-Indians)to move across the Bering land bridge that joined Siberia to north west North America(Alaska).[21] Alaska was ice-free due to low snowfall, allowing a small population to 98
  • 99. exist. The Laurentide ice sheet covered the majority of Canada, blocking nomadicinhabitants and confining them to Alaska (East Beringia) for thousands of years.[22] Post-Archaic period See also: Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast Painting of Ojibwe near Georgian Bay by Paul KaneAmong the First Nations peoples, there are eight unique stories of creation and theiradaptations. These are the earth diver, world parent, emergence, conflict, robbery, rebirthof corpse, two creators and their contests, and the brother myth.[23] Canadian Aboriginalcivilizations established characteristics and hallmarks which included permanent or urbansettlements, agriculture, civic and monumental architecture, and complex societalhierarchies.[24] Some of these civilisations had long faded by the time of the firstpermanent European arrivals (c. late 15th–early 16th centuries), and are discoveredthrough archaeological investigations. Others were contemporary with this periodrecorded in historical accounts of the time.[24] When the Europeans arrived, natives ofNorth America were semi-nomadic tribes of hunter-gatherers; others were sedentary andagricultural civilisations. New tribes or confederations formed in response to Europeancolonisation. Hopewell Interaction AreaThe Old Copper Complex ancient societies dates from 3000 BCE to 500 BCE (5,000 —2,500 years ago) and is a manifestation of the Woodland Culture, but is pre-pottery innature. Found in the northern Great Lakes regions, they extracted copper from localglacial deposits and used it in its natural form to manufacture tools and implements.[25]The Woodland Cultural period dates from 1000 BCE — 1000 CE and is associated withOntario, Quebec, and the Maritime regions. The introduction of pottery distinguishes theWoodland culture from the Archaic stage humans. Laurentian people of southern Ontario 99
  • 100. manufactured the oldest pottery excavated in Canada.[26] They created pointed-bottombeakers they decorated by a cord marking technique that involved impressing toothimplements into wet clay. Woodland technology includes items such as beaver incisorknives, bangles, and chisels. Sedentary agricultural lifeways resulted in a populationincrease engendered by a diet of squash, corn, and bean crops.[26]The Norton tradition is an archaeological culture that developed in the Western Arcticalong the Alaskan shore of the Bering Strait from 1000 BCE and lasted through about900 CE.[27] The Norton people used flake-stone tools like their predecessors, the Arcticsmall tool tradition, but they were more marine-oriented and brought new technologiessuch as oil-burning lamps and clay vessels into use. They hunted caribou and smallermammals as well as salmon and larger marine mammals. Village sites that containedsubstantial dwellings showed permanent settlement.[27] The Hopewell tradition is the termused to describe common aspects of the Aboriginal culture that flourished along rivers inthe Northeastern and Midwestern United States from 300 BCE to 500 CE.[28] TheHopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a dispersed set of relatedpopulations connected by a common network of trade routes,[29] known as the HopewellExchange System. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from theSoutheastern United States into the southeastern Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Localexpression of the Hopewellian peoples in Canada include the Point Peninsula Complex,Saugeen Complex, and Laurel Complex.[30] ationhood First ations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First ations peoplesFirst Nations had settled across Canada by 500 BCE - 1000 CE. Hundreds of tribes haddeveloped, each with its own culture, customs, legends, and character.[31] In the northwestwere the Athapaskan speaking peoples, Slavey, Tli Cho, Tutchone speaking peoples andTlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Salish, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth,Nisgaa and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai, Sarcee and NorthernPeigan. In the northern woodlands were the Cree and Chipewyan. Around the GreatLakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin, Mikmaq, Iroquois and Wyandot. Along theAtlantic coast were the Beothuk, Maliseet, Innu, Abenaki and Mikmaq.The Blackfoot Indians — also known as the Blackfeet Indians — reside in the GreatPlains of Montana and the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.[16]:5 Thename Blackfoot came from the colour of the peoples leather footwear, known asmoccasins. They had dyed or painted the bottoms of their moccasins black, but one storyclaimed that the Blackfoot Indians walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turncoloured the bottoms of their moccasins black.[16]:5 They had not originally come fromthe Great Plains of the Midwest North America, but rather from the upper Northeasternarea. The Blackfoot started as woodland Indians but as they made their way over to thePlains, they adapted to new ways of life and became accustomed to the land.[32] Theylearned the new lands that they travelled to very well and established themselves as 100
  • 101. Plains Indians in the late 1700s, earning themselves the name "The Lords of thePlains."[33] Sḵwxwú7mesh womanThe Sḵwxwú7mesh history is a series of past events, both passed on through oraltradition and recent history, of the Sḵwxwú7mesh indigenous peoples of the PacificNorthwest Coast. Prior to colonisation, they recorded their history through oral traditionas a way to transmit stories, law, and knowledge across generations.[34] The writingsystem established in the 1970s used the Latin alphabet as a base. It was a respectableresponsibility of knowledgeable elders to pass historical knowledge to the nextgeneration. People lived and prospered for thousands of years until the Great Flood. Inanother story, after the Flood, they would repopulate from the villages of Schenks andChekwelp,[35] located at Gibsons. When the water lines receded, the first Sḵwxwú7meshcame to be. The first man, named Tsekánchten, built his long house in the village, andlater on another man named Xelálten, appeared on his long house roof and sent by theCreator, or in the Sḵwxwú7mesh language keke7nex siyam. He called this man hisbrother. It was from these two men that the population began to rise and theSḵwxwú7mesh spread back through their territory.[34]:20 A traditional Iroquois long house.The Iroquois influence extended from northern New York into what are now southernOntario and the Montreal area of modern Quebec.[36] The Iroquois Confederacy is, fromoral tradition, formed circa 1142.[37] Adept at the Three Sisters (maize/beans/squash), theIroquois were able to spread at the expense of the Algonquians until they too adoptedagricultural practises enabling larger populations to be sustained. 101
  • 102. The Assiniboine were close allies and trading partners of the Cree, engaging in warsagainst the Gros Ventres alongside them, and later fighting the Blackfeet.[38] A Plainspeople, they went no further north than the North Saskatchewan River and purchased agreat deal of European trade goods through Cree middlemen from the Hudsons BayCompany. The life style of this group was semi-nomadic, and they would follow theherds of bison during the warmer months. They traded with European traders, andworked with the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara tribes, and that factor is attached to theirlife style.[38]In the earliest oral history, the Algonquins were from the Atlantic coast. Together withother Anicinàpek, they arrived at the "First Stopping Place" near Montreal.[39] While theother Anicinàpe peoples continued their journey up the Saint Lawrence River, theAlgonquins settled along the Kitcisìpi (Ottawa River), an important highway forcommerce, cultural exchange, and transportation from time immemorial. A distinctAlgonquin identity, though, was not realised until after the dividing of the Anicinàpek atthe "Third Stopping Place", estimated at about 2,000 years ago near present dayDetroit.[39] Details of Ojibwe Wigwam at Grand Portage by Eastman JohnsonAccording to their tradition, and from recordings in wiigwaasabak (birch bark scrolls),Ojibwe came from the eastern areas of North America, or Turtle Island, and from alongthe east coast.[40] They traded widely across the continent for thousands of years andknew of the canoe routes west and a land route to the west coast. According to the oralhistory, seven great miigis (radiant/iridescent) beings appeared to the peoples in theWaabanakiing to teach the peoples of the mide way of life. One of the seven great miigisbeings was too spiritually powerful and killed the peoples in the Waabanakiing when thepeople were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach while the onereturned into the ocean. The six great miigis beings then established doodem (clans) forthe peoples in the east. Of these doodem, the five original Anishinaabe doodem were theWawaazisii (Bullhead), Baswenaazhi (Echo-maker, i.e., Crane), Aanaawenh (PintailDuck), ooke (Tender, i.e., Bear) and Moozoonsii (Little Moose), then these six miigisbeings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being stayed, it would haveestablished the Thunderbird doodem.[40] 102
  • 103. Chief Anotklosh of the Taku Tribe.The Nuu-chah-nulth are one of the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.The term Nuu-chah-nulth is used to describe fifteen separate but related First Nations,such as the Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations, Ehattesaht First Nation and Hesquiaht FirstNation whose traditional home is in the Pacific Northwest on the west coast ofVancouver Island.[41] In pre-contact and early post-contact times, the number of nationswas much greater, but smallpox and other consequences of contact resulted in thedisappearance of groups, and the absorption of others into neighbouring groups. TheNuu-chah-nulth are relations of the Kwakwakawakw, the Haisla, and the Ditidaht. TheNuu-chah-nulth language is part of the Wakashan language group.[42]A 1999 discovery of the body of Kwäday Dän Ts’ìnchi has provided archaeologists withsignificant information on indigenous tribal life prior to extensive European contact.Kwäday Dän Ts’ìnchi (meaning Long Ago Person Found in Southern Tutchone), orCanadian Ice Man, is a naturally mummified body found in Tatshenshini-AlsekProvincial Park in British Columbia, by a group of hunters. Radiocarbon dating ofartifacts found with the body placed the age of the find between 1450 AD and 1700AD.[43][44] Genetic testing has shown he was a member of the Champagne and AishihikFirst Nations. An examination of the contents of his digestive system provided detailsabout what he had eaten. He was found with a number of artifacts, including a robe madefrom about 95 gopher or squirrel skins sewn together with sinew, a woven hat, a walkingstick, an iron bladed knife, a hand tool of unknown purpose, and an atlatl with dart.Archaeologists studied preserved samples, and cremated the remainder of Kwäday DänTs’ìnchis remains. Local clans are considering a memorial potlatch to honour KwädayDän Ts’ìnchi.[43][44][45] European contact Main article: Territorial evolution of Canada See also: Hudsons Bay Company and North American fur tradeAboriginal people in Canada interacted with Europeans as far back as 1000 AD,[8]:Part 1but prolonged contact came only after Europeans established permanent settlements in 103
  • 104. the 17th and 18th centuries. European written accounts noted friendliness on the part ofthe First Nations,[8]:Part 1 who profited in trade with Europeans. Such trade strengthenedthe more organised political entities such as the Iroquois Confederation.[9]:Ch 6 TheAboriginal population is estimated to have been between 200,000[46] and two million inthe late 1400s.[47] Repeated outbreaks of European infectious diseases such as influenza,measles and smallpox (to which they had no natural immunity), combined with othereffects of European contact, resulted in an eighty-five to ninety-five percent aboriginalpopulation decrease post-contact.[48]There are reports of contact made before Christopher Columbus between the first peoplesand those from other continents. Even in Columbus time there was much speculation thatother Europeans had made the trip in ancient or contemporary times; Gonzalo Fernándezde Oviedo y Valdés records accounts of these in his General y natural historia de lasIndias of 1526, which includes biographical information on Columbus.[49] He discussesthe then-current story of a Spanish caravel swept off its course while on its way toEngland winding up in a foreign land populated by naked tribesmen. The crew gatheredsupplies and made its way back to Europe, but the trip took months and the captain andmost of the men died before reaching land.[49] The ships pilot, a man from the IberianPeninsula (Oviedo says different versions have him as Portuguese, Basque, orAndalusian), and others made it to Portugal, but all were very ill. Columbus was a goodfriend of the pilot, and took him to his house for treatment. The pilot described the landthey had seen and marked it on a map before dying. People in Oviedos time knew thisstory in various versions, but Oviedo regarded it as myth.[50] The Icelandic Sagasdocuments the earliest known European explorations in Canada and the attempted Norsecolonisation of the Americas.[51] According to sagas, the first European to see Canadawas Bjarni Herjólfsson in the summer of 985 or 986 due to an accidental re-routing fromIceland to Greenland because of strong winds.[51] He found himself in a heavily forestedcoast to his west, and followed the coast north to the latitude of the Greenland settlementbefore turning east and sailing to Greenland. Leif Ericson sailed with a crew of 35 toinvestigate Bjarnis discovery around the year 1000. Leif landed in three places, the firsttwo being Helluland or "land of the flat stones" (possibly Baffin Island), and Markland or"land of forests" (possibly Labrador).[51] Leifs third landing was at a place he calledVinland, where he found grapes growing wild. Following Leifs voyage, Norse groupsattempted to colonise the new land, but the native people drove them out.[52] The firstEuropean documented to set foot on North America is Erikson. Archaeological evidenceof a Viking settlement was found in LAnse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, whichmatches the description of Leifs landing place in Vinland, except that grapes do not growthere today.[53]The European explorer acknowledged too as landing in what is now Canada was JohnCabot, an Italian who was under the patronage of Henry VII of England.[54] He sailedwest from Bristol, England in an attempt to find a trade route for King Henry VII to theOrient. He ended up landing on the coast of North America (probably Newfoundland orCape Breton Island) in 1497 and claimed it for King Henry VII of England. Cabot,confident he had found a new seaway to Asia and on a second voyage the following year,he explored and charted the east coast of North America from Baffin Island to 104
  • 105. Maryland.[54] His voyages gave England a claim by right of discovery to an indefiniteamount of area of eastern North America, specifically Newfoundland, Cape Breton andneighbouring regions. Of great significance were Cabots reports of immensely richfishing waters. The Roman Catholic countries of Western Europe furnished the fishingmarket, and every year after 1497 an international mixture of fishing vessels stakedgrounds off the southeast shore of Newfoundland and east of Nova Scotia. Sometimesthese ships would traverse into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, encountering native peopleson the shore who would trade their valuable furs for trinkets and other items brought bythe fishers. Nine fishing outposts on Labrador and Newfoundlan showed the presence ofBasque cod fishermen and whalers. The largest of these settlements was Red Bay.Basque whaling began in southern Labrador in mid-16th century. Fishermen fromBrittany, Normandy and England joined Basque fishermen. 16th–18th centuriesMain articles: History of Alberta#Pre-Confederation and European colonisation of theAmericasThe Portuguese Crown claimed it had territorial rights in the area visited by Cabot. In1493, the Pope - assuming international jurisdiction - had divided lands discovered inAmerica between Spain and Portugal.[55] The next year, in the Treaty of Tordesillas, thesetwo kingdoms decided that the dividing line would be drawn north-south, 370 leagues(from 1,500 to 2,200 km (930 to 1,400 mi) approximately depending on league used)west of the Cape Verde Islands. Land to the west would be Spanish, to the eastPortuguese. Given the uncertain geography of the day, this seemed to give the "newfounde isle" to Portugal. On the 1502 Cantino map, Newfoundland appears on thePortuguese side of the line (as does Brazil).[55] An expedition captured about 60Aboriginal people as slaves who were said to "resemble gypsies in colour, features,stature and aspect; are clothed in the skins of various animals ...They are very shy andgentle, but well formed in arms and legs and shoulders beyond description ...." Only thecaptives, sent by Gaspar Corte-Real, reached Portugal. The others drowned, with Gaspar,on the return voyage. Gaspars brother, Miguel Corte-Real, went to look for him in 1502,but also failed to return. Scholars believe that Miguel Corte-Real carved inscriptions onthe controversial Dighton Rock. 105
  • 106. Non-Native American nations claims over North America, 1750-2008.In 1604, Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons received the fur trade monopoly.[56] Dugua led hisfirst colonisation expedition to an island located near to the mouth of the St. Croix River.Samuel de Champlain, his geographer, promptly carried out a major exploration of thenortheastern coastline of what is now the United States. Under Samuel de Champlain, theSaint Croix settlement was moved to Port Royal (todays Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia),a new site across the Bay of Fundy, on the shore of the Annapolis Basin, an inlet inwestern Nova Scotia. Acadia was Frances most successful colony to date.[57] Thecancellation of de Guasts fur monopoly in 1607 ended the Port Royal settlement.Champlain was able to persuade de Guast though to allow him to take colonists and settleon the Saint Lawrence, where in 1608 he would found Frances first permanent colony inCanada at Quebec City. The colony of Acadia grew slowly, reaching a population ofabout 5,000 by 1713. New France had cod fishery coastal communities and farmeconomies supported communities along Saint Lawrence River. French voyageurstravelled deep into the hinterlands (of what is today Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba, aswell as what is now the American Midwest and the Mississippi Valley) trading guns,gunpowder, cloth, knives, and kettles for beaver furs.[58] The fur trade kept the interest inFrances overseas colonies alive, yet only encouraged a small population as minimallabour was required, and also discouraged the development of agriculture, the surestfoundation of a colony in the New World.[59] The Métis Main article: Métis people (Canada)The Métis (from French métis - "mixed") are descended of marriages of Cree, Ojibway,Algonquin, Saulteaux, Menominee, Mikmaq, Maliseet, and other First Nations[60] toEuropeans,[61] mainly French.[62] According to Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, theMétis were historically the children of French fur traders and Nehiyaw women or, fromunions of English or Scottish traders and Northern Dene women (Anglo-Métis). TheMétis spoke or still speak either Métis French or a mixed language called Michif. Michif,Mechif or Métchif is a phonetic spelling of the Métis pronunciation of Métif, a variant ofMétis. The Métis today predominantly speak English, with French a strong secondlanguage, as well as numerous Aboriginal tongues. Métis French is best preserved inCanada, Michif in the United States, notably in the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservationof North Dakota, where Michif is the official language of the Métis that reside on thisChippewa reservation. The encouragement and use of Métis French and Michif isgrowing due to outreach within the provincial Métis councils after at least a generation ofsteep decline. Canadas Indian and Northern Affairs define Métis to be those persons ofmixed First Nation and European ancestry.[63] 106
  • 107. French and Indian War Main article: French and Indian War Conference between the French and First Nations leaders.French and Indian War or referred as part of the larger conflict known as the SevenYears War. The name French and Indian War refers to the two main enemies of theBritish: the royal French forces and the various Native American forces allied with them.The conflict, the fourth such colonial war between the nations of France and GreatBritain, resulted in the British conquest of Canada. In British America etymology, thesitting British monarch became the wars namesake, such as King Williams War orQueen Annes War. Because there had already been a King Georges War in the 1740s,British colonists named the second war in King Georges reign after their opponents so itbecame the French and Indian War.[64]The Franco-Indian alliance was an alliance between American and Canadian FirstNations and the French, centred on the Great Lakes and the Illinois Country.[65] Thealliance involved French settlers on the one side, and on the other sie were the Abenaki,Odawa, Menominee, Ho-Chunk (Winnebago), Mississaugas, Illiniwek, Huron-Petun,Potawatomi etc.[65] It allowed the French and the Indians to form a haven in the middle-Ohio valley before the open conflict between the European powers erupted.[66] Slavery See also: Slavery in CanadaFirst Nations routinely captured slaves from neighbouring tribes. The conditions underwhich such slaves lived were much more humane than the conditions endured by Africanpeoples forcibly brought as chattel by Europeans to the Americas. Slave-owning tribes ofthe fishing societies, such as the Yurok, lived along the coast from what is now Alaska toCalifornia.[67] Fierce warrior indigenous slave-traders of the Pacific Northwest Coastraided as far as California. Slavery was hereditary, the slaves being prisoners of war andtheir descendants. Among Pacific Northwest tribes about a quarter of the population wereslaves.[68]The first documented cases of slavery in Canada are from 1501.[69] Approximately 50First Nations peoples (Beothuks) were forcibly kidnapped, from the shores of Labrador,and taken to Lisbon the capital of Portugal, by Alberto Cantino.[69] It was reported thattheir upper bodies were built for hard labour and the Portuguese found a new source of 107
  • 108. slaves. Most of the group died en-route and those who survived and landed in Lisbondied soon afterwards from various European diseases.[69] Another second ship was sentcaptained by Gaspar Corte-Real and was believed to be carrying another 50 or moreslaves, but was lost at sea on the return trip.[69] The citizens of New France receivedslaves as gifts from their allies among First Nations peoples. Slaves were prisoners takenin raids against the villages of the Fox nation, a tribe that was an ancient rival of theMiami people and their Algonquian allies.[70] Native (or "pani", a corruption of Pawnee)slaves were much easier to obtain and thus more numerous than African slaves in NewFrance, but were less valued. The average native slave died at 18, and the averageAfrican slave died at 25[68] (the average European could expect to live until the age of35[71]). 1790, the abolition movement was gaining credence in Canada and the ill intent ofslavery was evidenced by an incident involving a slave woman being violently abused byher slave owner on her way to being sold in the United States.[68] The Act AgainstSlavery of 1793 legislated the gradual abolition of slavery: no slaves could be imported;slaves already in the province would remain enslaved until death, no new slaves could bebrought into Upper Canada, and children born to female slaves would be slaves but mustbe freed at age 25.[68] The Act remained in force until 1833 when the British ParliamentsSlavery Abolition Act finally abolished slavery in all parts of the British Empire.[72]Historian Marcel Trudel has documented 4,092 recorded slaves throughout Canadianhistory, of which 2,692 were Aboriginal people, owned by the French, and 1,400 blacksowned by the British, together owned by approximately 1,400 masters.[68] Trudel alsonoted 31 marriages took place between French colonists and Aboriginal slaves.[68] 19th century See also: North-West Rebellion and Red River Rebellion Assiniboine hunting buffalo, ca 1851Living conditions for Indigenous people in the prairie regions deteriorated quickly.Between 1875 and 1885, settlers and hunters of European descent contributed to huntingthe North American Bison almost to extinction; the construction of the Canadian PacificRailway brought large numbers of European settlers west who encroached on formerIndigenous territory. European Canadians established governments, police forces, andcourts of law with different foundations than indigenous practices. Various epidemicscontinued to devastate Indigenous communities. All of these factors had a profoundeffect on Indigenous people, particularly those from the plains who had relied heavily onbison for food and clothing. Most of those nations that agreed to treaties had negotiatedfor a guarantee of food and help to begin farming.[73] Just as the bison disappeared (thelast Canadian hunt was in 1879), Lieutenant-Governor Edgar Dewdney cut rations toindigenous people in an attempt to reduce government costs. Between 1880 and 1885, 108
  • 109. approximately 3,000 Indigenous people starved to death in the North-WesternTerritory/Northwest Territories.[73] Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker)Offended by the concepts of the treaties, Cree chiefs resisted them. Big Bear refused tosign Treaty 6 until starvation among his people forced his hand in 1882.[73] His attemptsto unite Indigenous nations made progress. In 1884 the Métis (including the Anglo-Métis) asked Louis Riel to return from the United States, where he had fled after the RedRiver Rebellion, to appeal to the government on their behalf. The government gave avague response. In March 1885, Riel, Gabriel Dumont, Honoré Jackson (a.k.a. WillJackson), Crowfoot, Chief of the Blackfoot First Nation and Chief Poundmaker, whoafter the 1876 negotiations of Treaty 6 split off to form his band.[74] Together, they set upthe Provisional Government of Saskatchewan, believing that they could influence thefederal government in the same way as they had in 1869.[75] The North-West Rebellion of1885 was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis people of the District ofSaskatchewan under Louis Riel against the Dominion of Canada, which they believedhad failed to address their concerns for the survival of their people.[76] In 1884, 2,000Cree from reserves met near Battleford to organise into a large, cohesive resistance.Discouraged by the lack of government response but encouraged by the efforts of theMétis at armed rebellion, Wandering Spirit and other young militant Cree attacked thesmall town of Frog Lake, killing Thomas Quinn, the hated Indian Agent and eightothers.[73] Although Big Bear actively opposed the attacks, he was charged and tried fortreason and sentenced to three years in prison. After the Red River Rebellion of 1869-1870, Métis moved from Manitoba to the District of Saskatchewan, where they founded asettlement at Batoche on the South Saskatchewan River.[77] In Manitoba settlers fromOntario began to arrive. They pushed for land to be allotted in the square concessionsystem of English Canada, rather than the seigneurial system of strips reaching back froma river which the Métis were familiar with in their French-Canadian culture. The buffalowere being hunted to extinction by the Hudsons Bay Company and other hunters, as forgenerations the Métis had depended on them as a chief source of food. 109
  • 110. IntegrationMain articles: Canadian Indian residential school system and Indian Residential SchoolsTruth and Reconciliation Commission St. Pauls Indian Industrial School, Manitoba, 1901From the late 18th century, European Canadians encouraged First Nations to assimilateinto their own culture, referred to as "Canadian culture". The assumption was that it wasthe correct one because the Canadians of European descent saw themselves as dominant,and technologically, politically and culturally more advanced.[78] These attempts reacheda climax in the late nineteenth and early Twentieth centuriesFounded in the 19th century, the Canadian Indian residential school system was intendedto force the assimilation of Canadian Aboriginal and First Nations people into European-Canadian society.[79] The purpose of the schools, which separated children from theirfamilies, has been described by commentators as "killing the Indian in the child."[80][81]Funded under the Indian Act by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, a branch of thefederal government, the schools were run by churches of various denominations — about60% by Roman Catholics, and 30% by the Anglican Church of Canada and the UnitedChurch of Canada, along with its pre-1925 predecessors, Presbyterian, Congregationalistand Methodist churches.The attempt to force assimilation involved punishing children for speaking their ownlanguages or practicing their own faiths, leading to allegations in the Twentieth centuryof cultural genocide and ethnocide. There was widespread physical and sexual abuse.Overcrowding, poor sanitation, and a lack of medical care led to high rates oftuberculosis, and death rates of up to 69%.[82] Details of the mistreatment of students hadbeen published numerous times throughout the 20th century, but following the closure ofthe schools in the 1960s, the work of indigenous activists and historians led to a changein the public perception of the residential school system, as well as official governmentapologies, and a (controversial) legal settlement.[83] 110
  • 111. 20th centuryEthnomusicologist Frances Densmore recording Blackfoot chief Mountain Chief (1916)As Canadian ideas of progress evolved at the turn of the century, the federal Indian policywas directed at removing Indigenous people from their communal lands and encouragingassimilation.[73] Amendments to the Indian Act in 1905 and 1911 made it easier for thegovernment to expropriate reserve lands from First Nations. The government sold nearlyhalf of the Blackfoot reserve in Alberta to settlers.When the Kainai (Blood) Nation refused to accept the sale of their lands in 1916 and1917, the Department of Indian Affairs held back funding necessary for farming untilthey relented.[73] In British Columbia, the McKenna-McBride Royal Commission wascreated in 1912 to settle disputes over reserve lands in the province. The claims ofIndigenous people were ignored, and the commission allocated new, less valuable lands(reserves) for First Nations.[73]Those nations who managed to maintain their ownership of good lands often farmedsuccessfully. Indigenous people living near the Cowichan and Fraser rivers, and thosefrom Saskatchewan managed to produce good harvests.[73] Since 1881, those FirstNations people living in the prairie provinces required permits from Indian Agents to sellany of their produce. Later the government created a pass system in the old NorthwestTerritories that required indigenous people to seek written permission from an IndianAgent before leaving their reserves for any length of time.[73] Indigenous people regularlydefied those laws, as well as bans on Sun Dances and potlatches, in an attempt to practicetheir culture.[84]The 1930 Constitution Act or Natural Resources Transfer Acts was part of a shiftacknowledging indigenous rights. It enabled provincial control of Crown land andallowed Provincial laws regulating game to apply to Indians, but it also ensured that"Indians shall have the right ... of hunting, trapping and fishing game and fish for food atall seasons of the year on all unoccupied Crown lands and on any other lands to whichthe said Indians may have a right of access."[85] 111
  • 112. First and Second World Wars Aboriginal War Veterans monumentMore than 6,000 Canadian First Nations, Inuit and Métis served with British forcesduring First World War and Second World War. A generation of young native Canadianmen fought on the battlefields of Europe during the Great War and approximately 300 ofthem died there. When Canada declared war on Germany on September 10, 1939, thenative community quickly responded to volunteer. Four years later, in May 1943, thegovernment declared that, as British subjects, all able Indian men of military age could becalled up for training and service in Canada or overseas. Late 20th centuryFollowing the end of the Second World War, laws concerning First Nations in Canadabegan to change, albeit slowly. The federal prohibition of potlatch and Sun Danceceremonies ended in 1951. Provincial governments began to accept the right ofIndigenous people to vote. In June 1956, section 9 of the Citizenship Act was amended togrant formal citizenship to Status Indians and Inuit, retroactively as of January 1947.In 1960, First Nations people received the right to vote in federal elections. Bycomparison, Native Americans in the United States had been allowed to vote since the1920s.[86] 112
  • 113. 1969 White Paper Main article: 1969 White PaperIn his 1969 White Paper, then-Minister of Indian Affairs, Jean Chrétien, proposed theabolition of the Indian Act of Canada, the rejection of Aboriginal land claims, and theassimilation of First Nations people into the Canadian population with the status of "otherethnic minorities" rather than as a distinct group.[87]Harold Cardinal and the Indian Chiefs of Alberta responded with a document entitled"Citizens Plus" but commonly known as the "Red Paper". In it, they explained StatusIndians widespread opposition to Chrétiens proposal. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau andthe Liberals began to back away from the 1969 White Paper, particularly after the Caldercase decision in 1973.[88] Health Transfer Policy Main article: Indian Health Transfer Policy (Canada)In 1970, severe mercury poisoning, called Ontario Minamata disease, was discoveredamong Asubpeeschoseewagong First Nation and Wabaseemoong Independent Nationspeople, who lived near Dryden, Ontario. There was extensive mercury pollution causedby Dryden Chemicals Companys waste water effluent in the Wabigoon-English Riversystem.[89][90] Because local fish were no longer safe to eat, the Ontario provincialgovernment closed the commercial fisheries run by the First Nation people and orderedthem to stop eating local fish. Previously it had made up the majority of their diet.[91] Inaddition to the acute mercury poisoning in northwestern Ontario, Aamjiwnaang FirstNation people near Sarnia, Ontario experienced a wide range of chemical effects,including severe mercury poisoning. They suffered low birth rates, skewed birth-genderratio, and health effects among the population.[92][93][94] This led to legislation andeventually the Indian Health Transfer Policy that provided a framework for theassumption of control of health services by First Nations people, and set forth adevelopmental approach to transfer centred on the concept of self-determination inhealth.[95] Through this process, the decision to enter into transfer discussions with HealthCanada rests with each community. Once involved in transfer, communities are able totake control of health programme responsibilities at a pace determined by their individualcircumstances and health management capabilities.[96] 113
  • 114. Elijah Harper and the Meech Lake Accord Main article: Meech Lake AccordIn 1981, Elijah Harper, a Cree from Red Sucker Lake, Manitoba, became the first "TreatyIndian" in Manitoba to be elected as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba.In 1990, Harper achieved national fame by holding an eagle feather as he took his standin the Manitoba legislature and refused to accept the Meech Lake Accord, a constitutionalamendment package negotiated to gain Quebecs acceptance of the Constitution Act,1982. The accord was negotiated in 1987 without the input of Canadas Aboriginalpeoples.[97][98][99] The third, final constitutional conference on Aboriginal peoples wasalso unsuccessful. The Manitoba assembly was required to unanimously consent to amotion allowing it to hold a vote on the accord, because of a procedural rule. Twelvedays before the ratification deadline for the Accord, Harper began a filibuster thatprevented the assembly from ratifying the accord. Because Meech Lake failed inManitoba, the proposed constitutional amendment failed.[100] Harper also opposed theCharlottetown Accord in 1992, even though Assembly of First Nations Chief OvideMercredi supported it.[87] Womens status and Bill C-31 Main article: Indian ActAccording to the Indian Act, indigenous women who married white men lost their treatystatus, and their children would not get status. In the reverse situation (indigenous menmarried to white women), men could keep their status, and their children would get treatystatus. In the 1970s, the Indian Rights for Indian Women and Native WomensAssociation of Canada groups campaigned against this policy because it discriminatedagainst women and failed to fulfill treaty promises.[73] They successfully convinced thefederal government to change the section of the act with the adoption of Bill C-31 onJune 28, 1985. Women who had lost their status and children who had been excludedwere then able to register and gain official Indian status. Despite these changes, FirstNations women who married white men could only pass their status on one generation,their children would gain status, but (without a marriage to a full status Indian) theirgrandchildren would not. A First Nations male who married a white woman retainedstatus as did his children, but his wife did not gain status, nor did his grandchildren.Bill C-31 also gave elected bands the power to regulate who was allowed to reside ontheir reserves and to control development on their reserves. It abolished the concept of"enfranchisement" by which First Nations people could gain certain rights by renouncingtheir Indian status.[101] 114
  • 115. Erasmus-Dussault commission Main article: Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples Six Nations protesters at the Grand River land disputeIn 1991, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney created the Royal Commission on AboriginalPeoples chaired by René Dussault and Georges Erasmus. Their 1996 report proposed thecreation of a government for (and by) the First Nations that would be responsible withinits own jurisdiction, and with which the federal government would speak on a "Nation-to-Nation" basis.[102] This proposal offered a far different way of doing politics than thetraditional policy of assigning First Nations matters under the jurisdiction of the Indianand Northern Affairs, managed by one minister of the federal cabinet. The report alsorecommended providing the governments of the First Nations with up to $2 billion everyyear until 2010, in order to reduce the economic gap between the First Nations and therest of the Canadian citizenry.[102] The money would represent an increase of at least 50%to the budget of Indian and Northern Affairs.[102] The report engaged First Nations leadersto think of ways to cope with the challenging issues their people were facing, so the FirstNations could take their destiny into their own hands.[102]The federal government, then headed by Jean Chrétien, responded to the report a yearlater by officially presenting its apologies for the forced acculturation the federalgovernment had imposed on the First Nations, and by offering an "initial" provision of$350 million.[102]In the spirit of the Eramus-Dussault commission, tripartite (federal, provincial, and FirstNations) accords have been signed since the report was issued. Several political crisesbetween different provincial governments and different bands of the First Nations alsooccurred in the late 20th century, notably the Oka Crisis, Ipperwash Crisis, Burnt ChurchCrisis, and the Gustafsen Lake Standoff.[102] 115
  • 116. Early 21st century See also: Grand River land dispute and Kelowna AccordIn 2001, the Quebec government, the federal government, and the Cree Nation signed"La Paix des Braves" (The Peace of the Braves, a reference to the 1701 peace treatybetween the French and the Iroquois League). The agreement allowed Hydro-Québec toexploit the provinces hydroelectric resources in exchange for an allocation of $3.5 billionto be given to the government of the Cree Nation. Later, the Inuit of northern Quebec(Nunavik) joined in the agreement. The Defence of Cree RightsIn 2005, the leaders of the First Nations, various provincial governments, and the federalgovernment produced an agreement called the Kelowna Accord, which would haveyielded $5 billion over 10 years, but the new federal government of Stephen Harper(2006) did not follow through on the working paper.First Nations, along with the Métis and the Inuit, have claimed to receive inadequatefunding for education, and allege their rights have been overlooked. James Bartleman,Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, listed the encouragement of indigenous young people asone of his key priorities. During his term that began in 2002, he has launched initiativesto promote literacy and bridge building. Bartleman himself is the first Aboriginal personto hold the Lieutenant Governors position in Ontario.As of 2006, over 75 First Nations communities exist in boil-water advisoryconditions.[103] In late 2005, the drinking water crisis of the Kashechewan First Nationreceived national media attention when E. coli was discovered in their water supplysystem, following two years of living under a boil-water advisory. The drinking waterwas supplied by a new treatment plant built in March 1998. The cause of the taintedwater was a plugged chlorine injector that was not discovered by local operators, whowere not qualified to be running the treatment plant. When officials arrived and fixed theproblem, chlorine levels were around 1.7 mg/l, which was blamed for chronic skindisorders such as impetigo and scabies. An investigation led by Health Canada revealedthat the skin disorders were likely due to living in squalor. The evacuation ofKashechewan is largely viewed by Canadians as a cry for help for other underlying socialand economic issues which Aboriginal people in Canada face. 116
  • 117. On June 29, 2007, Canadian Aboriginal groups held countrywide protests aimed atending First Nations poverty, dubbed the Aboriginal Day of Action. The demonstrationswere largely peaceful, although groups disrupted transportation with blockades orbonfires; a stretch of the Highway 401 was shut down, as was the Canadian NationalRailways line between Toronto and Montreal.[104] Canadian Crown and First ations Relations Main article: The Canadian Crown and Aboriginal peoples Honourable David Laird explaining terms of Treaty #8, Fort Vermilion, 1899The relationship between the Canadian Crown and the First ations, Inuit, and Métispeoples of Canada stretches back to the first interactions between European colonialistsand North American indigenous people. Over centuries of interaction, treaties wereestablished, and Canadas First Nations have, like the Māori and the Treaty of Waitangiin New Zealand, come to generally view these agreements as being between them and theCrown of Canada, and not the ever-changing governments.[105][106]The associations exist between the Aboriginal peoples of Canada and the reigningmonarch of Canada; as was stated in the proposed First ations – Federal CrownPolitical Accord: "cooperation will be a cornerstone for partnership between Canada andFirst Nations, wherein Canada is the short-form reference to Her Majesty the Queen inRight of Canada.[107] These relations are governed by the established treaties; theSupreme Court stated that treaties "served to reconcile pre-existing Aboriginalsovereignty with assumed Crown sovereignty, and to define Aboriginal rights,"[107] andthe First Nations saw these agreements as meant to last "as long as the sun shines, grassgrows and rivers flow." Political organisationMain articles: First Nations government (Canada) and List of First Nations governmentsAt contact, First Nations organisations ranged in size from band societies of a few peopleto multi-nation confederacies like the Iroquois. First Nations leaders from across thecountry formed the Assembly of First Nations, which began as the National IndianBrotherhood in 1968. 117
  • 118. Todays political organisations are largely the by-product of interaction with European-style methods of government. First Nations political organisations throughout Canadavary in political standing, viewpoints, and reasons for forming. First Nations politicalorganisations arise to have a united voice and express their opinions. First Nationsnegotiate with the Canadian Government through Indian and Northern Affairs Canada inaffairs concerning land, entitlement, and rights. Independent First Nation groups do notbelong to these groups. Assembly of First ations / ational Indian Brotherhood Ovide Mercredi, former national chief of the Assembly of First Nations Main article: Assembly of First NationsThe Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is a body of First Nations leaders in Canada. Theaims of the organisation are to protect the rights, treaty obligations, ceremonies, andclaims of citizens of the First Nations in Canada.After the failures of the League of Indians in Canada in the Interwar period and the orthAmerican Indian Brotherhood in two decades following the Second World War, theAboriginal peoples of Canada organised themselves once again in the early 1960s. The ational Indian Council was created in 1961 to represent Indigenous people, includingTreaty/Status Indians, non-status people, the Métis people, though not the Inuit.[108] Thisorganisation also collapsed in 1968 as the three groups failed to act as one, so the non-status and Métis groups formed the ative Council of Canada and Treaty/Status groupsformed the National Indian Brotherhood (NIB), an umbrella group for provincial andterritorial First Nations organisations. 118
  • 119. CultureSee also: Notable Aboriginal people of Canada and Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas Languages Main articles: First ations Aboriginal languages Linguistic families in Northern America at the time of European contactToday, there are over thirty different languages spoken by indigenous people, most ofwhich are spoken only in Canada and are in decline. Among those with the most speakersinclude Anishinaabe and Cree, together totalling up to 150,000 speakers; Inuktitut, withabout 29,000 speakers in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Nunavik (NorthernQuebec), and Nunatsiavut (Northern Labrador); and Mikmaq, with around 8,500speakers, mostly in Eastern Canada. Aboriginal peoples have lost their native languagesand often all but surviving elders, speak English or French as their first language.[109]Two of Canadas territories give official status to native languages. In Nunavut, Inuktitutand Inuinnaqtun are official languages alongside English and French, and Inuktitut is acommon vehicular language in government. In the Northwest Territories, the OfficialLanguages Act[110] declares that there are eleven different languages: Chipewyan, Cree,English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, SouthSlavey and Tłįchǫ. Besides English and French, these languages are not vehicular ingovernment; official status entitles citizens to receive services in them on request and todeal with the government in them.[109] 119
  • 120. Art Main articles: Indigenous art of the Americas and Northwest Coast art Petroglyph from Peterborough, Ontario, CanadaFirst Nations were producing art for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeansettler colonists and the eventual establishment of Canada as a nation state. Like thepeoples that produced them, indigenous art traditions spanned territories that extendedacross the current national boundaries between Canada and the United States. Indigenousart traditions are often organised by art historians according to cultural, linguistic orregional groups, the most common regional distinctions being: Northwest Coast, Plateau,Plains, Eastern Woodlands, Subactic, and Arctic.[111] As might be expected, art traditionsvary enormously amongst and within these diverse groups. One thing that distinguishesIndigenous art from European traditions is a focus on art that tends to be portable andmade for the body rather than for architecture, although even this is only a generaltendency and not an absolute rule. Indigenous visual art is also often made to be used inconjunction with other arts, for example the shamans masks and rattles play an importantrole in ceremonialism that also involves dance, storytelling and music.[111]Artworks preserved in museum collections date from the period after European contactand show evidence of the creative adoption and adaptation of European trade goods suchas metal and glass beads. The distinct Métis cultures from inter-cultural relationshipswith Europeans contribute new culturally hybrid art forms. During the 19th and the firsthalf of the Twentieth century the Canadian government pursued an active policy ofassimilation, both forced and cultural, toward indigenous peoples and one of the 120
  • 121. instruments of this policy was the Indian Act, which banned manifestations of traditionalreligion and governance, such as the Sun Dance and the Potlatch,[112] including the worksof art associated with them. While First Nations illegally continued their practices insecret, their art was continuously confiscated, stolen, and sold to museums. Ironically,there was an overwhelming demand from Northwest Coast art at this time in Europe andother non-aboriginal markets. This awkward double standard was common. First Nationspeople had no political rights or freedoms, but their heritage of totem pole sculptureswere used to symbolise British Columbia on tourism brochures. The authorities allowedsouvenirs of totem poles to be sold in gift shops and use the “exoticism” of aboriginalculture for their own capitalist gain but the actual practice of First Nations art remainedagainst the law.[113]In another case in 1924, during the height of potlatch ban enforcement, BC luminariesheld a mock “Royal Tyee Potlatch” to celebrate the visit of the British Royal Navy. Thisjust three years after the police disbanded Dan Cranmer’s potlatch on Village Island, with45 attendees arrested, with 22 given suspended sentences.[114]When the potlatch ban disappeared from the revised Indian Act in 1951, the wholeculture was able to come to life once more. As Doreen Jensen writes, “For our paintingand sculpture, our performance, oratory and song are our history, law political andphilosophical discourse, sacred ceremony and land registry.” Art was and continues to bedeeply embedded in the sense of aboriginal identity.[113]It was not until the 1950s and 1960s that indigenous artists such as Mungo Martin, BillReid and Norval Morrisseau began to publicly renew and re-invent indigenous arttraditions. Currently there are indigenous artists practicing in media across Canada andtwo indigenous artists, Edward Poitras and Rebecca Belmore, who have representedCanada at the prestigious Venice Biennale in 1995 and 2005 respectively.[111] 121
  • 122. Music Pow-wow at Eel Ground First NationMain article: First Nations musicSee also: Blackfoot music, Iroquois music, and Kwakwakawakw musicThe First Nations peoples of Canada comprise diverse ethnic groups, each with their ownmusical traditions. There are general similarities in the music, but is usually social(public) or ceremonial (private). Public, social music may be dance music accompaniedby rattles and drums. Private, ceremonial music includes vocal songs withaccompaniment on percussion, used to mark occasions like Midewiwin ceremonies andSun Dances.Traditionally, Aboriginal peoples used the materials at hand to make their instruments forcenturies before Europeans immigrated to Canada.[115] First Nations people made gourdsand animal horns into rattles, which were elaborately carved and beautifully painted.[116]In woodland areas, they made horns of birch bark and drumsticks of carved antlers andwood. Traditional percussion instruments such as drums were generally made of carvedwood and animal hides.[117] These musical instruments provide the background for songs,and songs are the background for dances. Traditional First Nations people consider songand dance to be sacred. For years after Europeans came to Canada, First Nations peoplewere forbidden to practice their ceremonies.[112][115] 122
  • 123. Demographics Further information: List of First Nations peoples and List of Indian reserves in CanadaCultural areas of North American Indigenous peoples at the time of European contact.In the 20th century, the First Nations population of Canada increased tenfold.[118]Between 1900 and 1950 the population grew only by 29% but after the 1960s the infantmortality level on reserves dropped and the population grew by 161%. Since the 1980s,the number of First Nations babies more than doubled and currently almost half of theFirst Nations population is under the age of 25. As a result, the First Nations populationof Canada is expected to increase in the coming decades.[118]The 2006 census counted a total Aboriginal population of 1,172,790 (3.75%) whichincludes 698,025 North American Indians (2.23%).[119]BCABSKMBOQC BPE S LYT T U 123
  • 124. There are distinct First Nations in Canada, originating across the country. Indian reserves,established in Canadian law by treaties such as Treaty 7, are the very limitedcontemporary lands of First Nations recognised by the non-indigenous governments.Reserves exist hin cities, such as the Opawikoscikan Reserve in Prince Albert, Wendakein Quebec City or Stony Plain 135 in the Edmonton Capital Region. There are morereserves in Canada than there are First Nations, as First Nations were ceded multiplereserves by treaty.People who self-identify as having North American Indian ancestors are the plurality inlarge areas of Canada (areas coloured in brown).First Nations can be grouped into cultural areas based on their ancestors primary lifeway,or occupation, at the time of European contact. These culture areas correspond closelywith physical and ecological regions of Canada.[3]Ethnographers commonly classify indigenous peoples of the Americas in the UnitedStates and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits (calledcultural areas).[120] The following list groups peoples by their region of origin, followedby the current location. See the individual article on each tribe, band society or FirstNation for a history of their movements. See the Federally recognised tribes for theUnited States official list of recognised Native American tribes. The Canadian (in wholeor in part) regions are Arctic, Subarctic, Northeast Woodlands, Plains, and Plateau. 124
  • 125. The Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast communities centred aroundocean and river fishing; in the interior of British Columbia, hunting and gathering andriver fishing. In both of these areas, salmon was of chief importance. For the people ofthe plains, bison hunting was the primary activity. In the subarctic forest, other speciessuch as the moose were more important. For peoples near the Great Lakes and SaintLawrence river, shifting agriculture was practised, including the raising of maize, beans,and squash.[3]Today, Aboriginal people work in a variety of occupations and live outside their ancestralhomes. The traditional cultures of their ancestors, shaped by nature, still exert a stronginfluence on their culture, from spirituality to political attitudes.[3] IssuesFirst Nations peoples face a number of problems to a greater degree than Canadiansoverall. They have higher unemployment,[121] rates of crime and incarceration,[122]substance abuse,[123] health problems, fetal alcohol syndrome,[124] lower levels ofeducation and poverty.[125][126][127] Suicide rates are more than twice the sex-specific rateand three times the age-specific rates of non-Aboriginal Canadians.[128]Life expectancy at birth is significantly lower for First Nations babies than for babies inthe Canadian population as a whole. As of 2001, Indian and Northern Affairs Canadaestimates First Nations life expectancy to be 8.1 years shorter for males and 5.5 yearsshorter for females.[129]Gangs consisting of Aboriginals are becoming an increasing problem, across Canada, dueto the poor living conditions. Most are found in Winnipeg, Manitoba.[130].See alsoMain article: Index of Aboriginal Canadian-related articles Aboriginal peoples in Canada portal • Anishinaabe/Tribal Political Organizations • Battle of the Belly River • Bloody Falls Massacre • Burnt Church Crisis • Douglas Treaties • Exovedate • Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations • First Nations Summit • First Nations Technical Institute • First Nations University of Canada • First Nations University Students Association • Fraser Canyon War 125
  • 126. • Gradual Civilization Act • Grand River land dispute • Great Peace of Montreal • Gustafsen Lake Standoff • History of Canada • Indian Reserve (1763) • James Bay Cree hydroelectric conflict • Nisgaa Final Agreement • Royal Proclamation of 1763 • Seven Nations of Canada • Saugeen Tract Agreement • Treaty of Fort NiagaraFurther reading 1. ^ "Aboriginal Identity (2006 Census)". Statistics Canada. Government of Canada. ALEVEL=3&APATH=3&CATNO=&DETAIL=0&DIM=&DS=99&FL=0&FRE E=0&GAL=0&GC=99&GK=NA&GRP=1&IPS=&METH=0&ORDER=1&PID= 89122&PTYPE=88971&RL=0&S=1&ShowAll=No&StartRow=1&SUB=0&Te mporal=2006&Theme=73&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=&GID=837928. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 2. ^ "Canadas System of Justice Rights and Freedoms in Canada". Department of Justice Canada. 2009-07-31. min/pub/just/06.html. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 3. ^ a b c d "Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage". Canadian Museum of Civilization. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 4. ^ a b "Assembly of First Nations - The Story". The Assembly of First ations. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 5. ^ "Canadian Human Rights Commission :: Resources :: Frequently Asked Questions :: About Employment Equity". Employment Equity FAQ at the Canadian Human Rights Commission. Government of Canada. 2009-08-27. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 6. ^ "Visible Minority". Definitions, data sources and methods Variables. Statistics Canada, Government of Canada. 2008-07-25. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 7. ^ Mandel, Michael (1994). The Charter of Rights and the Legalization of Politics in Canada (Revised, Updated and Expanded Edition. ed.). Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.. pp. 354–356. 8. ^ a b c George Woodcock (January 25, 1990). A Social History of Canada. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0140105360,978-0140105360. 9. ^ a b Eric Wolf (December 3, 1982). Europe and the People Without History. University of California Press. ISBN 0520048989, 978-0520048980. 126
  • 127. 10. ^ "Introduction - Codex canadiensis - Library and Archives Canada". Government of Canada. 2006-08-01. Retrieved 2009-10-07.11. ^ A Dialogue on Foreign Policy. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 2003-01. pp. 15–16.12. ^ "(ARTICLE 1 - DEFINITION 6)" "Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada) - ICC Charter"]. Application Design & Development Indelta Communication. 2007. D=&current_slide_num= "(ARTICLE 1 - DEFINITION 6)"]. Retrieved 2009-10- 09.13. ^ "final Written Submissions of Federal Crown In the Kawaskimhon Aboriginal Moot Court" (pdf). Factum of the Federal Crown Canada; University of Manitoba, Faculty of Law. 2007. missionsofFederalCrown_windsor.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-09.14. ^ "The Canadian Atlas Online First Peoples". Candian Geographic. Retrieved 2009-10-09.15. ^ a b c "Terminology". Aboriginal Peoples & Communities. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2009-10-09.16. ^ a b c d Gibson, Gordon (2009). A ew Look at Canadian Indian Policy: Respect the Collective - Promote the Individual. ISBN 0889752436.17. ^ Assembly of First Nations, p. 74.18. ^ "Indian Act". Justice Canada. Government of Canada. 2009-10-05. Retrieved 2009-10-09.19. ^ Hill, Liz (2007). "National Museum of the American Indian". Smithsonian Institution. hird=DoAllIndiansLiveInTipis. Retrieved 2009-10-09.20. ^ Wilson, W.R. (2004). "The Royal Proclamation of 1763". Retrieved 2009-10-09.21. ^ a b "Atlas of the Human Journey-The Genographic Project". National Geographic Society.. 1996-2008. Retrieved 2009-10-06.22. ^ Pielou, E.C. (1991). After the Ice Age : The Return of Life to Glaciated orth America. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-66812-6.23. ^ Dickason, Olive, ed (1995). The ative Imprint: The Contribution of First Peoples to Canadas Character. 1. Athabasca: Athabasca University Educational Enterprises.24. ^ a b Peter Turchin, Leonid Grinin, Andrey Korotayev, and Victor C. de Munck., ed (2006). History & Mathematics: Historical Dynamics and Development of Complex Societies. Moscow: KomKniga/URSS. ISBN 5484010020. 127
  • 128. bin/ ^ Winchell, N.H. (1881). Ancient Copper Mines of Isle Royale. 19. New York: Popular Science Monthly. pp. 601–2.26. ^ a b Fagan, Brian M (1992). People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory. University of California: Harper Collins.27. ^ a b Fagan, Brian (2005). Ancient orth America.. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 191–93.28. ^ "Hopewell Culture - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio Historical Society. 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-09.29. ^ Price, Douglas T; Gary M Feinman (2008). Images of the Past (5 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 274–277. ISBN 978-0-07-340520-9.30. ^ "A History of the Native People of Canada". Dr. James V. Wright. Canadian Museum of Civilization. 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-09.31. ^ Joe, Rita; Lesley Choyce (2005). The ative Canadian Anthology. Nimbus Publishing. ISBN 1-895900-04-2.32. ^ Tylor, Colin (1993). Jayne Booth. ed. What do we know about the Plains Indians?. New York City: Peter Bedrick Books. pp. 9.33. ^ Johnston, Alex (Jul. - Sep., 1970). "Blackfoot Indian Utilisation of the Flora of the Northwestern Great Plains". Economic Botany. pp. 301–324. Retrieved 2009-10-09.34. ^ a b Khatsahlano, August Jack; Charlie, Dominic. (June 1966). Squamish Legends: The First People. Oliver N. Wells. pp. 16.35. ^ Clark, Ella E (2003). Indian Legends of the Pacific orthwest. University of California Press. pp. INSERT p.19. ISBN 0520239261.36. ^ "Iroquois". Historica-Dominion. Canadian Encyclopedia. 2009. EC877040. Retrieved 2009-10-09.37. ^ Johanson, Bruce E. "Dating the Iroquois Confederacy" (First printed: Akwesasne Notes New Series, Fall—October/November/December—1995, Volume 1 #3 & 4, pp. 62-63.). Retrieved 209-10- 09.38. ^ a b Denig, Edwin Thompson; J. N. B. Hewitt (2000). The Assiniboine. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 080613235.39. ^ a b Bright, William (2004). ative American Place ames of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 32.40. ^ a b Johnston, B (1976). Ojibway heritage. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.41. ^ McMillan, Alan D. (1999). Since the time of the transformers: The ancient heritage of uu-chah-nulth, Ditidaht, and Makah. Vancouver: UBC Press.42. ^ Jacobsen Jr., William H. (1979). Campbell, Lyle; & Mithun, Marianne. ed. "Wakashan Comparative Studies" en The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessmen. Austin: University of Texas Press. 128
  • 129. 43. ^ a b "Kwaday Dän Tsinchi Project Introduction - Archaeology - Ministry of Tourism, Culture and the Arts". Government of British Columbia Tourism, Culture and the Arts Archaeology. July 22, 2008. /project_introduction.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-07.44. ^ a b "Scientists find 17 living relatives of iceman discovered in B.C. glacier". CBC News. April 25, 2008. columbia/story/2008/04/25/ice-man.html. Retrieved 2009-10-07.45. ^ "Kwaday Dän Tsinchi Project Photos Archaeology Ministry of Tourism, Culture and the Arts". Government of British Columbia Tourism, Culture and the Arts Archaeology. July 22, 2008. /pages/7.9.3_index.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-07.46. ^ Wilson, Donna; Herbert Northcott (2008). Dying and death in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 25. ISBN 1551118734.47. ^ Thornton, Russell (2000). "Population history of Native North Americans". in Michael R. Haines, Richard Hall Steckel. A population history of orth America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 13. ISBN 0521496667.48. ^ Wilson, Donna M; Northcott, Herbert C (2008). Dying and Death in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 25–27. ISBN 9781551118734.49. ^ a b de Amezúa, Agustín G. (1956). Introduction to the facsimile reprint of Libro de Claribalte by the Spanish Royal Academy. Madrid.50. ^ Columbus, Christopher (May 5, 1992). The Four Voyages. New York: Penguin Books. pp. 22–37. ISBN 0-14-044217-0.51. ^ a b c Örnólfur, Thorsson (1997). The Complete Sagas of Icelanders. 5 volumes. Reykjavik: Leifur Eiriksson Publishing Ltd.. ^ Pálsson, Hermann (1965). The Vinland sagas: the orse discovery of America. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0140441549.53. ^ Patterson, Nancy-Lou (1973). Canadian native art; arts and crafts of Canadian Indians and Eskimos. Don Mills, Ontario: Collier-Macmillan. ISBN 0029756103.54. ^ a b "CABOT". Canadian Biography. 2000. 119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=101. Retrieved 2008-05-17.55. ^ a b Rodrigues, Jorge Nascimento;; Devezas, Tessaleno Portugal (2007). O Pioneiro da Globalização.. Famalicão, Portugal: Centro Atlântico. ISBN 978- 989-615-042-6.56. ^ Vaugeois, Denis; Raymonde Litalien, Käthe Roth (2004) (Digitised online by Google Books). Champlain: The Birth of French America. Translated by Käthe Roth. McGill-Queens Press. pp. 146, 242. ISBN 0773528504. =%22Hendrick+Lonck%22&source=web&ots=UI54SPifTF&sig=J9gqr0HUj8F3 SXD2GMfHKftSowg&hl=en&ei=J7CcSf- EHIK2sQO85KSlAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result. Retrieved 2009-10-09.57. ^ Brasseaux, Carl A (1987). The Founding of ew Acadia: The Beginnings of Acadian Life in Louisiana, 1765–1803. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0807112968. 129
  • 130. 58. ^ Podruchny, Carolyn (2006). Making the Voyageur World : Travelers and Traders in the orth American Fur Trade. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9780802094285.59. ^ Rich, E.E. (1967). The Fur Trade and the orthwest to 1857. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited. pp. 296.60. ^ "First Nations Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization. ^ Ethno-Cultural and Aboriginal Groups62. ^ Rinella, Steven. 2008. American Buffalo: In Search of A Lost Icon. NY: Spiegel and Grau.63. ^ Bardwell, Lawrence J.; Leah Dorion, and Audreen Hourie (2006). Métis legacy Michif culture, heritage, and folkways. 2. Gabriel Dumont Institute. ISBN 0920915809.64. ^ Anderson, Fred (2005). The War that Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War. New York: Viking. ISBN 0670034541.65. ^ a b Volo, James M.; Volo, Dorothy Denneen (2007-09-30). Family Life in ative America. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 316. ISBN 978-0313337956. Retrieved 2009- 08-31.66. ^ Calloway, Colin G. (1995-04-28). The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in ative American Communities (Studies in orth American Indian History). Cambridge University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0521475693. f=false. Retrieved 2009-08-31.67. ^ Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannicas Guide to Black History. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. 2009. ^ a b c d e f Cooper, Afua (2006-02). The Hanging of Angelique: Canada, Slavery and the Burning of Montreal. HarperCollins Canada. ISBN 978-0002005531.69. ^ a b c d Rodrigues, Jorge Nascimento; Devezas, Tessaleno (2007). Portugal - O Pioneiro da Globalização. Famalicão, Portugal: Centro Atlântico. ISBN 978-989- 615-042-6.70. ^ Rushforth, Brett (January 2006) (digitised online by History cooperative). Slavery, the Fox Wars, and the Limits of Alliance. 63. William and Mary Quarterly. bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url= 3.1/rushforth.html. Rushforth confuses the two Vincennes explorers. François- Marie was 12 years old during the First Fox War.71. ^ "Standard of Living in 18th century Canada :section 2". Saskatchewan Education. (1992). History 10: Social Organizations A Teachers Activity Guide. Retrieved 2009-10-09.72. ^ "Slavery Abolition Act 1833; Section LXIV". 1833-08-28. Retrieved 2008-06-03.73. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Finkel, Alvin; Mararet Conrad (August 25, 2005). History of the Canadian Peoples, 1867-Present. 2 (4 ed.). Pearson Education Canada. ISBN 0321270096, 978-0321270092. 130
  • 131. 74. ^ "PÐTIKWAHANAPIWÐYIN (Poundmaker), Plains Cree chief". 1881-1890 (Volume XI). University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved 2009- 10-09.75. ^ Boulton, Charles A. (1886). "Reminiscences of the North-West Rebellions". Toronto.. Retrieved 2009-10-09.76. ^ "Canada in the Making: The Riel Rebellions". 2001–2005 (Formerly Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions). Retrieved 2007-10-06.77. ^ Siggins, Maggie (1994). Riel: a life of revolution. HarperCollins, Toronto. ISBN 0-00-215792-6.78. ^ "Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples Stage Three: Displacement and Assimilation". Indian and orthern Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. 26 August 1991. Retrieved 2009-10-09.79. ^ "Alberni School Victim Speaks Out". First ations drum. Retrieved 2009-10-09.80. ^ "Residential Schools — A Chronology". Assembly of First Nations. Retrieved 2009-01-19.81. ^ "Canada apologizes for killing the Indian in the child (Roundup)". Americas ews. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. June 11, 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-09.82. ^ Curry, Bill; Karen Howlett (April 24, 2007). "Natives died in droves as Ottawa ignored warnings Tuberculosis took the lives of students at residential schools for at least 40 years" (Digitised online by Heyoka Magazine). Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2009-10-09.83. ^ "Robert CARNEY, Aboriginal Residential Schools Before Confederation: The Early Experience." (PDF). CCHA, Historical Studies, 61. 1995. ney.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-13.84. ^ "An historical overview". The Justice System and Aboriginal People The Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission. Manitoba Government. Retrieved 2009-09-11.85. ^ Statutes of Great Britain (1930), 20-21 George V, chapter 26.86. ^ Kinnear, Michael (November 2003). "The Effect of Expansion of the Franchise on Turnout". Electoral Insight. Elections Canada. geSize=&textonly=false. Retrieved 2009-10-09.87. ^ a b "Assembly of First Nations Annual Report" (pdf). AF Executive Committee Reports. Assembly of First Nations. 2008-2009. AGA-2009.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-06.88. ^ Tester, Frank James; Paule McNicoll, Jessie Forsyth (Spring 1999). "With an ear to the ground: The CCF/NDP and Aboriginal policy in Canada, 1926-1993". 131
  • 132. Journal of Canadian Studies. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved 2009-10-09.89. ^ Dltri, P A and Dltri, F M (January 1978). "Mercury contamination: A human tragedy". Environmental Management 2 (1): 3–16. doi:10.1007/BF01866442.90. ^ McDonald, A (PDF). Indigenous peoples vulnerabilities exposed: Lessons learned from Canadas Minamata incident: An Environmental analysis based on the case study of methyl-mercury pollution in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Japanese Association for Canadian Studies. e.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-14.91. ^ "Mercury Rising: The Poisoning of Grassy Narrows". CBC TV. November 1st, 1970. 6450/disasters_tragedies/grassy_narrows_mercury_pollution/clip1. Retrieved 1009-08-31.92. ^ Gilbertson, Michael; Occupational and Environmental Health Research Group (2007). "Injury to Health: a forensic audit of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1972 to 2005) with special reference to congenital Minamata disease" (pdf). University of Stirling. Thesis.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-11.93. ^ "Rachels enironment and Health weekly". From: Globe and Mail (Toronto, Canada) (pg. A4), Apr. 11, 2007 The Mystery of the missing boys; Chemical pollutants flagged in new study as possible factor in skewed sex ratio By Martin Mittelstaedt, Environment Reporter. Retrieved 2009-09-11.94. ^ "Mercury Study Report to Congress Volume V: Health Effects of Mercury and Mercury Compounds" (pdf). EPA-452/R-97-007. United States Environmental Protection Agency. December 1997. Retrieved 2009-09-11.95. ^ "Financing a First Nations and Inuit Integrated Health System". Health Canada. Government of Canada. dgspni/pdf/pubs/agree-accord/1999_finance_integr-eng.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10- 09.96. ^ "Funding - Reports and Publications". Health Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-09.97. ^ Rose, Jürgen; Johannes Ch Traut, George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies (2001) (digitised online by Google books). Federalism and: perspectives for the transformation process in Eastern and Central Europe Volume 2 of George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. pp. 151. ISBN 3825851567, 9783825851569. eech+accord+was+negotiated+in+1987+without+the+input+of+Canada%27s+Ab original+peoples&source=bl&ots=Idnd3VPAMu&sig=FNmzKTC6cLtpKcR0xjJ FTBFIQOY&hl=en&ei=sySsSsbgLZHkNfb4- 132
  • 133. PIN&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10#v=onepage&q=aboriginal&f =false.98. ^ "Man who died at scrapyard was Elijah Harpers brother". CBC news. March 25, 2009. death.html. Retrieved 2009-09-11.99. ^ Parkinson, Rhonda (November 2006). "The Meech Lake Accord". Maple Leaf Web. Department of Political Science, University of Lethbridge. Retrieved 2009-09-11.100. ^ Cohen, Andrew (1990). A Deal Undone: The Making and Breaking of the Meech Lake Accord. Vancouver/Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 0888947046.101. ^ Laurin, I (September 1995). "First Nations, Bill C-31, Indian Act". Indian and orthern Affairs Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-09.102. ^ a b c d e f Dussault, René; George Erasmus (1994). "The High Arctic Relocation: A Report on the 1953-55 Relocation". Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Canadian Government Publishing. Retrieved 2009-10-09.103. ^ "Water still a problem on 76 reserves". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2006-02-20. water060220.html. Retrieved 2007-07-01.104. ^ Sibonney, Claire (2007-06-29). "Poverty the focus of Canada-wide native protests". Reuters. af3f-01698fb6e099&k=90824. Retrieved 2007-07-01.105. ^ "A Historical Analysis of Early Nation to Nation Relations in Canada and New Zealand:The Royal Proclamation of 1763, the Treaty of Niagara and The Treaty of Waitangi".[broken citation]106. ^ "Lawsuits, treaty rights and the sacred balance". Toronto Star. June 1, 2007. Retrieved 2009-10-09.107. ^ a b "A First Nations - Federal Crown Political Accord on the Recognition and Implementation of First Nation Governments" (PDF). Assembly of First Nations and Government of Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-09.108. ^ "Assembly of First Nations - The Story". Retrieved 2009-10-09. []109. ^ a b Gordon, Raymond G. Jr (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the world". Dallas, TX: SIL International. Retrieved 2009-10-09.110. ^ "Official Languages Act" (PDF). Justice Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-09.111. ^ a b c Hessel, Ingo; Hessel, Dieter (1998). Inuit Art. An introduction. London: British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-2545-8. 133
  • 134. 112. ^ a b An Act further to amend "The Indian Act, 1880," S.C. 1884 (47 Vict.), c. 27, s. 3.113. ^ a b “Doreen Jensen on B.C. First Nations Art”114. ^ “The History of Metropolitan Vancouver - 1924 Chronology,” ^ a b Patterson, Nancy-Lou (1973). Canadian native art; arts and crafts of Canadian Indians and Eskimos. Don Mills, Ontario: Collier-Macmillan. ISBN 0029756103.116. ^ (pdf) First ation music. Government of Canada. 1998. ISBN 0-662- 26856-3. ^ "Welcome to the Music, Dance and Culture of First Nations People, Métis and Inuit of Canada". Veterans Affairs Canada Canada Remembers Features Aboriginal Spiritual Journey. Government of Canada. 2005-01-11. http://www.vac- am. Retrieved 2009-10-09. Canadian Government section on First Nation music and dance118. ^ a b "Aboriginal peoples of Canada: A demographic profile". Statistics Canada Analysis series : Aboriginal peoples of Canada. Government of Canada. ada.cfm. Retrieved 2008-05-14.119. ^ "Aboriginal Identity (8), Sex (3) and Age Groups (12) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20%". Statistics Canada Census: 2006 Census: Data products Topic-based tabulations. Government of Canada. 06/12/2008. ALEVEL=3&APATH=3&CAT O=&DETAIL=0&DIM=&DS=99&FL=0&FRE E=0&GAL=0&GC=99&GK= A&GRP=1&IPS=&METH=0&ORDER=1&PID =89122&PTYPE=88971&RL=0&S=1&ShowAll= o&StartRow=1&SUB=0&Te mporal=2006&Theme=73&VID=0&V AMEE=&V AMEF=&GID=837928. Retrieved 2009-10-09.120. ^ "Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization. Government of Canada. May 12, 2006. Retrieved 2009-10-09.121. ^ "Natives in Canada suffer from high unemployment - June 14, 2005". Indianz.Com; Noble Savage Media, LLC; Ho-Chunk, Inc.. 2000-2005. Retrieved 2009-10-09.122. ^ "Discrimination of Aboriginals on native lands in Canada: a comprehensive crisis - September 2007". U Chronicle. CBS Interactive Inc.. Retrieved 2009-10-09.123. ^ "Health Canada - National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program". Government of Canada. 2006-03-06. spni/substan/ads/nnadap-pnlaada_e.html. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 134
  • 135. 124. ^ "Health Canada -First Nations, Inuit and Aboriginal Health - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects". Government of Canada. 2007-11-146. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 125. ^ "Poverty to blame for TB among Aboriginals: experts". CTV News. November 14, 200. 1114/20081114?hub=Health. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 126. ^ "Health Canada - Statistical Profile on the Health of First Nations in Canada". Government of Canada. spni/pubs/gen/stats_profil_e.html. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 127. ^ "Health issues in rural Canada - B. People of Aboriginal Origin". Political and Social Affairs Division. Government of Canada. December 1992. e.htm#B.%20Peopletxt. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 128. ^ "Suicide among Canadas First Nations". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. 2007-01-03. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 129. ^ "First Nations Comparable Health Indicators". Health Canada First ations, Inuit & Aboriginal Health Diseases & Health Conditions. Government of Canada. 2007-03-16. 01_health-sante_indicat_e.html. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 130. ^ "Native gangs spreading across Canada, says RCMP". 2010- 03-16. 100316/20100316?hub=Canada. Retrieved 2010-03-16.References See Bibliography of Canadian History for an extensive list of sources. • Morton, Desmond (2001). A Short History of Canada (5 ed.). ISBN 7215019683. • Flanagan, Thomas (2008). First ations? : Second Thoughts (2 ed.). ISBN 0773534431. • Gibson, Karen Bush (2000). The Blackfeet: People of the Dark Moccasins.. Mankato, Minnesota: Capstone Press,. ISBN 978-0736848244.External links 135
  • 136. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: First ations of Canada Look up first nations in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. • Aboriginal Canada Portal • Aboriginal Perspectives A National Film Board of Canada website with documentaries on Canadas Aboriginal Peoples, including films by Aboriginal filmmakers. • Aboriginal Virtual Exhibits from Canadian Museums • Assembly of First Nations • The Canadian Museum of Civilisation - First Peoples Section • CBC Digital Archives - The Battle for Aboriginal Treaty Rights • First Nations Seeker • First Nation Profiles from the Government of Canadas Department of Indian and Northern Affairs • First Nations News Wire Service • A History of Aboriginal Treaties and Relations in Canada • First Nations - Land Rights and Environmentalism in British Columbia • Maple Leaf Web: Native Social Issues in Canada • Map of historical territory treaties with Aboriginal peoples in Canada • Museum of Anthropology at UBC • Native Womens Association of Canada • Union of BC Indian Chiefs • Path of the Elders - Explore Treaty 9, Aboriginal Cree & First Nations history.[show]Links to related articles[show]v•d•e Canadian Aboriginal law[show]v•d•e ational Aboriginal organisations in 136
  • 137. [show]v•d•e History of Canada[show]v•d•e Indigenous peoples of the Americas North America States · Mexico · Central America · West Indies Canada · United Argentina · Brazil · Chile · Colombia · Ecuador · Peru · Venezuela · Ecuador · El Salvador South America Indigenous people[show]v•d•e Indigenous peoples of the world by continent OceaniaAmericas Africa Arctic Asia EuropeRetrieved from ""Categories: First Nations | History of Canada | Ethnic groups in Canada | Indigenouspeoples of North America | Hunter-gatherers | Aboriginal peoples in Canada 137
  • 138. Wabash Confederacy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, searchThe Wabash Confederacy, also referred to as the Wabash Indians or the Wabashtribes, is a term used to describe a number of 18th century Native American villagers inthe area of the Wabash River in what are now the U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, andOhio. The Wabash Indians were primarily Weas and Piankashaws, but also includedKickapoos, Mascoutens, and others. In that time and place, Native American tribes werenot political units, and the villages along the Wabash were multi-tribal settlements withno centralized government. The confederacy, then, was a loose alliance of influentialvillage leaders (sometimes called headmen or chiefs).In the 1780s, headmen of the Wabash Confederacy allied themselves with a larger, looseconfederacy of Native American leaders in the Ohio Country and Illinois Country, inorder to collectively resist U.S. expansion after the American Revolutionary War. In1786, a Wyandot Chief named Half-King warned Congress that the Wabash, Twightwee,and Miami Nations would disrupt U.S. surveyors, and Congress promised reprisals if thatoccurred.[1] This resistance movement culminated with the Northwest Indian War. otes 1. ^ Journals of the Continental Congress. Monday, July 24, 1786, pg 429.[hide]v•d•eHistory of IndianaClovis · Adena · Hopewell · Mississippian · Beaver Wars · European contactEarly historyExpeditions · French RuleVincennes · Fort Miamis · Ouiatenon · French and Indian War · British Rule1700Rebellion · American Revolution · George Rogers Clark · Illinois campaigGrant · Northwest Territory · Northwest Indian War · Petit fortIndiana Territory · Buffalo Trace · Treaty of Vincennes · Johnny AppleseedGrouseland · Indiana Rangers · Tecumsehs War · Battle of Tippecanoe1800Abolitionist movement · Harmony · 1st Indiana Canal CompanyConventionStatehood · Polly v. Lasselle · Treaty of St. Marys · Indian Removals1817Indiana · 2nd Indiana Canal Company · Whitewater Canal · Wabash and Erie Canal 138
  • 139. Public Works and Bankruptcy · Underground Railroad · Mexican-American WarConstitution · Civil War · Golden Age · Eli Lilly & Company · Reno GangBoom · Black Day of the General Assembly · Indiana Pi BillWhite Caps · Elwood Haynes · Indianapolis Motor Speedway ·Indianapolis Strike and Riots · Samuel Woodfill · Indiana Klan · Great Depres1900John Dillinger · World War II · Freeman Field Mutiny · Shipp & Smith lynchingsFlood of 1937 · Supreme Court ReorganizationSince 2000Flood of 2008Auto Racing · Battles · Business · Disasters · Economy · EducationBy topic · Governors · Historic Sites · People · Historical Political StrengthAssemblyAmericans · SlaveryEvansville · Fort Wayne · Gary · Hartford City · Indianapolis ·By city and localeWawasee · South Bend · Terre HauteSee also: History of the United States, History of the Midwestern United StatesPortal:IndianaWikiProject Indianas History DepartmentThis article relating to the Indigenous peoples of orth America is a stubWikipedia by expanding it.Retrieved from ""Categories: Native American history | Northwest Indian War | Native Americans inIndiana | Indiana in the Northwest Indian War | Indigenous peoples of North Americastubs Illinois Confederation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Illinois confederacy)Jump to: navigation, searchFor the former mascot/symbol of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, seeChief Illiniwek. 139
  • 140. The Illinois Confederation,[1] sometimes referred to as the Illiniwek or Illini, were agroup of twelve to thirteen Native American tribes in the upper Mississippi River valleyof North America. The tribes were the Kaskaskia, the Cahokia, the Peoria, the Tamaroa,Moingwena, Michigamea, Albiui, Amonokoa, Chepoussa, Chinkoa, Coiracoentanon,Espeminkia, Maroa, Matchinkoa, Michibousa, Negawichi, and Tapouara. At the time ofEuropean contact in the 17th century, they were believed to number several thousandpeople.Contents • 1 History • 2 Culture • 3 Present day o 3.1 Popular culture • 4 References • 5 External links HistoryWhen French explorers first journeyed to the region from Canada in the early 17thcentury, they found the area inhabited by a vigorous, populous Algonquian-speakingnation. What we know today about the Illinois is based on the historical account JesuitRelations, written by French Jesuit priests. The Relations were the reports written bymissionaries who lived among the various native nations and sent back to their superiorsin France.The Illinois spoke various dialects of the Miami-Illinois language, one of the Algonquianlanguage family.Among the earliest renditions of the modernized, Anglicized term "Illiniwek" wereLiniouek (1656), "Aliniouek" (1658), "Alimiwec" (1660), "irini8ak" (1662), and"Ilinioüek" (1667). In 1670 Claude Allouez referred to a band of natives as "IlimoucK"(the editor added an alternative spelling "Iliniouek") in one sentence and "Ilinioüetz" inthe next. The English translation changed the latter spelling to "Iliniouetz."[2] In thevariable spelling of the times, the name of Allouez was also spelled "Alloues," "Alloez,"Aloes," "Aloez," "Aloues," and "Daloes" in these early records. Theorizing great culturalor linguistic significance of minute details of the spellings used in these documents isseen in many circles as an exercise of highly dubious validity.The name Iliniwek is an old Ojibwe word borrowed into French as "Illinois." The modernOjibwe word is ininiweg, from /inin/ meaning "regular, ordinary, plain," /we/ meaning "tospeak," joined with a connector vowel /i/, and an animate plural suffix /g/, which whencombined means "those who speak in the ordinary way, regular way." In turn, this wordwas borrowed by Ojibwe from the Illinois language, from an original verb irenweewaki, 140
  • 141. which means "they speak in the regular way" or "they speak Illinois." However, due to asimilar-sounding word in old Ojibwe—iliniwak (singular as ilini; modern words ininiwagand inini respectively) meaning "men"—the name has been commonly mistranslated as"men," "proud men," "people," etc. This is according to etymological theory based onspelling.The historical record presents a different view. A 1864 history states that "Erinouek,""Alimouek," "Ilinimouek," "Liniouek," and "Illinoets" are all synonyms of "Illinois," allmean the men.[3] An oft-cited 1674 quote from Marquette follows:"WHEN one speaks the word “Ilinois,” it is as if one said in their language, “the men,“— As if the other Savages were looked upon by them merely as animals."[4]In 1697 Hennepin observed:"The etymology of this word Illinois comes, as we have said, from the term Illini, whichin the language of that Nation signifies a man finished or complete".[5]"The Lake of the Illinois signifies in the language of these Barbarians, the Lake of theMen. The word Illinois signifies a grown man, who is in the prime of his age andvigor."[6]The use of "Illinois" to mean "men," "proud men," or "tribe of superor men" is soundlywarranted by history. Indeed, an 1871 study offered the Illinois use of "Illinois" asquintessential textbook evidence that the "conviction of personal and tribal excellencestamps itself on every savage language."[7]Some sources state that the Illinois Tribes autonym (name for themselves) was Inoka, asdocumented in the French Jesuit dictionaries of the Illinois language. But that isincorrect.[8] Inoka is a "reconstructed or hypothetical phonemicized form" that a theoristformulated in 2000.[9] It never appeared in any literature until that time. "Illinois," on theother hand, as used by the Illinois people to refer to themselves and by others to refer tothe Illinois, was recorded in hundreds of pages of dozens of volumes published before1800.[10][11]In the seventeenth century, the Illinois suffered from a combination of exposure toEurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural immunity, and warfare by theexpansion of the Iroquois into the eastern Great Lakes region. The Iroquois had huntedout their traditional lands and sought more productive hunting and trapping areas. Theysought furs to purchase European goods in the fur trade.When a Peoria warrior murdered the Ottawa war chief Pontiac in 1769, the northerntribes retaliated against the Illiniwek. They suffered more losses. Many of the Illinoismigrated to present-day eastern Kansas to escape the pressure from other tribes andEuropeans. 141
  • 142. CultureThe Illini lived in a seasonal cycle related to cultivation of domestic plants and hunting,with movement from semi-permanent villages to hunting camps. They planted crops ofmaize (corn), beans, and squash, known as the "Three Sisters". They prepared dishes suchas sagamite. They also gathered wild foods such as nuts, fruit, roots and tubers. In thehunting season, the men hunted bison, deer, elk, bear, cougar, lynx, turkey, geese andduck. Women prepared the meat for preservation and the hides for equipment andclothing. They tapped maple trees made the sap into a drink or boiled it for syrup andsugar. [12] Present dayAs a consequence of the Indian Removal Act, in the 1830s the Illinois were relocatedfrom where they had migrated to eastern Kansas to northeastern Indian Territory. Todaythey chiefly reside in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, as the Peoria Tribe of Indians ofOklahoma. Popular cultureThe Illinois Confederacys name inspired the nickname for the University of Illinois atUrbana-Champaign, the "Fighting Illini", and the schools symbol "Chief Illiniwek". Dueto the Native American mascot controversy, the university retired this symbol onFebruary 21, 2007. References 1. ^ The Indian Tribes of orth America, by John R. Swanton. Bulletin (Smithsonian Institution; Bureau of American Ethnology), 145. 2. ^ Thwaites, R.G. (1899) The Jesuit relations and allied documents travels and explorations of the Jesuit missionaries in ew France, 1610-1791, 236. The English translation is on the next page. 3. ^ Perrot, N. (1864). Mémoire sur les moeurs, coustumes, et relligion des sauvages de lAmérique Septentrionale, 220. 4. ^ Marquette, J. (1674). Travel and discovery of some countries and nations of orth America, 20. 5. ^ Hennepin, L. (1697). ew Discovery of a Vast Country situated in America, between ew Mexico and the Frozen Ocean, 196. 6. ^ Hennepin, Discovery, 53. 7. ^ Trumbull, J. Hammod (1871), "On Algonkin Names for Man"], 2, 142 8. ^ Fay, J. (2009) Inoka. Retrieved October 21, 2009 from 9. ^ Costa, David J. 2000. "Miami-Illinois Tribe Names", Papers of the 31st Algonquian Conference, University of Manitoba Press, p. 46. 142
  • 143. 10. ^ Early Canada Online Search Results: 511 pages in 54 documents. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2002 from nois&range=text&bool=all&subset=all&pubfrom=1600&pubto=1800 11. ^ Fay, J. (2009) Eriniouaj. Retrieved October 21, 2009 from 12. ^ "The Illiniwek", The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery, National Park Service, accessed 29 Sep 2009Costa, David J. 2000. "Miami-Illinois Tribe Names". In John Nichols, ed., Papers of theThirty-first Algonquian Conference 30-53. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.External links • NPS Site on the Illiniwek • Illinois Confederacy • The Illinois • Tribes of the Illinois/Missouri Region at First • The Tribes of The Illinois Confederacy • Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma • "Eye Witness Descriptions of the Contact Generation, 1667 - 1700", Inoca Ethnohistory Project, Parkland College • Catholic Encyclopedia, "Illinois Indians"Retrieved from ""Categories: Algonquian peoples | Native American tribes in Illinois | Native Americanhistory Wyandot From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search"Huron" redirects here. For other uses, see Huron (disambiguation).Wendat(Huron, Wyandot, Wyandotte) 143
  • 144. Total populationcirca 2001: 8,000[citation needed]Regions with significant populationsCanada – Quebec, southwest OntarioUnited States – Ohio, Oklahoma, Michigan, KansasLanguagesFrench, English, revival of WendatReligionAnimism, Roman Catholicism, OtherRelated ethnic groupsPetun, other Iroquoian peoplesThe Wyandot (also called Huron) are indigenous peoples of North America, known intheir native language of the Iroquoian family as the Wendat. The pre-contact peopleformed in the area of the north shore of present-day Lake Ontario, before migrating toGeorgian Bay. It was in their later location that they first encountered explorer Samuel deChamplain in 1615.The modern Wyandot emerged in the late 17th century from the remnants of two earliergroups, the Huron Confederacy and the Tionontate, called the Petun (tobacco people) bythe French because of their cultivation of the crop. They were located in the southern partof what is now the Canadian province of Ontario around Georgian Bay. They weredrastically reduced by epidemic diseases after 1634 and dispersed by war in 1649 fromthe Iroquois of the Haudenosaunee.Today the Wyandot have a reserve in Quebec, Canada. In addition, they have three majorsettlements and independently governed, federally recognized tribes in the UnitedStates.[1] 144
  • 145. Contents • 1 Before 1650: Hurons and Petuns o 1.1 Origin, names and organization o 1.2 Culture o 1.3 European contact and Wendat dispersal • 2 Emergence of the Wyandot o 2.1 20th century to present • 3 Notes • 4 References • 5 Further reading • 6 External links Before 1650: Hurons and Petuns Origin, names and organization Huron-Wendat group - Spencerwood, Quebec City, QC, 1880While early theories placed Huron origin in the St. Lawrence Valley, with some arguingfor a presence near Montreal, archeological findings since the 1950s have demonstratedconclusively they had no habitation there. As historian James F. Pendergast states,"Indeed, there is now every indication that the late precontact Huron and their immediateantecedents developed in a distinct Huron homeland in southern Ontario along the northshore of Lake Ontario. Subsequently they moved from there to their historic territory onGeorgian Bay where they were encountered by Champlain in 1615."In the early seventeenth century, this Iroquoian people called themselves the autonymWendat, which means "Dwellers of the Peninsula" or "Islanders". The Wendat historicterritory was bordered on three sides by the waters of Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe.[3]Early French explorers referred to these natives as the Huron, either from the Frenchhuron ("ruffian", "rustic"), or from hure ("boars head"). According to tradition, Frenchsailors thought that the bristly hairstyle of Wendat warriors resembled that of a boar.[3] 145
  • 146. The Wendat were not a tribe, but a confederacy of four or more tribes with a mutuallyintelligible language.[4] According to tradition, this Wendat (or Huron) Confederacy wasinitiated by the Attignawantans (People of the Bear) and the Attigneenongnahacs (Peopleof the Cord), who confederated in the 15th century.[4] They were joined by theArendarhonons (People of the Rock) about 1590, and the Tahontaenrats (People of theDeer) around 1610.[4] A fifth group, the Ataronchronons (People of the Marshes or Bog),may not have attained full membership in the confederacy,[4] and may have been adivision of the Attignawantan.[5]The largest Wendat settlement, and capital of the confederacy, was located at Ossossane,near modern-day Elmvale, Ontario. They called their traditional territory Wendake.[6]Closely related to the people of the Huron Confederacy were the Tionontate[7], a groupwhom the French called the Petun (Tobacco People), for their cultivation of that crop.They lived further south and were divided into two groups: the Deer and the Wolves.[8]Considering that they formed the nucleus of the tribe later known as the Wyandot, theytoo may have called themselves Wendat.[9] CultureLike other Iroquoian people, the Huron were farmers who supplemented their diet withhunting and fishing.[4] Maize (corn) was the mainstay of their diet, which wassupplemented primarily by fish, although they hunted and ate some venison and othermeats available during the game seasons.[10] Women did most of the agricultural work,although men helped in the heaviest work of clearing the fields. This was usually done bythe slash and burn method of clearing trees and brush. [11] Men did most of the fishingand hunting, and constructed the houses, canoes, and tools.[12] Each family owned a plotof land which they farmed; this land reverted to the common property of the tribe whenthe family no longer used it.[13]Huron lived in villages spanning from one to ten acres (40,000 m²), most of which werefortified in defense against enemy attack. They lived in long houses, similar to otherIroquoian cultural groups. The typical village had 900 to 1600 people organized into 30or 40 longhouses.[7] Villages were moved about every ten years as the soil became lessfertile and the nearby forest, which provided firewood, grew thin.[14] The Huron engagedin trade with neighboring tribes, notably for tobacco with the neighboring Petun andNeutral nations.[15]Tuberculosis (TB) was endemic among the Huron, aggravated by the close and smokyliving conditions in the longhouses.[16] Huron on the whole were healthy, however; theJesuits wrote that the Huron were "more healthy than we."[17] European contact and Wendat dispersal See also: Jesuit missions in North America 146
  • 147. Le Grand Voyage du Pays des Hurons, Gabriel Sagard, 1632.The earliest written accounts of the Huron were made by the French, who beganexploring North America in the 16th century. News of the Europeans reached the Huron,particularly when Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River in the early1600s. Some Huron decided to go and meet the Europeans. Atironta, the principalheadman of the Arendarhonon tribe, went to Quebec and made an alliance with theFrench in 1609.The total population of the Huron at the time of European contact has been estimated atabout 20,000 to 40,000 people.[18] From 1634 to 1640, the Huron were devastated byEurasian infectious diseases, such as measles and smallpox, to which they had noimmunity. Epidemiological studies have shown that beginning in 1634, more Europeanchildren immigrated with their families to the New World from cities in France, England,and the Netherlands that had endemic smallpox. Historians believe the disease spreadfrom the children to the Huron and other nations.[7] Numerous Huron villages and areaswere permanently abandoned. About two-thirds of the population died in theepidemics,[18] decreasing the population to about 12,000.[7]Before the French arrived, the Huron had already been in conflict with the Iroquoisnations to the south. Several thousand Huron lived as far south as present-day centralWest Virginia along the Kanawha River by the late 1500s, but they were driven out bythe Iroquois invading from present-day New York in the 1600s.[19] Once the Europeanpowers became involved in trading, the conflict among natives intensified significantly asthey struggled to control the trade. The French allied with the Huron, because they werethe most advanced trading nation at the time.[citation needed] The Iroquois tended to ally with 147
  • 148. the English, who used their longstanding competition with the Huron and new Frenchallies.Introduction of European weapons and the fur trade increased the severity of inter-tribalwarfare. On March 16th, 1649, an Iroquois war party of about 1000 burned the Huronmission villages of St. Ignace and St. Louis in present-day Simcoe County Ontario,Canada, killing about 300 people. They also killed many of the Jesuit missionaries (seeNorth American Martyrs). Surviving Jesuits burned the mission after abandoning it toprevent its capture. The Iroquois attack shocked the Huron. By May 1, 1649, the Huronburned 15 of their villages to prevent their stores from being taken and fled as refugees tosurrounding tribes. About 10,000 fled to Gahoendoe (Christian Island). Most who fled tothe island starved over the winter, as it was a non-productive settlement and could notprovide for them. Those who survived were believed to have resorted to cannibalism todo so. After spending the bitter winter of 1649-50 on Gahoendoe, surviving Huronrelocated near Quebec City, where they settled at Wendake. Absorbing other refugees,they became the Huron-Wendat Nation. Emergence of the WyandotIn the late 17th century, elements of the Huron Confederacy and the Petun joinedtogether and became known as the Wyandot (or Wyandotte), a variation of Wendat.[4] Thewestern Wyandot eventually re-formed across the border in the area of present-day Ohioand southern Michigan in the United States. Some descendants of the Wyandot Nation ofAnderdon still live in Ohio and Michigan. In 1819, the Methodist Church established itsfirst mission to Native Americans with a mission to the Wyandot in Ohio.[20]In the 1840s, most of the surviving Wyandot people were displaced to Kansas throughthe US federal policy of forced Indian removal. In 1867 after the American Civil War,additional members removed from the Midwest to Oklahoma. Today more than 4,000Wyandot can be found in eastern Kansas and Oklahoma.In June 1853, Big Turtle, a chief of the Wyandot tribe, wrote to the Ohio State Journalregarding the current condition of his tribe. The Wyandot received nearly $127,000 fortheir lands in 1845. Big Turtle noted that, in the spring of 1850, the tribal chiefsretroceded the granted land to the government. $100,000 of the proceeds was invested in5% government stock.[21]Removed from Ohio to the Indian Territory, the Wyandot tribe had founded goodlibraries along with two thriving Sabbath Schools. They were in the process of organizinga division of the Sons of Temperance and maintained a sizable Temperance Society. BigTurtle commented on the agricultural yield, which produced an annual surplus formarket. He said that the thrift of the Wyandot exceeded that of any tribe north of theArkansas line. According to an 1853 ew York Times article, the Wyandot nation was"contented and happy", and enjoyed better living conditions in the Indian Territory thanformerly in Ohio.[21] 148
  • 149. A United States government treaty ceded the Wyandot Nation a small portion of fertileland located in an acute angle of the Missouri River and Kansas River. In addition, thegovernment granted thirty-two "floating sections", located on public lands west of theMississippi River. By 1855 the number of Wyandot had diminished to 600 or 700. OnAugust 14 of that year the Wyandot nation elected a chief. The Kansas correspondent ofthe Missouri Republican reported that the judges of the election were three elderly braveswho were trusted by their peers. Some of the floating sections of land were offered forsale on the same day at a price of $800. A section was composed of 640 acres (2.6 km2).Altogether 20,480 acres (82.9 km2) were sold for $25,600. They were located in Kansas,Nebraska, and unspecified sites. Surveys were not required, with the title becomingcomplete at the time of location.[22]An October 1855 article in The ew York Times reported that the Wyandot were free(that is, they had been accepted as US citizens) and without the restrictions placed onother tribes. Their leaders were unanimously pro-slavery, which meant 900 or 1,000additional votes in opposition to the Free State movement of Kansas.[23]The last of the original Wyandot of Ohio was Margaret "Grey Eyes" Solomon, a.k.a."Mother Solomon". The daughter of Chief John Grey Eyes, she was born in 1816 anddeparted Ohio in 1843. By 1889 she had returned to Ohio, when she was recorded as aspectator to the restoration of the Wyandots "Old Mission Church", a Wyandot MissionChurch at Upper Sandusky. She died in Upper Sandusky on August 17, 1890.[24] Forphotograph see this reference site. [edit] 20th century to presentIn February 1985 the U.S. government agreed to pay descendants of the Wyandot $5.5million. The decision settled the 143-year-old treaty, which in 1842 forced the tribe tosell their Ohio lands for less than fair value. A spokesman for the Bureau of IndianAffairs (BIA) said that the government would pay $1,600 each, in July 1985, to 3,600people in Kansas and Oklahoma who could prove they were Wyandot descendants.[25]A program founded in the 1940s to address grievances filed by various Native Americantribes allocated $800 million to rectify promises broken by settlers who invaded theirterritories. The Wyandot settlement was based on the 1830 Indian Removal law, whichrequired Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi River. Originally theWyandot were paid 75 cents per acre for land that was worth $1.50 an acre.[25]In 1999, representatives of the far-flung Wyandot bands of Quebec, Kansas, Oklahomaand Michigan gathered at their historic homeland in Midland, Ontario. They formally re-established the Wendat Confederacy.Each modern Wyandot community is an autonomous band: • Huron-Wendat Nation, at Wendake, now within the Quebec City limits, approximately 3,000 members 149
  • 150. • Wyandot Nation of Anderdon, in Michigan, with headquarters in Trenton, Michigan, perhaps 800 members • Wyandot Nation of Kansas, with headquarters in Kansas City, Kansas, perhaps 400 members • Wyandotte Nation,[26] a federally recognized tribe headquartered in Wyandotte, Oklahoma, with 4,300 members.[27]The Wyandot Nation of Kansas has had legal battles with the Wyandotte Nationa ofOklahoma over the Huron Cemetery in Kansas City, Kansas. It has been a point ofcontention for more than 100 years. Because of complications from the Indian removalprocess, the land was legally under control of the Wyandotte Nation of Oklahoma, whowanted to redevelop it for the benefit of its people. Members of the local KansasWyandot strongly opposed most such proposals, which would have required reintermentof Indian remains, including many of their direct ancestors. In 1998 the two nationsfinally agreed to preserve the cemetery for religious, cultural and other uses appropriateto its sacred history and use.The approximately 3,000 Wyandot in Quebec are primarily Catholic and speak French asa first language. They have begun to promote the study and use of the Wyandot languageamong their children. For many decades, a leading source of income for the Wyandot ofQuebec has been selling pottery and other locally produced crafts.[edit] otes 1. ^ "First Nations Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization. 2. ^ James F. Pendergast, "The Confusing Identities Attributed to Stadacona and Hochelaga", Journal of Canadian Studies, Winter 1998, pp. 3-4, accessed 3 Feb 2010 3. ^ a b Trigger, Children of Aataentsic, 27. 4. ^ a b c d e f Dickason, "Huron/Wyandot", 263–65. 5. ^ Trigger, Children of Aataentsic, 30. 6. ^ Huron 7. ^ a b c d Gary Warrick, "European Infectious Disease and Depopulation of the Wendat-Tionontate (Huron-Petun)", World Archaeology 35 (October 2003), 258– 275. 8. ^ Garrad and Heidenreich, "Khionontateronon (Petun)", Handbook of orth American Indians, Smithsonian Institution, 394. 9. ^ Steckley, Wendat Dialects 10. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", Handbook of the orth American Indian, Smithsonian Institution, 378. 11. ^ Heidenreich, Huron, 380, 382–83. 12. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 383. 13. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 380. 14. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 381. 15. ^ Heidenreich, "Huron", 385. 150
  • 151. 16. ^ P. C. Hartney, "Tuberculosis lesions in a prehistoric population sample from southern Ontario", in Jane E. Buikstra, ed., Prehistoric Tuberculosis in the Americas, Northwestern University Archaeological Program Scientific Papers No. 5, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. 1981, 141-160. OCLC 7197014 17. ^ Heidenreich, Huron, 379. 18. ^ a b Heidenreich, Huron, 369. 19. ^ Dr. Robert J. Dilger and James Marshall, "Kanawha County History", Institute for Public Affairs, West Virginia University, 21 Feb 2002, accessed 31 Oct 2009 20. ^ "United Methodist Church Timeline", General Archives, Methodist Church, accessed 25 Apr 2010 21. ^ a b "Civilization of the Wyandot Indians"], ew York Times, June 1, 1853, Page 3. 22. ^ "Wyandot Indians holding an Election-Their Land Claims", ew York Times, August 24, 1855, Page 2. 23. ^ "Affairs In Kansas", ew York Times, October 2, 1855, Page 2. 24. ^ Howe, Henry. Howes Historical Collections of Ohio. Volume 2. pp. 900-902. 25. ^ a b "Wyandot Indians Win $5.5 Million Settlement", ew York Times, February 11, 1985, Page A10 26. ^ Federal Register, Volume 73, Number 66 dated April 4, 2008 (73 FR 18553). pdf file (retrieved 26 Feb 2009) 27. ^ Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. Oklahoma Indian ations Pocket Pictorial Directory, 2008: 38 (retrieved 26 Feb 2009)References • Dickason, Olive Patricia. "Huron/Wyandot". Encyclopedia of orth American Indians, 263–65, Ed. Frederick E. Hoxie. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996. ISBN 0-395-66921-9. • Steckley, John. "Wendat Dialects and the Development of the Huron Alliance" • Trigger, Bruce G. The Huron: Farmers of the orth, New York: Holt, 1969. ISBN 0-03-079550-8. • Trigger, Bruce G. The Children of Aataentsic: A History of the Huron People to 1660. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press. 1987. ISBN 0- 7735-0627-6 • Gabriel Sagard, Le grand voyage au pays des Hurons (Paris, 1632)Further reading • Clarke, Peter Dooyentate. Origin and Traditional History of the Wyandotts, and Sketches of Other Indian Tribes of orth America, True Traditional Stories of Tecumseh and His League, Global Language Press, 2006. Reprint of 1870 history written by a Wyandot. ISBN 0-9738924-9-8External links 151
  • 152. Wikimedia Commons has media related to:Official tribal websites • Wyandotte Nation of Oklahoma • Wyandot Nation of Kansas • Wyandot of Anderdon Nation, Michigan • Huron-Wendat Nation, Wendake, QuebecOther • Sagard’s Dictionary of Huron - The earliest and one of the most complete dictionaries of the Huron language • Huron Indian Cemetery in Kansas City • Kanata: Legacy of the Children of Aataentsic, 1999 documentary • Indian Mill State Park - displays examples of the written version of the Wyandot language.Retrieved from ""Categories: First Nations in Ontario | First Nations in Quebec | Indigenous peoples ofNorth America | Native American tribes in Oklahoma | Wyandot people Mississaugas From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For the city, see Mississauga.The Mississaugas are a subtribe of the Anishinaabe-speaking First Nations peoplelocated in southern Ontario, Canada. They are closely related to the Ojibwa. The name"Mississauga" comes from the Anishinaabe word Misi-zaagiing, meaning "[Those at the]Great River-mouth."Contents • 1 History • 2 Legacy • 3 Today • 4 References 152
  • 153. HistoryAccording to the oral histories of the Anishinaabe, after departing the "Second StoppingPlace" near Niagara Falls, the core Anishinaabe peoples migrated along the shores ofLake Erie to what is now southern Michigan. They became "lost" both physically andspiritually. The Mississaugas migrated along a northern route by the Credit River, toGeorgian Bay. These were considered their historic traditional lands on the shores ofLake Superior and northern Lake Huron around the Mississagi River. The Mississaugascalled for the core Anishinaabe to Midewiwin (return to the path of the good life). Thecore Anishinaabe peoples formed the Council of Three Fires and migrated from their"Third Stopping Place" near the present city of Detroit to their "Fourth Stopping Place"on Manitoulin Island, along the eastern shores of Georgian Bay.By the time the French explorers arrived in 1634, the Mississaugas were a distinct tribe ofAnishinaabe peoples, living along the Mississagi River and on Manitoulin Island. Theyhad moved from the Mississagi River area southward into the Kawartha lakes region.From this location, a smaller contingent moved southwest to an area along the CreditRiver, just west of modern-day Toronto. The French identified the peoples asMississauga.Alternate spellings of the name are Mississaga, Massassauga and Missisauga, pluralforms of these three, and "Mississauga Indians". Before the Anishinaabe languagereplaced the Wyandot language in mid-17th century as the lingua franca of the GreatLakes region, the Mississaugas were also known by the name (exonym) which theWendat called them.When Conrad Weiser conducted a census in Logstown in 1748, he identified the peopleas Tisagechroamis, his attempt at conveying the sound of their exonym, name in Wendat.Other variants of the spelling were Tisagechroamis, Tisaghechroamis, Tisagechroan,Tisagechroanu and Zisaugeghroanu. "The Tisagechroanu were the Mississagas fromLake Huron, a large tribe and French Indians, or under French influences. The nameTisagechroanue here is probably a misprint, for it is most often found Zisaugeghroanu."[1]In the waning years of the American Revolution, starting in 1781, the British Crownpurchased land from the Mississauga in a series of transactions that encompassed muchof present-day southern Ontario. They wanted to make land grants to Loyalists who leftproperty in the Thirteen Colonies to reward them for loyalty, and the Crown also wantedto develop this area of the country with farms and towns. In the 21st century, theCanadian government awarded the Mississisaugas First Nation nearly $145 million insettlement of a land claim because of the Crowns underpayment in the 18th century. Legacy • The city of Mississauga is named after them. • Western and Eastern Massassauga rattlesnake are named after them. 153
  • 154. TodayHistorically, there were five First Nations that made up the Mississauga ations. Today,the six Mississauga nations are the following (listed under their historical counterpart, ifapplicable): • Mississauga First Nation — Mississagi River 8 Reserve o Mississaugas of Chibaouinani (historical) • Alderville First Nation (formerly: Mississaugas of Alnwick) — Alderville First Nation Reserve, Sugar Island 37A Reserve • Mississaugas of Credit (historical) o Mississaugas of Beldom (historical) o Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation — New Credit 40A Reserve • Mississaugas of Matchedash (historical) • Mississaugas of Rice Lake, Mud Lake and Scugog Lake (historical) o Curve Lake First Nation (formerly: Mississaugas of Mud Lake) — Curve Lake First Nation 35 Reserve, Curve Lake 35A Reserve and Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A o Mississaugas of Grape Island (historical) o Hiawatha First Nation (formerly: Mississaugas of Rice Lake) — Hiawatha First Nation Indian Reserve, Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A o Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation — Mississaugas of Scugog Island Reserve, Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36AOne of the largest is the Mississaugas of the ew Credit First ations. As of 2005, theMississaugas of New Credit have a population of 1,375. All the Mississisaugas are asmall part of the Ojibwa nation of 200,000 people.ReferencesWikimedia Commons has media related to: 1. ^ George Thornton Fleming, Vol. 1, History of Pittsburgh and environs, from prehistoric days to the beginning of the American revolution, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Digital Research Library, 1999 • Mississaugas of Alderville First Nation • United Anishnaabeg Council • Ogemawahj Tribal Council • Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nations 154
  • 155. • Mississuagas of the New Credit First Nations[hide]v•d•eAnishinaabeCouncil of Three Ojibwe · Ottawa · PotawatomiFiresTribesOthersAlgonquin · Saulteaux · Mississaugas · Oji-CreeOjibwe language · Anishinaabe traditional beliefs · Midewiwin ·Culturesystem · WiigwaasabakAssembly of Manitoba Chiefs · Chiefs of Ontario · Grand Council of Treaty 3Council of Treaty 8Assembly ofNorway House Cree NationManitoba Chiefs Bad River Band of Lake Superior Chippewa · Forest County Potawatomi Nation · Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa · Lac du Flambeau BandGreat Lakes of Lake Superior Chippewa · Lac Vieux Desert Tribe of Michigan ·Inter of Wisconsin · Oneida Nation · Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior ChippewaCouncil Chippewa (Mole Lake) · St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Munsee Indians of Wisconsin Bay Mills Indian Community · Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians Hannahville Indian Community · Keweenaw Bay Indian CommunityInterPolitical Band of Lake Superior Chippewa · Little River Band of Ottawa Indians DesertCouncil Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians · Match-E-Be-Nash-Sheorganizationsof Michigan Pottawatomi · Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi · Pokagon Band Potawatomi · Saginaw Chippewa Tribal Council · Sault Tribe of Chippewa IndiansLower Sioux Indian Community · Minnesota Chippewa Tribe · Prairie Island IndianMinnesotCommunity · Red Lake Band of Chippewa · Shakopee Mdewakanton SiouxAffairs CouncilCommunity · Upper Sioux Community (Pejuhutazizi Oyate)Flying Post First Nation · Independent First Nations AllianceOkimakanak Council · Matawa First Nations · Mishkeegogamang First NationNishnawbeMocreebec Council of the Cree Nation · Mushkegowuk CouncilAski NationNation · Shibogama First Nations Council · Wabun Tribal CouncilNation · Wabun Tribal Council · Windigo First Nations CouncilUnion Biinjitiwabik Zaaging (Rocky Bay) · Bingwi Neyaashi (Sand Point)Lake of SuperiorOntarioBay · Long Lake 58 · Michipicoten · NamaygoosisagagunRegion Indians Gull 155
  • 156. Mobert · Pic River (Heron Bay) · Red Rock (Lake Helen) Aundeck-Omni-Kaning (Sucker Creek) · Dokis · Garden River Magnetawan · MChigeeng (West Bay) · Mississauga · Nipissing · Sagamok Lake Huron River · Sheguiandah · Sheshegwaning · Thessalon · Wahnapitae · Wasauksing (Parry Region Island) · Whitefish Lake · Whitefish River · Wikwemikong (Cockburn) Southwest Aamjiwnaang (Sarnia) · Kettle & Stony Point · Munsee-Delaware · Thames Chippewa Region Alderville · Beausoleil (Christian Island) · Curve Lake · Georgina Island Southeast Region Island · Moose Deer Point · PikwàkanagànRetrieved from ""Categories: Mississauga First Nation | Algonquian ethnonymsMenomineeJump to: navigation, searchFor other uses, see Menominee (disambiguation).Some placenames use other spellings, see also Menomonee and Menomonie.MenomineeTotal population5,000–10,000Regions with significant populationsUnited States (Wisconsin)LanguagesEnglish, MenomineeReligionChristianity, AnimismRelated ethnic groupsFox, Kickapoo and other Algonquian peoples 156
  • 157. The Menominee (also spelled Menomini; known as Mamaceqtaw, "the people" in theirown language) are a nation of Native Americans living in Wisconsin. The Menominee,along with the Ho-Chunk, are the only tribes that are indigenous to what is nowWisconsin. The name "Menominee" comes from the Ojibwe name manoominii, meaning"wild rice people",[1] as wild rice is one of their most important traditional staples.Contents • 1 Menominee Indian Reservation o 1.1 History of the Reservation o 1.2 Communities • 2 History of the Menominee o 2.1 The Menominee Tribe and the Termination Era • 3 Culture • 4 Current tribal activities • 5 Notable Menominees • 6 Notes • 7 References • 8 External links Menominee Indian Reservation Tribal office in Keshena 157
  • 158. The Menominee Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation located in northeasternWisconsin. For the most part, it is conterminous with Menominee County and the townof Menominee. However, there are many small pockets of territory within the county(and its geographically equivalent town) that are not considered to be part of thereservation. These pockets amount to a fairly small 1.14 percent of the countys area, sothat, essentially, the reservation is only about 98.86 percent of the countys area. Thelargest of these pockets is in the western part of the community of Keshena. Furthermore,the reservation has a plot of off-reservation trust land of 10.22 acres (41,400 m2) inWinnebago County, to the south, west of the city of Oshkosh. The reservations total landarea is 353.894 sq mi (916.581 km²), while Menominee Countys land area is 357.960 sqmi (927.111 km²). The non-reservation parts of the county are actually much moredensely populated than the reservation, with 1,337 (29.3%) of the countys 4,562 totalpopulation, as opposed to the reservations 3,225 (70.7%) population in the 2000census.[2] (The plot of land in Winnebago County is unpopulated.) The most populouscommunities are Legend Lake and Keshena. They operate a number of gamblingfacilities and speak the Menominee language.[3]History of the ReservationThe reservation was created in a treaty signed on May 12, 1854 in which the Menomineerelinquished all claims to the lands given to them under previous treaties, and wereassigned 432 square miles (1,120 km2) on the Wolf River. An additional treaty signed onFebruary 11, 1856 carved out the southwestern corner of this area, creating a separatereservation for the Stockbridge and Munsee tribes. These are the same boundaries inexistence today.Communities • Keshena (most, population 1,168) • Legend Lake (most, population 853) • Middle Village (part, population 106) • Neopit (most, population 637) • Zoar (most, population 35)History of the Menominee 158
  • 159. Amiskquew, a mid-19th century Menominee warrior, painted by Charles Bird King. Spearing Salmon By Torchlight, an oil painting by Paul Kane depicting Menominees spearfishing at night by torchlight and canoe on Fox River.Dan Waupoose, a Menomini chief; Algiers, La. U.S. Navy photograph, August 24, 1943.The tribe formerly lived in what is now upper Michigan around Mackinac. John ReedSwanton records in his The Indian Tribes of orth America under the "Wisconsin"section listing "Menominee" a band named "Misinimäk Kimiko Wininiwuk,Michilimackinac People, near the old fort at Mackinac, Mich."[4] Father Frederic Baragain his dictionary records "Mishinimakinago; pl.-g.—This name is given to some strangeIndians, (according to the sayings of the Otchipwes,) who are rowing through the woods,and who are sometimes heard shooting, but never seen. And from this word, the name ofthe village of Mackinac, or Michillimackinac, is derived."[5] After selling their lands tothe U.S. government through seven treaties from 1821 to 1848, they were moved to their 159
  • 160. present reservation. Although their customs are quite similar to those of the Chippewa(Ojibwa), their language has a closer affinity to those of the Fox and Kickapoo tribes.An Eastern Woodlands tribe, the Menominee belong to the Algonquian language branchof North America. They were known as "folles avoines" (wild or foolish oats) by theearly French. The Menominees formerly subsisted on a wide variety of plants andanimals, with wild rice and sturgeon being two of the most important foods; feasts arestill held annually at which each of these is served. The five principal Menominee clansare the Bear, the Eagle, the Wolf, the Crane, and the Moose. The Menominee Tribe and the Termination EraDuring the 1940s, the Menominee were identified for a U.S. program of termination,legally ending the Menominees status as a sovereign nation. The Klamath in Oregonwere the only other tribal group also identified for termination. The Menominee werechosen for termination because it was believed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs they wereeconomically self-reliant from the timber industry to be free of federal oversight.In 1954, Congress passed a law which phased out the Menominee reservation, effectivelyterminating its tribal status on April 30, 1961. Commonly held tribal property wastransferred to a corporation, Menominee Enterprises, Inc. (MEI). The area of the formerreservation became a new county.The plan was a failure, resulting in diminished standards of living for the members of thetribe, and forcing the closure of the hospital and some schools. Menominee County,Wisconsin, was the poorest and least populated Wisconsin county during this time, andtermination further devastated the region. The tribal industry alone could not sustain thecommunity, and the tax base could not fund basic services for the Menominee. MEIfunds, which totaled $10 million in 1954, dwindled to $300,000 in 1964.[6] A 1967 planby MEI to raise money by selling off former tribal lands to non-Native Americansresulted in a fierce backlash.Community members began an organizing campaign to restore political sovereignty tothe Menominee. Former tribe members, among them Ada Deer, an organizer who wouldlater go on to a career as an advocate for Native Americans at the federal level, formed agroup called the Determination of Rights and Unity for Menominee Stockholders(DRUMS) in 1970. The organization was successful at blocking the sale of tribal land tonon-Indian developers. They successfully fought for control of the MEI board ofdirectors and lobbied Congress to restore their status as a federally recognized sovereigntribe.[7]The lobbying was successful, resulting in a bill signed by Richard Nixon on December22, 1973, which recognized the tribe again and started them on the path towardsreforming a reservation. The reservation was reformed in 1975, a tribal constitution wassigned in 1976, and the new tribal government took over in 1979. 160
  • 161. CultureMenominee mythology is rich with ethical meaning and interrelated in complex wayswith the sacred literature of Native American people.The Menominee believed that the earth was separating the upper and lower worlds. Theupper world represented good and the lower world represented evil. These two worldswere divided into several layers, the furthest being the most powerful. The sun was at thehighest level in the upper world, followed by the Thunderbird and the Morning Star; theGolden Eagles (symbols of war); and other birds led by the Bald Eagle. The first levelbelow the earth in the lower world was occupied by the Horned Serpent. The next levelwas the home of the White Deer, which contributed to the origins of the Medicine Dance.The next level was the Underwater Panther. The lowest level was ruled by the GreatWhite Bear.The Menominee used dreaming as a way of connecting with a guardian spirit in order togain power. During puberty, both boys and girls would fast for days, living in a smallisolated wigwam. Medicine men would then interpret their dreams of spirits in animalform and would inform the youngster what responsibilities he or she owed to theguardian spirit.[8] Current tribal activitiesThe Menominee have a community college called the College of the Menominee Nation,which contains a Sustainable Development Institute.[9]The tribe also owns and operates a Las Vegas style casino, bingo and hotel that has beenin operation since June 5, 1987. Approximately 79 percent of the Menominee Casino-Bingo-Hotels 500 employees are of Native American descent or are spouses of NativeAmericans.[10]The nation also has a notable forestry resource and ably manages a timberprogram. [11] otable Menominees • Chief Oshkosh (1795–1858) • Chrystos, a Two-Spirit identified poet • Ada Deer—Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs, 1993–1997 • Ingrid Washinawatok—Co-Founder, Fund for the Four Directions, indigenous activist, killed by the FARC in Colombia, 1999Mitchell Oshkenaniew( 161
  • 162. otes 1. ^ Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of ative America. Oxford: Oxford University Press., pg. 401, n. 134. 2. ^ Menominee Reservation and Off-Reservation Trust Land, Wisconsin United States Census Bureau 3. ^ Menominee Language and the Menominee Indian Tribe (Menomini, Mamaceqtaw) 4. ^ Swanton, John R. (1952). Indian Tribes of orth America. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Reprinted by the Smithsonian Institution, 1974, 1979, 1984. 5. ^ Baraga, Frederic (1878). A Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language. Montreal: Beauchemin & Valois, v. 2, p. 248. 6. ^ Tiller, Veronica. Tillers Guide to Indian Country: Economic Profiles of American Indian Reservations. Bowarrow Publishing Company, 1996. ISBN 1- 885931-01-8. 7. ^ Milwaukee Public Museum - Indian Country Wisconsin. Last accessed 06/30/2008. See also: Nancy O. Lurie, (1971) “Menominee Termination,” Indian Historian, 4(4): 31-43. (1972) “Menominee Termination: From Reservation to Colony,” Human Organization, 31: 257-269; (1987) “Menominee Termination and Restoration,” in Donald L.Fixico, ed., An Anthology of Western Great Lakes Indians Hisory (Milwaukee: American Indian Studies Program): 439-478. 8. ^ Menominee Culture - Indian Country Wisconsin 9. ^ 10. ^ About Us 11. ^ Alan McQuillan, "American Indian Timber Management Policy: Its Evolution in the Context o fU. S. Forest History," in Trusteeship in Change: Toward Tribal Autonomy in Resource Management, eds. R. L. Clow and I Sutton (University Press of Colorado, 2001): 73–102.References • Beck, David R. M. (2005) The Struggle for Self-Determination: History of the Menominee Indians Since 1854. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. • Davis, Thomas (2000). Sustaining the Forest, the People, and the Spirit. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York. • Nichols, Phebe Jewell (Mrs. Angus F. Lookaround). Oshkosh The Brave: Chief of the Menominees, and His Family. Menominee Indian Reservation, 1954.External links 162
  • 163. • Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin • The Menominee Myth of the Flood – in Relation to Life Today • Excerpt of "Wisconsin" entry in Swantons works • Information regarding Menominee clans at University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point • "Menominee Indians". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. . • Information on treaties between the United States and the Menominee • "Menominee Termination and Restoration" from the Milwaukee Public Museum[hide]v•d•eBlack Hawk War (1832)British Band • Fox • Ho-Chunk • Illinois Militia • Kickapoo • SiouxFactionsMichigan Territory Militia • Potawatomi • Sauk • United States ArmyJohn Giles Adams • Milton Alexander • Henry Apple • Elizabeth ArmstrongAtkinson • David Bailey • Black Hawk • Hugh Brady • Ebenezer BrighamBrown • Thomas P. Burnett • Chakeepashipaho • Checokalako • George DavenportJefferson Davis • John Dement • Augustus C. Dodge • Henry DodgeMike Girty • Henry Gratiot • Rachel Hall • Sylvia Hall • William S. HamiltonHenry • Ioway • George W. Jones • Keewassee • Keokuk • Antoine LeClairePeople • Stephen Mack, Jr. • Meommuse • Neapope • Oshkosh • PamahoLincolnAdam Payne • Elijah Phillips • Alexander Posey • John Hawkins RountreeSample • Lucy Sample • James Semple • Winfield Scott • ShabbonaSnyder • James W. Stephenson • Isaiah Stillman • Clack Stone • Joseph M. StreetJames M. Strode • Felix St. Vrain • Joseph Throckmorton • Zachary TaylorTowaunonne • Wabokieshiek • John Allen Wakefield • Wapasha IIWaubonsee • Weesheet • Samuel Whiteside •Illinois: Apple River Fort • Buffalo Grove • Dixons Ferry • Fort Armstrong• Galena • Indian Creek • Kelloggs Grove • Plum River • SaukenukStillmans Run Battle Site • Waddams Grove •PlacesMichigan Territory (Wisconsin): Bad Axe River • Blue Mounds FortFort Defiance • Fort Hamilton • Fort Jackson • Fort Koshkonong • Fort UnionGrove • Helena • Hamiltons Diggings • Pecatonica River • Roxbury •• Soldiers Grove • Victory • Wisconsin Heights Battlefield • Wisconsin RiverMinor engagements • Battle of Stillmans Run • Buffalo Grove ambush• Indian Creek massacre • St. Vrain massacre • Attacks at Fort Blue MoundsEngagementsFarm massacre • Battle of Horseshoe Bend • Battle of Waddams GroveKelloggs Grove • Attack at Aments Cabin • Battle of Apple River FortMound raid • Battle of Wisconsin Heights • Bad Axe Massacre 163
  • 164. Black Hawk Purchase • Black Hawk Tree • Keokuks Reserve •Other topicsWarriorRetrieved from ""Categories: American Indian reservations | Native American tribes in Wisconsin |Menominee County, Wisconsin | Algonquian peoples | Native American tribes | NativeAmerican history | Algonquian ethnonyms Shawnee Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Native American tribe. For other uses, see Shawnee (disambiguation). Shawnee Shawnee portraits Total population14,000 (7584 enrolled)[1] 164
  • 165. Regions with significant populationsOklahoma[1]LanguagesShawnee, EnglishReligiontraditional beliefs and ChristianityRelated ethnic groupsSac and FoxThe Shawnee, Shaawanwaki, Shaawanooki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki, [2] are anAlgonquian-speaking people native to North America. Historically they inhabited theareas of Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, Western Maryland, Kentucky, Indiana, andPennsylvania. Today there are three federally recognized Shawnee tribes: Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, andShawnee Tribe, all of which are headquartered in Oklahoma.Contents • 1 History o 1.1 Early history o 1.2 Sixty Years War o 1.3 After the war • 2 Groups • 3 Flags of the Shawnee • 4 Coins of the Shawnee • 5 Famous Shawnee • 6 See also • 7 Notes • 8 References • 9 External links History Early historyThe prehistoric origins of the Shawnees are uncertain. The other Algonquian nationsregarded the Shawnee as their southernmost branch. The Algonquian-speaking tribeswere mostly located in coastal areas. Algonquian languages have words similar to the 165
  • 166. archaic shawano (now: shaawanwa) meaning "south". However, the stem shaawa- doesnot mean "south" in Shawnee, but "moderate, warm (of weather)". In one Shawnee tale,Shaawaki is the deity of the south. Some scholars have speculated that the Shawnee aredescendants of the people of the prehistoric Fort Ancient culture of the Ohio country,although no definitive proof has been established.[3]Europeans reported encountering Shawnee over a widespread geographic area. Theearliest mention of the Shawnee may be a 1614 Dutch map showing the Sawwanew justeast of the Delaware River. Later 17th-century Dutch sources also place them in thisgeneral location. Accounts by French explorers in this same century usually located theShawnee along the Ohio River, where they encountered them on forays from Canada andthe Illinois Country.[4]According to one legend, the Shawnee were descended from a party sent by ChiefOpechancanough, ruler of the Powhatan Confederacy 1618-1644, to settle in theShenandoah Valley. The party was led by his son, Sheewa-a-nee, for whom they werenamed. [5] Edward Bland, an explorer who accompanied Abraham Woods expedition in1650, wrote that in Opechancanoughs day, there had been a falling-out between the"Chawan" chief and the weroance of the Powhatan (also a relative of Opechancanoughsfamily). He said the latter had murdered the former.[6] Explorers Batts and Fallam in 1671reported that the Shawnee were contesting the Shenandoah Valley with Iroquois in thatyear, and were losing. By the time European-American settlers began to arrive in theValley (c. 1730), the Iroquois had departed. The Shawnee were then the sole residents ofthe northern part.Sometime before 1670, a group of Shawnee migrated to the Savannah River area. TheEnglish based in Charles Town, South Carolina were contacted by these Shawnees in1674. They forged a long-lasting alliance. The Savannah River Shawnee were known tothe Carolina English as "Savannah Indians". Around the same time, other Shawneegroups migrated to Florida, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and other regions south and east ofthe Ohio country.Historian Alan Gallay speculates that the Shawnee migrations of the middle to late 17thcentury were probably driven by the Iroquois Wars that began in the 1640s. The Shawneebecame known for their widespread settlements from modern Illinois and New York toGeorgia. Among their known villages were Eskippakithiki, Sonnionto, and Suwanee,Georgia. Their language became a lingua franca for trade among numerous tribes. Theybecame leaders among the tribes, initiating and sustaining pan-Indian resistance toEuropean and Euro-American expansion.[7]Prior to 1754, the Shawnee had a headquarters at Shawnee Springs at modern-day CrossJunction, Virginia near Winchester. The father of the later Chief Cornstalk held his courtthere. Two other Shawnee villages existed in the Shenandoah Valley: one at Moorefield,West Virginia, and one on the North River. In 1753, messengers came from Shawnees tothe west, inviting the Virginia people to leave the Shenandoah Valley and cross the 166
  • 167. Alleghenies. The Shawnee migrated west the following year,[8][9] joining Shawnee on theScioto River in the Ohio country.The Iroquois later claimed the Ohio Country by right of conquest and treated theShawnee and Delaware who resettled there as dependent tribes. Some independentIroquois bands from various tribes also migrated westward, where they became known inOhio as the Mingo. These three tribes — the Shawnee, the Delaware, and the Mingo —then became closely associated with one another, despite the differences in theirlanguages. Sixty Years WarAfter the Battle of the Monongahela in 1755, many Shawnee fought as allies of theirtrading partners the French during the early years of the French and Indian War (SevenYears War). In 1758 they settled with the British colonists, signing the Treaty of Eastonin 1758. When the British defeated the French in 1763, other Shawnee joined PontiacsRebellion against the British, which failed a year later.The British issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 during Pontiacs Rebellion, to draw aboundary line between the British colonies in the east and the Ohio Country west of theAppalachian Mountains. They were trying to settle points of conflict with the Indians andestablish a reserve for them. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768, however, extended thatline westwards, giving the British a claim to what is now West Virginia and Kentucky.The Shawnee did not agree to this treaty: it was negotiated between British officials andthe Iroquois, who claimed sovereignty over the land, although Shawnee and other NativeAmerican tribes also hunted there.After the Stanwix treaty, Anglo-Americans began pouring into the Ohio River Valley forsettlement. Violent incidents between settlers and Indians escalated into Dunmores Warin 1774. British diplomats managed to isolate the Shawnee during the conflict: theIroquois and the Delaware stayed neutral. The Shawnee faced the British colony ofVirginia with only a few Mingo allies. Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia,launched a two-pronged invasion into the Ohio Country. Shawnee Chief Cornstalkattacked one wing but fought to a draw in the only major battle of the war, the Battle ofPoint Pleasant.In the Treaty of Camp Charlotte, Cornstalk and the Shawnee were compelled torecognize the Ohio River boundary established by the 1768 Stanwix treaty. Many otherShawnee leaders refused to recognize this boundary, however. When the AmericanRevolutionary War broke out in 1776, several Shawnee chiefs advocated joining the waras British allies to drive the colonists back across the mountains. The Shawnee weredivided: Cornstalk led those who wished to remain neutral, while war leaders such asChief Blackfish and Blue Jacket fought as British allies.After the Revolution, in the Northwest Indian War between the United States and aconfederation of Native American tribes, the Shawnee combined with the Miami into a 167
  • 168. great fighting force. After the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, most of the Shawnee bands signed the Treaty of Greenville the next year. They were forced to cede large parts of their homeland to the United States. Other Shawnee groups rejected this treaty and migrated to Missouri, where they settled near Cape Girardeau. By 1800, only the Chillicothe and Mequachake tribes remained in Ohio, while the Hathawekela, Kispokotha, and Piqua had migrated to Missouri. From 1805, a minority of Shawnee joined the pan-tribal movement of Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa. This led to Tecumsehs War and his death at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813. This was the last attempt by the Shawnee nation to defend the Ohio country from European-American expansion. [Governor William Harrison,] you have the liberty to return to your own country “ ... you wish to prevent the Indians from doing as we wish them, to unite and let them consider their lands as common property of the whole ... You never see an Indian endeavor to make the white people do this ... Sell a country! Why not sell ” the air, the great sea, as well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children? How can we have confidence in the white people?—— Tecumseh, 1810[10] After the war The Shawnee in Missouri became known as the "Absentee Shawnee." Several hundred members of this tribe left the United States together with some Delaware to settle in the eastern part of Spanish Texas. Although closely allied with the Cherokee led by The Bowl, their chief John Linney remained neutral during the 1839 Cherokee War. In appreciation, Texan president Mirabeau Lamar fully compensated the Shawnee for their improvements and crops when funding their removal north to Arkansaw Territory.[11] The Shawnee settled close to present-day Shawnee, Oklahoma. They were joined by Shawnee from Kansas who shared their traditionalist views and beliefs. In 1817, the Ohio Shawnee signed the Treaty of Fort Meigs, ceding their remaining lands in exchange for three reservations in Wapaughkonetta, Hog Creek (near Lima) and Lewistown, Ohio. They shared these lands with the Seneca. Missouri joined the Union in 1821. After the Treaty of St. Louis in 1825, the 1,400 Missouri Shawnees were forcibly relocated from Cape Girardeau to southeastern Kansas, close to the Neosho River. During 1833, only Black Bobs band of Shawnee resisted removal. They settled in northeastern Kansas near Olathe and along the Kansas (Kaw) River in Monticello near Gum Springs. The Shawnee Methodist Mission was built nearby to minister to the tribe. About 200 of the Ohio Shawnee followed the Prophet Tenskwatawa and joined their Kansas brothers and sisters in 1826. 168
  • 169. The main body followed Black Hoof, who fought every effort to force the Shawnee togive up the Ohio homeland. In 1831, the Lewistown group of Seneca-Shawnee left forthe Indian territory (present-day Oklahoma). After the death of Black Hoof, theremaining 400 Ohio Shawnee in Wapaughkonetta and Hog Creek surrendered their landand moved to the Shawnee Reserve in Kansas.During the American Civil War, Black Bobs band fled from Kansas and joined the"Absentee Shawnee" in Oklahoma to escape the war. After the Civil War, the Shawnee inKansas were expelled and forced to move to northeastern Oklahoma. The Shawneemembers of the former Lewistown group became known as the "Eastern Shawnee".The former Kansas Shawnee became known as the "Loyal Shawnee" (some say this isbecause of their allegiance with the Union during the war; others say this is because theywere the last group to leave their Ohio homelands). The latter group was regarded as partof the Cherokee Nation by the United States because they were also known as the"Cherokee Shawnee". In 2000 the "Loyal" or "Cherokee" Shawnee finally receivedfederal recognition independent of the Cherokee Nation. They are now known as the"Shawnee Tribe". Today, most of the members of the Shawnee nation still reside inOklahoma. GroupsBefore contact with Europeans, the Shawnee tribe consisted of a loose confederacy offive divisions which shared a common language and culture. The division names havebeen spelled in a variety of ways, but the phonetic spelling is added after each, followingthe work of C. F. Voegelin. • Chillicothe, Chalahgawtha, Chalaka, Chalakatha • Hathawekela, Thawikila • Kispokotha, Kispoko, Kishpoko, Kishpokotha • Mequachake, Mekoche, Machachee, Maguck, Mackachack, etc. • Pekuwe, Piqua, Pekowi, PekowithaMembership in a division was inherited from the father, unlike the matrilineal descentoften associated with other tribes. Each division had a primary village where the chief ofthe division lived. This village was usually named after the division. By tradition, eachShawnee division had certain roles it performed on behalf of the entire tribe. By the timethey were recorded in writing by European-Americans, these strong social traditions werefading. They remain poorly understood. Because of the scattering of the Shawnee peoplefrom the 17th century through the 19th century, the roles of the divisions changed.Today there are three federally recognized tribes in the United States, all of which arelocated in Oklahoma: • The Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, consisting mainly of Hathawekela, Kispokotha, and Pekuwe; 169
  • 170. • The Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, mostly of the Mekoche division; and • The Shawnee Tribe, formerly an official part of the Cherokee Nation, mostly of the Chaalakatha and Mekoche divisions.As of 2008, there were 7584 enrolled Shawnee, with most living in Oklahoma.[12] At leastfour bands of Shawnee: the Blue Creek Band, the East of the River Shawnee, the PiquaSept of Ohio Shawnee, and the United Remnant Band of the Shawnee Nation[13][14][15][16]reside in Ohio but are not federally recognized, nor has the state granted them legalrecognition. The Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band was recognized by the state ofOhio in 1980 by way of Sub-Am House Joint Resolution 8, the Ohio 113th generalassembly.[edit] Flags of the ShawneeFlag of the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma Tribe Flag of the Eastern Flag of the ShawneeFlag of the United Remnant Band of the Shawnee NatiCoins of the Shawnee 170
  • 171. First coin issue of 2002 - one dollar Tecumseh commemorative dollarFamous Shawnee • Cornstalk (1720-1777), led the Shawnee in Dunmores War, • Blue Jacket (1743-1810), also known as Weyapiersenwah, was an important predecessor to Tecumseh and a leader in the Northwest Indian War. • Black Hoof (1740-1831), also known as Catecahassa, was a respected Shawnee chief who believed the Shawnee had to adapt to European-American culture to survive. • Chiksika (1760-1792), Kispoko war chief and older brother of Tecumseh • Tecumseh (1768-1813), outstanding Shawnee leader, and his brother Tenskwatawa attempted to unite the Eastern tribes against the expansion of European-American settlement. • Tenskwatawa (1775-1836), Shawnee prophet and younger brother of Tecumseh • Black Bob, 19th c. leader and warrior • Tall Eagle (Sat-Okh) (1920-2003), Polish-Shawnee Canadian, fought in WWII, novelist • NasNaga (1941- ), American Shawnee novelist and poet.See also • Shawnee language otes 1. ^ a b Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. Oklahoma Indian ations Pocket Pictorial. 2008. 2. ^ Shawano was an archaic name for the tribes bearing this generic name Shaawanwa lenaki. Reference: Shawnee Traditions. 3. ^ ODonnell, James H. Ohios First Peoples, p. 31. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8214-1525-5 (paperback), ISBN 0-8214-1524-7 (hardcover), also: Howard, James H. Shawnee!: The Ceremonialism of a ative Indian Tribe and its Cultural Background, p. 1. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1981. ISBN 0-8214-0417-2; ISBN 0-8214-0614-0 (pbk.), and the unpublished dissertation Schutz, Noel W. Jr.: The Study of Shawnee Myth in an Ethnographic 171
  • 172. and Ethnohistorical Perspective, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Indiana University, 1975. 4. ^ Charles Augustus Hanna, 1911 The Wilderness Trail, esp. chap. IV, "The Shawnees", pp. 119-160. 5. ^ Carrie Hunter Willis and Etta Belle Walker, Legends of the Skyline Drive and the Great Valley of Virginia, 1937, pp. 15-16. 6. ^ Edward Bland, The Discoverie of ew Brittaine, 7. ^ Gallay, Alan. The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717, p. 55. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-300-10193-7 8. ^ Legends of the Skyline Drive and the Great Valley of Virginia, pp. 16-17. 9. ^ Joseph Doddridge, 1850, A History of the Valley of Virginia, p. 44 10. ^ Turner III, Frederick. "Poetry and Oratory". The Portable orth American Indian Reader. Penguin Book. p. 245–246. ISBN 0-14-015077-3. 11. ^ Lipscomb, Carol A.: "SHAWNEE INDIANS" from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 21 Feb 2010. 12. ^ Oklahoma Indian Commission. Oklahoma Indian ations Pocket Pictorial. 2008 13. ^ "Joint Resolution to recognize the Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band" as adopted by the [Ohio] Senate, 113th General Assembly, Regular Session, Am. Sub. H.J.R. No. 8, 1979-1980 14. ^ "American Indians in Ohio", Ohio Memory: An Online Scrapbook of Ohio History, The Ohio Historical Society, retrieved September 30, 2007 15. ^ Koenig, Alexa; Jonathan Stein. [ ig "Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes: A Survey of State-Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes Across the United States"]. Santa Clara Law Review Volume 48 (forthcoming). pp. Section 12. Ohio. g. Retrieved 2007-09-30. "Ohio recognizes one state tribe, the United Remnant Band. . . . Ohio does not have a detailed scheme for regulating tribal-state relations." 16. ^ Watson, Blake A.. "Indian Gambling in Ohio:What are the Odds?" (PDF). Capital University Law Review 237 (2003) (excerpts). Retrieved 2007- 09-30. "Ohio in any event does not officially recognize Indian tribes." Watson cites legal opinions that the resolution by the Ohio Legislature recognizing the United Remnant Band of the Shawnee Nation was ceremonial and did not grant legal status as a tribe.References • Callender, Charles. "Shawnee", in ortheast: Handbook of orth American Indians, vol. 15, ed. Bruce Trigger. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. ISBN 0-16-072300-0 172
  • 173. • Clifton, James A. Star Woman and Other Shawnee Tales. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984. ISBN 0-8191-3712-X; ISBN 0-8191-3713-8 (pbk.) • Edmunds, R. David. The Shawnee Prophet. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8032-1850-8. • Edmunds, R. David. Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership. Originally published 1984. 2nd edition, New York: Pearson Longman, 2006. ISBN 0-321- 04371-5 • Edmunds, R. David. "Forgotten Allies: The Loyal Shawnees and the War of 1812" in David Curtis Skaggs and Larry L. Nelson, eds., The Sixty Years War for the Great Lakes, 1754–1814, pp. 337-51. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-87013-569-4. • Howard, James H. Shawnee!: The Ceremonialism of a ative Indian Tribe and its Cultural Background. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1981. ISBN 0-8214- 0417-2; ISBN 0-8214-0614-0 (pbk.) • ODonnell, James H. Ohios First Peoples. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8214-1525-5 (paperback), ISBN 0-8214-1524-7 (hardcover). • Sugden, John. Tecumseh: A Life. New York: Holt, 1997. ISBN 0-8050-4138-9 (hardcover); ISBN 0-8050-6121-5 (1999 paperback). • Sugden, John. Blue Jacket: Warrior of the Shawnees. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8032-4288-3.External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:ShawneeWikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica • Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma • East Of The River Shawnee • Shawnee History • Shawnee Indian Mission • Shawnee Nation URB • "Shawnee Indian Tribe", Access Genealogy • Treaty of Fort Meigs, 1817, Central Michigan State University • Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma • The Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma • BlueJacket 173
  • 174. Lenape From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Map depicting approximately where different Lenape languages were spokenThe Lenape (pronounced /lɛnəpi/, /lɛnapeɪ/, or /ləˈnɑpi/) are a group of severalorganized bands of Native American peoples with shared cultural and linguisticcharacteristics. Their name for themselves (autonym), sometimes spelled Lennape orLenapi, means "the people." They are also known as the Lenni Lenape (the "true people")or as the Delaware Indians. English settlers named the Delaware River after Lord De LaWarr, the governor of the Jamestown settlement. They used the exonym above for almostall the Lenape people living along this river and its tributaries.At the time of European contact in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Lenape lived in thearea called Lenapehoking, roughly the area around and between the Delaware and lowerHudson Rivers. This encompassed what are now known as the U.S. state of New Jersey;eastern Pennsylvania around the Delaware and Lehigh valleys; the north shore ofDelaware; and southeastern New York, particularly the lower Hudson Valley and NewYork Harbor. They spoke two related languages in the Algonquian subfamily,collectively known as the Delaware languages: Unami and Munsee.Lenape society was organized into clans determined by matrilineal descent. Territory wascollective, but divided by clan. At the time of European contact, the Lenape practiced 174
  • 175. large-scale agriculture, their primary crop being varieties of maize. They also practicedhunting and the harvesting of seafood. They were primarily sedentary, moving todifferent established campsites by season.After the arrival of Dutch settlers and traders in the 17th century, the Lenape and othertribes became heavily involved in the North American fur trade. This depleted the beaverpopulation in the area, proving disastrous for both the Lenape and the Dutch settlers. TheLenape were further weakened by new infectious diseases, and by conflict with bothEuropeans and traditional Lenape enemies, the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock. Overthe next centuries, they were pushed out of their lands by Iroquoian enemies, treaties andby overcrowding by settlers, and moved west into the Ohio River valley. In the 1860s,most Lenape remaining in the Eastern United States were sent to the Oklahoma Territory.In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, with somecommunities living also in Kansas, Wisconsin, Ontario, and in their traditionalhomelands.Contents • 1 Society • 2 History o 2.1 European contact o 2.2 European settlement o 2.3 18th century o 2.4 19th and 20th centuries • 3 Lenape communities today • 4 Notable Lenape • 5 Literature • 6 See also • 7 References o 7.1 Bibliography o 7.2 Notes • 8 External links SocietyEarly Indian "tribes" are perhaps better understood as language groups, rather than as"nations." At the time of first European contact, a Lenape individual would likely haveidentified primarily with his or her immediate family and friends, or village unit; thenwith surrounding and familiar village units; next with more distant neighbors who spokethe same dialect; and ultimately, while often fitfully, with all those in the surroundingarea who spoke mutually comprehensible languages, including the Mahican. Amongother Algonquian peoples, the Lenape were considered the "grandfathers" from whom allthe other Algonquian peoples originated. Consequently, in inter-tribal councils, theLenape were given respect as one would to elders. 175
  • 176. Those of a different language stock – such as the Iroquois (or, in the Lenape language,the Minqua) – were regarded as foreigners. As in the case of the Iroquois, the animosityof difference and competition spanned many generations, and tribes became traditionalenemies. Ethnicity seems to have mattered little to the Lenape and many other "tribes".Archaeological excavations have found Munsee burials that included identifiably ethnicIroquois remains interred along with those of ethnic-Algonquian Munsee. The two groupswere bitter enemies since before recorded history. Intermarriage clearly occurred. Inaddition, both tribes practiced adopting captives from warfare into their tribes andassimilating them.Overlaying these relationships was a phratry system, a division into clans. Clanmembership was matrilineal; children inherited membership in a clan from their mother.On reaching adulthood, a Lenape traditionally married outside the clan, a practice knownby ethnographers as, "exogamy". The practice effectively prevented inbreeding, evenamong individuals whose kinship was obscure or unknown.Early Europeans who first wrote about Indians found matrilineal social organization to beunfamiliar and perplexing. Because of this, Europeans often tried to interpret Lenapesociety through more familiar European arrangements. As a result, the early records arefull of clues about early Lenape society, but were usually written by observers who didnot fully understand what they were seeing. For example, a mans maternal uncle (hismothers brother), and not his father, was usually considered to be his closest maleancestor, since his father belonged to a different clan. The maternal uncle played a moreprominent role in the lives of his sisters children than did the father. Such a concept wasoften unfathomable to early European chroniclers.Land was assigned to a particular clan for hunting, fishing, and cultivation. Individualprivate ownership of land was unknown, but rather the land belonged to the clancollectively while they inhabited it.[1] Clans lived in fixed settlements, using thesurrounding areas for communal hunting and planting until the land was exhausted. In acommon practice known as "agricultural shifting", the group then moved to found a newsettlement within their territories.The Lenape practiced large-scale agriculture to augment a mobile hunter-gatherer societyin the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western LongIsland Sound. The Lenape were largely a sedentary people who occupied campsitesseasonally, which gave them relatively easy access to the small game that inhabited theregion: fish, birds, shellfish and deer. They developed sophisticated techniques of huntingand managing their resources.By the time of the arrival of Europeans, the Lenape were cultivating fields of vegetationthrough the slash and burn technique. This extended the productive life of plantedfields.[2][3][4][5][6][7] They also harvested vast quantities of fish and shellfish from the baysof the area,[8] and, in southern New Jersey, harvested clams year-round .[9] The success ofthese methods allowed the tribe to maintain a larger population than nomadic hunter-gatherers could support. Scholars have estimated that at the time of European settlement, 176
  • 177. there may have been about 15,000 Lenape total in approximately 80 settlement sitesaround much of the New York City area, alone.[10] In 1524 Lenape in canoes metGiovanni da Verrazzano, the first European explorer to enter New York Harbor. History European contact Benjamin Wests painting (in 1771) of William Penns 1682 treaty with the LenapeThe first recorded contact with Europeans and people presumed to have been the Lenapewas in 1524. The explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was greeted by local NativeAmericans arriving by canoe, after his ship entered what is now called Lower New YorkBay. The Lenape occupied coastal areas throughout the mid-Atlantic and New York.The early interaction between the Lenape and Dutch traders in the 17th century wasprimarily through the fur trade, specifically, the Lenape trapped and traded beaver peltsfor European-made goods. According to Dutch settler Isaac de Rasieres, who observedthe Lenape in 1628, the Lenapes primary crop was maize, which they planted in March.They quickly adopted European metal tools for this task.In May, the Lenape planted kidney beans near the maize plants; the latter served as propsfor the climbing bean vines. The summers were devoted to field work and the crops wereharvested in August. Women cultivated varieties of maize and beans, and did most of thefield work, processing and cooking of food. The men limited their agricultural labor toclearing the field and breaking the soil. They primarily hunted and fished during the restof the year. Dutch settler David de Vries, who stayed in the area from 1634 to 1644,described a Lenape hunt in the valley of the Achinigeu-hach (or "Ackingsah-sack," theHackensack River), in which one hundred or more men stood in a line many paces fromeach other, beating thigh bones on their palms to drive animals to the river, where theycould be killed easily. Other methods of hunting included lassoing and drowning deer, aswell as forming a circle around prey and setting the brush on fire. 177
  • 178. European settlementDutch settlers founded a colony at present-day Lewes, Delaware on June 3, 1631 andnamed it Zwaanendael (Swan Valley).[11] The colony had a short existence, as in 1632 alocal tribe of Lenape Indians killed the 32 Dutch settlers after a misunderstanding overdefacement of the insignia of the Dutch West India Company escalated.[12] In 1634, theIroquoian-speaking Susquehannocks went to war with the Lenape over access to tradewith the Dutch at Manhattan. They defeated the Lenape, and some scholars believe thatthe Lenape may have become tributaries to the Susquehannock.[13] Afterward the warfarethe Lenape referred to the Susquehannock as "uncles." The Lenape were added to theCovenant Chain by the Iroquois in 1676, remaining tributary to the Five (later Six)Nations until 1753.The Lenapes quick adoption of trade goods and their need for furs to meet high Europeandemand resulted in disastrous over-harvesting of the beaver population in the lowerHudson Valley. With the fur source exhausted, the Dutch shifted their operations topresent-day Upstate New York. The Lenape population fell, due mostly to infectiousdiseases carried by Europeans, such as measles and smallpox, to which they had nonatural immunity.Differences in conceptions of property rights between the Europeans and the Lenaperesulted in widespread confusion among the Lenape and the loss of their lands. After theDutch arrival in the 1620s, the Lenape were successful in restricting Dutch settlement toPavonia in present-day Jersey City along the Hudson until the 1660s. The Dutch finallyestablished a garrison at Bergen, allowing settlement west of the Hudson within theprovince of New Netherlands. 18th centuryBeginning in the 18th century, the Moravian Church established missions among theLenape.[14] The Moravians required the Christian converts to share their pacifism, as wellas to live in a structured and European-style mission village.[15] Moravian pacifism andunwillingness to take loyalty oaths caused conflicts with British authorities, who soughtaid against the French and their Native American allies during the French and Indian War(Seven Years War). The Moravians insistence on Christian Lenapes abandoningtraditional warfare practices alienated mission populations from other Lenape and NativeAmerican groups. The Moravians accompanied Lenape relocations to Ohio and Canada,continuing their missionary work. The Moravian Lenape who settled permanently inOntario after the Revolutionary War were sometimes referred to as "Christian Munsee",as they mostly spoke the Munsee branch of the Delaware language. 178
  • 179. Lapowinsa, Chief of the Lenape, Lappawinsoe painted by Gustavus Hesselius in 1735.The Treaty of Easton, signed in 1758 between the Lenape and the Anglo-Americancolonists in 1758, required the Lenape to move westward, out of present-day New Yorkand New Jersey and into Pennsylvania, then Ohio and beyond. Sporadically theycontinued to raid European-American settlers from far outside the area.During the French and Indian War, the Lenape initially sided with the French. However,such leaders as Teedyuscung in the east and Tamaqua in the vicinity of modernPittsburgh made the shift to building alliances with the English. After the end of the war,however, Anglo-American settlers continued to kill Lenape, often to such an extent thatpeople claimed the dead since the wars outnumbered those during the war.[16]In 1763 the Lenape known as Bill Hickman warned English colonists in the Juniata Riverregion of an impending attack. Many Lenape joined in Pontiacs War, and were numerousamong those Native Americans who besieged Pittsburgh.[17] In April 1763 Teedyuscungwas killed when his home was burned. His son Captain Bull responded by attackingsettlers from New England who had migrated to the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania.The settlers had been sponsored by the Susquehanna Company.[18]The Lenape were the first Indian tribe to enter into a treaty with the new United Statesgovernment, with the Treaty of Fort Pitt signed in 1778 during the AmericanRevolutionary War. The Lenape, by then living mostly in the Ohio Country, supplied theContinental Army with warriors and scouts in exchange for food supplies and security.They may have been misled by an undocumented promise of a role at the head of a futureNative American state.[citation needed] 19th and 20th centuriesIn the early 19th century, the naturalist Constantine Samuel Rafinesque claimed to havefound the Walam Olum, an alleged religious history of the Lenape, which he published in1836. However, only Rafinesques manuscript exists; the tablets upon which his writings 179
  • 180. were allegedly based either were never found, or never existed. Most authorities andscholars now consider the document a hoax.[19]Amateur anthropologist Silas Wood published a book claiming that there were severalAmerican Indian tribes that were distinct to Long Island, New York. Historians hadunderstood them to be part of the Lenape. He collectively called them the Metoac.Modern scientific scholarship has shown that two linguistic groups represented twoAlgonquian cultural identities on the island, not "13 individual tribes" as asserted byWood. The bands to the west were affiliated with the Lenape. Those to the east weremore related culturally to the Algonquian tribes in New England.[20][21] Wood (and earliersettlers) often misinterpreted Indian use of place names for identity as indicating that wastheir name for "tribes."The Lenape were progressively crowded out of the East Coast and Ohio by Europeansettlers and pressed to move over a period of 176 years. Most members of the Munsee-language branch of the Lenape live on three Indian reserves in Western Ontario, Canada.They are descendants of those Lenape of Ohio Country who sided with the British duringthe Revolutionary War. The largest reserve is at Moraviantown, Ontario, where the Turtleclan settled in 1792 following the war.The main body of Lenape arrived in the northeast region of Oklahoma in the 1860s.Along the way many smaller groups left, or were told to stay where they were.Consequently today, from New Jersey to Wisconsin to southwest Oklahoma, there aregroups who retain a sense of connection with ancestors who lived in the Delaware Valleyin the 17th century and with cousins in the Lenape diaspora.The two largest groups are the Delaware Nation (Anadarko, Oklahoma), and theDelaware Tribe of Indians (Bartlesville, Oklahoma), the only two federally recognizedDelaware tribes in the United States.[22] The Oklahoma branches were established in1867. The Delaware were required to purchase land from the reservation of the CherokeeNation; they made two payments totaling $438,000. A court dispute followed overwhether the sale included rights for the Delaware as citizens within the Cherokee Nation.While the dispute was unsettled, the Curtis Act of 1898 dissolved tribal governments andordered the allotment of tribal lands to individual members of tribes. The Lenape foughtthe act in the courts but lost, and in 18?? (date? if this is in response to Curtis Act, it cantbe 1867) the courts ruled that the Delaware had only purchased rights to the land inOklahoma for the lifetimes of the owners. After the lands were allotted in 160-acre(650,000 m²) lots to tribal members in 1907, the government sold "surplus" land to non-Indians. It soon became obvious that the land was not suitable for subsistence farming onsuch small plots.In 1979, the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs revoked the tribal status of theDelaware living among Cherokee in Oklahoma. They began to count the Delaware asCherokee. The Delaware had this decision overturned in 1996, when they wererecognized by the federal government as a separate tribal nation. 180
  • 181. The Cherokee Nation filed suit to overturn the recognition of the Delaware. The tribe lostfederal recognition in a 2004 court ruling in favor of the Cherokee Nation, but regained iton 28 July 2009.[23] After recognition, the tribe reorganized under the Oklahoma IndianWelfare Act. Members approved a constitution and bylaws in a May 26, 2009 vote. JerryDouglas is serving as tribal chief.[22]In 2004 the Delaware of Oklahoma sued the state of Pennsylvania over land lost in 1800.This was related to the Walking Purchase of 1737, an agreement of doubtful legalstanding.[24][25]Lenape communities todayLenni Lenapes in New Jersey and Pennsylvania are not officially recognized as tribes bythe United States. This means they do not have reservation land or their own governmentsystem, though they still practice the Lenape culture. A small, unrecognized NativeAmerican community known as Lenapehoking for Lenni-Lenape Indians is in WestPhiladelphia.Sticker by the Delaware Valleys Lenape Indians in 2008 claiming West Philadelphia istheir home.Oklahoma: • Delaware Tribe of Indians (Bartlesville, Oklahoma), US federally recognized • Delaware Nation (Anadarko, Oklahoma), US federally recognizedOntario, Canada: • Moravian of the Thames First Nation, Canadian reserve • Delaware of Six Nations (at Six Nations of the Grand River), two Canadian reservesWisconsin: • Stockbridge-Munsee Community, US federally recognizedNew Jersey: • Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Indians, state recognized 181
  • 182. • Ramapough Mountain Indians, state recognized • Allegheny-Lenape Indian Tribe of Ohio, unrecognized otable Lenape • Buckongahelas, Wolf clan war leader • Captain Jacobs, War Chief • Captain Pipe, Wolf clan war chief • Charles Journeycake, Chief of the Wolf Clan from 1855 and principal chief from 1861. Visited Washington, D.C. 24 times on his tribes behalf.[26] • Killbuck (Gelelemend), Turtle clan leader • Oratam, sachem of the Hackensack • Neolin, the "Delaware Prophet" • Shingas, Turkey clan war leader • Tamanend, leader who, according to tradition, negotiated treaty with William Penn • Tamaqua, Turkey clan civil leader, aka "King Beaver" • Teedyuscung, "King" of the eastern Delawares • White Eyes, Turtle clan civil leader • John Johnson, the father of Gambino crime family associate, Wilfred Johnson • Chief Newcomer, who founded the village of Gekelmukpechunk in Ohio in the 1760s, which white settlers and traders later named after him as Newcomerstown. • Dan Barker, founder of the Freedom From Religion FoundationLiteratureThe Delaware feature prominently in The Last of the Mohicans and the otherLeatherstocking Tales of James Fenimore Cooper.The Delaware are the subject of a legend which inspired the Boy Scouts of Americahonor society known as the Order of the Arrow.The Walam Olum, which purported to be an account of the Delawares migration to thelands around the Delaware River, emerged through the works of Constantine SamuelRafinesque in the nineteenth century. For many decades, scholars believed it wasgenuine. In the 1980s and 1990s, newer textual analysis suggested it was a hoax.Nonetheless, some Delaware, upon hearing of it for the first time, found the account to beplausible.In Cormac McCarthys Blood Meridian, the group of American scalphunters are aided byan unspecified number of Delaware Indians (5-6 minimum), who serve as scouts andguides through the western deserts.In The Light in the Forest, True Son is adopted by a band of Lenape. 182
  • 183. In the 1938 Mark Raymond Harrington book Dickon Among the Indians, a group ofLenape find a young white child. This proceed to raise him as their own. The book goesinto detail of Lenape life, society, weaponry, and beliefs, and includes a glossary formany Lenape terms used throughout the book.Troubles Daughter: The Story of Susanna Hutchinson, Indian Captive is a young adultnovel of a fictional account of the kidnapping by the Lenape Turtle Clan of a daughter ofAnne Hutchinson, the religious reformer and founder of the Rhode Island colony.Moon of Two Dark Horses is a novel of the friendship between a white settler and aLenape boy at the time of the Revolutionary War.Standing in the Light: The Captive Diary of Catharine Carey Logan, part of the DearAmerica series of fictional diaries, is a novel by Mary Pope Osborne. It tells the story ofthe capture of a teenage girl and her brother by a band of Lenape, and the youths gradualassimilation into Lenape culture.Peter Lindestroms Geographia America with an Account of the Delaware Indians is oneof the few sympathetic contemporary accounts (and most reliable) of Lenape life in thelower Delaware River valley during the 17th century.Moravian missionary John Heckewelder published a sympathetic account of the Lenapein exile in the Ohio Valley. His account, published in 1818, provides some alternateLenape tribal history disputing the tributary relationship with the Susquehannock.See also • Ramapough Mountain Indians • Walking Purchase • Unalachtigo Lenape • Museum of Indian CultureReferencesBibliography • Adams, Richard Calmit, The Delaware Indians, a brief history, Hope Farm Press (Saugerties, NY 1995) [originally published by Government Printing Office, (Washington, DC 1909)] • Bierhorst, John. The White Deer and Other Stories Told by the Lenape. New York: W. Morrow, 1995. ISBN 0688129005 • Brown, James W. and Rita T. Kohn, eds. Long Journey Home ISBN 978-0-253- 34968-2 Indiana University Press (2007). • Burrows, Edward G. and Wallace, Mike, Gotham: A History of ew York City to 1989 ISBN 0-19-514049-4 Oxford Univ. Press (1999). 183
  • 184. • Dreibelbis, Dana E., "The Use of Microstructural Growth Patterns of Mercenaria Mercenaria to Determine the Prehistoric Seasons of Harvest at Tuckerton Midden, Tuckerton, New Jersey," thesis, Princeton University, 1978. • Jackson, Kenneth T. (editor) The Encyclopedia of ew York City ISBN 0-300- 05536-6 Yale University Press (1995). • Jennings, Francis, The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire, 2000, ISBN 0393017192 • Kraft, Herbert C. (ed.) A Delaware Indian Symposium [Proceedings]. Anthropological Series no. 4. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical Society Museum Commission, 1974. • Kraft, Herbert C. (ed.) The Lenape Indian: A Symposium. South Orange, NJ: Archaeological Research Center, Seton Hall University, 1984. • Kraft, Herbert C., The Lenape: archaeology, history and ethnography, New Jersey Historical Society, (Newark, NJ 1986) • Kraft, Herbert C. The Lenape-Delaware Indian Heritage: 10,000 B.C. to A.D. 2000. [Elizabeth, NJ?]: Lenape Books, 2001. • Kurlansky, Mark. The Big Oyster: History on the Half Shell. Random House Trade Paperbacks (January 9, 2007). ISBN 978-0345476395 • Mitchell, S. H. The Indian Chief, Journeycake. Philadelphia : American Baptist Publication Society (1895). Available on the Internet Archive • OMeara, John, Delaware-English / English-Delaware dictionary, University of Toronto Press (Toronto, 1996) ISBN 0-8020-0670-1. • Oestreicher, David. "Unmasking the Walam Olum: A 19th-Century Hoax," in Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey, #49, 1994, p. 10-44. • Otto, Paul, The Dutch-Munsee Encounter in America: The Struggle for Sovereignty in the Hudson Valley (New York: Berghahn Books, 2006). ISBN 1- 57181-672-0 • Pritchard, Evan T., ative ew Yorkers: The Legacy of the Algonquin People of ew York. Council Oak Books: San Francisco, 2002, 2007, ISBN 1-57178-107-2. • Richter, Conrad, The Light In The Forest, (New York, NY 1953) • Weslager, Clinton Alfred, The Delaware Indians: A history, Rutgers University Press, (New Brunswick, NJ 1972). • Wick, Steve. "The First Long Islanders." [Accessed July 30, 2008]otes 1. ^ see New Amsterdam for discussion of the Dutch "purchase" of Manhattan 2. ^ Stevenson W. Fletcher, Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life 1640-1840 (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1950), 2, 35-37, 63-65, 124. 3. ^ Day, Gordon M. “The Indian as an Ecological Factor in the Northeastern Forests.” Ecology, Vol. 34, #2 (April): 329-346. ew England and ew York areas 1580-1800. Notes that the Lenni Lenape (Delaware) tribe in New Jersey and the Massachuset tribe in Massachusetts used fire in ecosystems.1953 4. ^ Russell, Emily W.B. Vegetational Change in orthern ew Jersey Since 1500 A.D.: A Palynological, Vegetational and Historical Synthesis Ph.D. dissertation. 184
  • 185. New Brunswick, PA: Rutgers University. Author notes on page 8 that Indians often augmented lightning fires. 19795. ^ Russell, Emily W.B. "Indian Set Fires in the Forests of the Northeastern United States." Ecology, Vol. 64, #1 (Feb): 78 88. 1983a Author found no strong evidence that Indians purposely burned large areas, but they did burn small areas near their habitation sites. Noted that the Lenna Lenape Tribe used fire.6. ^ "A Brief Description of New York, Formerly Called New Netherlands with the Places Thereunto Adjoining, Likewise a Brief Relation of the Customs of the Indians There." New York, NY: William Gowans. 1670. Reprinted in 1937 by the Facsimile Text Society, Columbia University Press, New York. Notes that the Lenni Lenape (Delaware) tribe in New Jersey used fire in ecosystems.7. ^ Smithsonian Institution - Handbook of North American Indians series: Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15 - Northeast. Bruce G. Trigger (volume editor). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1978 References to Indian burning for the Eastern Algonquins, Virginia Algonquins, Northern Iroquois, Huron, Mahican, and Delaware Tribes and peoples.8. ^ Mark Kurlansky, 2006.9. ^ D. Dreibelbis, 1978.10. ^ Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, 1999.11. ^ Munroe, John A.: Colonial Delaware: A History: Millwood, New York: KTO Press; 1978; P.9-12.12. ^ Cook, Albert Myers. arratives of Early Pennsylvania, West ew Jersey and Delaware 1630-1707. Charles Scribners Sons, 1912. p. 913. ^ F. Jennings, p. 11714. ^ Gray, Elma. Wilderness Christians: Moravian Missions to the Delaware Indians. Ithaca. 195615. ^ Olmstead, Earl P. Blackcoats among the Delaware: David Zeisberger on the Ohio frontier. Kent, Ohio. 199116. ^ Amy C. Schutt. Peoples of the Rivers. p. 11817. ^ Schutt. People of the River, p. 11818. ^ Schutt. People of the River, p. 11919. ^ Oestreicher, David, 199420. ^ Strong, John A. Algonquian Peoples of Long Island Heart of the Lakes Publishing (March 1997). ISBN 978-155787148021. ^ Bragdon, Kathleen. The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the ortheast. Columbia University Press (January 15, 2002). ISBN 978-0231114523.22. ^ a b "Delaware Tribe regains federal recognition" ewsOk. 4 Aug 2009 (retrieved 5 August 2009)23. ^ Delaware Tribe of Indians’ federal recognition restored. Indian Country Today. 7 Aug 2009 (retrieved 11 August 2009)24. ^ ^ ^ S. H. Mitchell (1895) 185
  • 186. External links • Delaware Nation (Anadarko, Oklahoma) • Delaware Tribe of Indians (Bartlesville, OK) • • Lenape/English dictionary • Lenni Lenape Historical Society • Lenape (Southern Unami) Talking Dictionary • The Indigenous Maps and Mapping of North American IndiansThe factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed.The dispute is about the pre-contact agricultural practices of the Lenape people, as well as the size of thepopulation..Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page before making changes.(December 2008)Retrieved from ""Categories: First Nations in Ontario | Lenape people | Native American tribes in NewJersey | Native American tribes in Pennsylvania | Native American tribes in New York |Native American tribes in Delaware | Native American tribes in Ohio | Algonquianethnonyms | People of New Netherland Miami tribe (Redirected from Miami Confederacy)Jump to: navigation, searchThis article is about Miami People. For other uses, see Miami tribe (disambiguation).MiamiMyaamiakiTotal population7,500 (3553 enrolled)Regions with significant populationsUnited States (Indiana and Oklahoma)LanguagesEnglishReligionChristianity, Traditional tribal religion 186
  • 187. Related ethnic groupsPeoria, Kaskaskia, Piankashaw, Wea, Illinois, and other AlgonquianThe Miami are a Native American tribe originally found in Indiana, southwest Michiganand Ohio. Two Miami tribes are recognized by government bodies: the first is thefederally recognized Miami Tribe of Oklahoma and the second is the Miami Nation ofIndians in Indiana, which is recognized by the state, but not by the Federal government.Contents • 1 Name • 2 History o 2.1 Prehistory o 2.2 European contact 2.2.1 Locations o 2.3 United States 2.3.1 Locations • 3 Places named for the Miami • 4 Notable Miami • 5 Notes o 5.1 References o 5.2 External links ameThe name Miami derives from the tribes autonym (name for themselves) in theirAlgonquian language, Myaamia (plural Myaamiaki); it appears to have come from anolder term meaning downstream people’. Some scholars contended the Miami calledthemselves the Twightwee (also spelled Twatwa), an onomatopoeic reference to theirsacred bird, the Sandhill crane. However, Twightwee is the Delaware language exonymname for the Miamis. Some Miamis have stated that this was only a name used by othertribes for the Miamis, and not the autonym which the Miamis used for themselves. 187
  • 188. Another common term was Mihtohseeniaki, "the people." The Miami continue to employthis autonym today. ame Source ame SourceMaiama Maumee French laterMeames Memilounique FrenchMetouseceprinioueks MyamicksNaked Indians NationFrench de la GrueOmameeg Omaumeg ChippewaOumami Oumamik French 1stPiankashaw QuiktiesTawatawas TitwaTuihtuihronoons TwechtweysTwightwees Iroquois/English band Wea History PrehistoryKnown locations of the Miami during the Iroquois War years1654 River, southwest of Lake Winnebago Fox Wisconsin River, below the Portage to the Fox River1670 Niles, Michigan16731679 Miamis, at St. Joseph, Michigan Fort1680 Chicago Fort1682 St. Louis, at Starved Rock, Illinois Fort Calumet River, at Blue Island, Illinois1687 Wabash River, at the mouth of the Tippecanoe Riverc. 1691v•d•e[2][3] 188
  • 189. Early Miami people are considered to belong to the Fischer Tradition of Mississippianculture.[4] Mississippian societies were characterized by maize-based agriculture,chiefdom-level social organization, extensive regional trade networks, hierarchicalsettlement patterns, and other factors. The historical Miami engaged in hunting, as didother Mississippian peoples.During historic times, the Miami were known to have migrated south from Wisconsinfrom the mid-17th century to the mid-18th century, by which time they had settled on theWabash River. The migration was likely a result of their being invaded by the morepowerful Iroquois, who traveled far from their territory of New York for better huntingduring the beaver fur trade. Historic Locations[1]Year Location1658 Northeast of Lake Winnebago, WI (Fr)1667 Mississippi Valley of Wisconsin1670 of the Fox River, WI; Chicago village Head1673Joseph River Village, MI (River of the Miamis) (Fr), St. Kalamazo River village, MI1703 Detroit village, MI1720 River locations, OH; Miami Scioto River village (nr Columbus), OH1764 Wabash River villages European contactWhen French missionaries first encountered the Miami in the mid-17th century; theindigenous people were living around the western shores of Lake Michigan. The Miamihad reportedly moved there because of pressure from the Iroquois further east. EarlyFrench explorers noticed many linguistic and cultural similarities between the Miamibands and the Illiniwek, a loose confederacy of Algonquian-speaking peoples.At this time, the major divisions of the Miami were: • Atchakangouen (also Atchatchakangouen or Greater Miami) • Kilatika • Mengkonkia (Mengakonia) • Pepikokia (Kithtippecanuck) • Piankeshaw (Newcalenous) • Wea (Ouiatenon)[5] 189
  • 190. In 1696, the Comte de Frontenac appointed Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes ascommander of the French outposts in northeast Indiana and southwest Michigan. Hebefriended the Miami people, settling first at the St. Joseph River, and, in 1704,establishing a trading post and fort at Kekionga, present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana.[6]By the 18th century, the Miami had for the most part returned to their homeland inpresent-day Indiana and Ohio. The eventual victory of the British in the French andIndian War (Seven Years War)led to an increased British presence in traditional Miamiareas.Shifting alliances and the gradual encroachment of European-American settlement led tosome Miami bands merging. Native Americans created larger tribal confederacies led byChief Little Turtle; their alliances were for waging war against Europeans and to fightadvancing white settlement. By the end of the century, the tribal divisions were three: theMiami, Piankeshaw, and Wea.The latter two groups were closely aligned with some of the Illini tribes. The USgovernment later included them with the Illini for administrative purposes. The Eel Riverband maintained a somewhat separate status, which proved beneficial in the removals ofthe 19th century. The nations traditional capital was Kekionga.LocationsFrench Years[2][3] • 1718-94 Kekionga, Portage of the Maumee and Wabash Rivers, Fort Wayne, Indiana • 1720-49 Portage of the Miami River, St. Joseph and Kankakee Rivers • unknown - 1733 Tepicon of the Wabash, Fort Ouiatenon, Lafayette, Indiana • 1733-51 Tepicon of the Tippecanoe, headwaters of the Tippecanoe River near Warsaw • 1748-52 Pickawillany, Piqua on the Great Miami River in Ohio • 1752 Headwaters of the Eel River, southwest of Columbia City, Indiana • 1752 Le Gris, Maumee River (Miami River), east of Fort Wayne○British Years[2][3] • 1763 Captured British at Fort Miami (1760-63) as a part of the Pontiac’s Rebellion • 1774 Warriors participated in Lord Dunmores War in Ohio • 1778 Kenapacomaqua, Wabash at the mouth of the Eel River, Logansport, Indiana • 1780 October - Agustin Mottin de La Balme (Spanish, from St. Louis) headed a raid of Detroit. Stopped and destroyed Kekionga. La Balme withdrew to the west, 190
  • 191. where Little Turtle destroyed the raiders, killing one third of them, on the 5th of November. United States Miami treaties in Indiana.The Miami had mixed relations with the United States. Some villages of the Piankeshawopenly supported the American rebel colonists during the American Revolution, whilethe villages around Ouiatenon were openly hostile. The Miami of Kekionga remainedallies of the British, but were not openly hostile to the United States (US) (except whenattacked by Augustin de La Balme in 1780).The U.S. government did not trust their neutrality, however. US forces attacked Kekiongaseveral times during the Northwest Indian War shortly after the American Revolution.Each attack was repulsed, including the battle known as St. Clairs Defeat. This was theworst defeat of an American army by Native Americans in U.S. history.[7] The NorthwestIndian War ended with the Battle of Fallen Timbers and Treaty of Greenville. ThoseMiami who still resented the United States gathered around Ouiatenon and Prophetstown,where Shawnee Chief Tecumseh led a coalition of Native American nations. Territorialgovernor William Henry Harrison and his forces destroyed Prophetstown in 1811, havingused the War of 1812 as pretext for attacks on Miami villages throughout the IndianaTerritory.The Treaty of Mississinwas, signed in 1826, forced the Miami to cede most of their landto the US government. It also allowed Miami lands to be held as private property by 191
  • 192. individuals, where the tribe had formerly held the land in common. At the time of IndianRemoval in 1846, those Miami who held separate allotments of land were allowed to stayas citizens in Indiana. Those who affiliated with the tribe were moved to reservationswest of the Mississippi River, first to Kansas, then to Indian Territory in Oklahoma.The divide in the tribe exists to this day. The U.S. government has recognized theWestern Miami as the official tribal government since the forced divide in 1846.Migration between the tribes has made it difficult to track affiliations and power forbureaucrats and historians alike.[8] Today the western tribe is federally recognized as theMiami Tribe of Oklahoma, with 3553 enrolled members.The Eastern Miami (or Indiana Miami) has its own tribal government, but lacks federalrecognition. Although they were recognized by the US in an 1854 treaty, that recognitionwas stripped in 1897. In 1980, the Indiana legislature recognized the Eastern Miami andvoted to support federal recognition.[9]In the late 20th century, US Senator Richard Lugar introduced a bill to recognize theEastern Miami. He withdrew support due to constituent concerns over gambling rights. Inrecent decades, numerous federally recognized tribes in other states have establishedgambling casinos and related facilities on their sovereign lands.[10] Such establishmentshave helped some tribes raise revenues to devote to economic development, health andeducation.On 26 July 1993, a federal judge ruled that the Eastern Miami were recognized by the USin the 1854 treaty, and that the federal government had no right to strip them of theirstatus in 1897. However, he also ruled that the statute of limitations on appealing theirstatus had expired. The Miami no longer had any right to sue.[11] Locations United States Years[2][3] • 1785 Delaware Villages located near Kekionga (refugees from American Settlements) • 1790 Pickawillany Miami join Kekionga (refugees from American Settlements) • 1790 Gen. Harmar marches on Kekionga to punish the Miami, Delaware, and Shawnee villages. On the 17th of October, Harmar found the seven villages deserted. The rear guard, left to destroy the returning villagers, was defeated by Little Turtle’s warriors. • 1790 Mississinewa (Missississinewa River below the Wabash, southeast of Peru, Indiana) • 1791 Gen. Arthur St. Clair moves on Kekionga. Little Turtle destroys the US Army (1400) near the future Fort Recovery. • Kentucky Militia destroy Eel River villages. • 1793 December - General Anthony Wayne moves to Fort Recovery to prepare to destroy Kekionga. 192
  • 193. • 1794 August - Fort Defiance (Defiance, Ohio) built on the Maumee River site of deserted Shawnee Village of Blue Jacket. 20 August battle of Fallen Timbers, Blue Jacket loses to Wayne.• 1794 Kekionga site abandoned• Mississinewa towns become the center of the nation.• 1809 Gov. William Henry Harrison orders destruction of all villages within two- days march of Fort Wayne. Villages near Columbia City and Huntington destroyed.• 17 December, Lt. Col. John B. Campbell ordered to destroy the Mississinewa villages. Campbell destroys villages and kills women and children.• 18 December, At 2nd village, Americans repulsed and return to Greenville.• 1810 July, US Army returns and burns deserted town and crops.• 1817 Maumee Treaty - loose Ft. Wayne area (1400 Miami counted)• 1818 Treaty of St. Mary’s (New Purchase Treaty) - lose south of the Wabash - Big Miami Reservation created. Grants on the Mississinewa & Wabash given to Josetta Beaubien, Anotoine Bondie, Peter Labadie, Francois Lafontaine, Peter Langlois, Joseph Richardville, and Antoine Rivarre. Miami National Reserve (875,000) created.• 1818 Eel River Miami settle at Thorntown, northeast of Lebanon).• 1825 1073 Miami, including the Eel River Miami• 1826 Mississinewa Treaty - loose between the Eel and the Wabash to create a right of way for the canal. Eel River Miami leave Thorntown, northeast of Lebanon, for Logansport Area.• 1834 Western part of the Big Reservation sold (208,000 acres)• 1838 Potawatomi removed from Indiana. No other Indian tribes in the state. Treaty of 1838 made 43 grants and sold the western portion of the Big Reserve. Richardville exempted from any future removal treaties. Richardsville, Godfroy, Metocina received grants, plus family reserves for Ozahshiquah, Maconzeqyuah (Wife of Benjamin), Osandian, Tahconong, and Wapapincha.• 1840 Remainder of the Big Reservation (500,000 acres) sold for lands in Kansas. Godfroy descendants and Meshingomesia (s/o Metocina), sister, brothers and their families exempted from the removal. 800 Miami• 1846 1 October, removal was supposed to begin. Began October 6 by canal boat. By ship to Kansas Landing Kansas City and 50 miles (80 km) overland to the reservation . Reached by 9 November.• 1847 Godfroy Reserve, between the Wabash and Mississinewa• Wife of Benjamin Reserve, east edge of Godfroy• Osandian Reserve, on the Mississinewa, southeast boundary of Godfroy• Wapapincha Reserve, south of Mississinewa at Godfroy/Osandian juncture• Tahkonong Reserve, southeast of Wapapincha south of Mississinewa• Ozahshinquah Reserve, on the Mississinewa River, southeast of Peoria• Meshingomesa Reserve, north side of Mississinewa from Somerset to Jalapa (northwest Grant County)• 1872 Most reserves were partially sold to non-Indians.• 1922 All reserves were sold for debt or taxes for the Miamis. 193
  • 194. Places named for the MiamiA number of places have been named for the Miami nation: • Miami, Oklahoma • Little Miami River in Ohio • Fort Miami (Indiana), Michigan, and Ohio Maumee River • • Great Miami River in Ohio • Miami County, Indiana • Miami Valley, Ohio Kansas • Miami University in Oxford, OhioIt should be noted that Miami, Florida, is not named for the Miami nation, but rather forthe Mayaimi tribe of Florida.The state soil of Indiana is called Miami, giving unexpected depth to the phrase Land ofthe Indians. otable Miami Miami chief Pacanne • Little Turtle (Mishikinakwa), 18th -entury war chief • Pacanne, 18th-century chief • Francis La Fontaine, last principal chief of the united Miami tribe • Jean Baptiste de Richardville (Peshewa), 19th-century chief 194
  • 195. • Frances Slocum (Maconaquah), adopted member of the Miami tribe • William Wells (Apekonit), adopted member of the Miami tribe otes 1. ^ a b c Great Lakes Indians; A Pictorial Guide; Kubiak, William J.; Baker Book House Company, 1970 2. ^ a b c d Tanner, Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History 3. ^ a b c d Rafert, The Miami Indians of Indiana 4. ^ Emerson, Thomas E. and R. Barry Lewis. Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest, Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2000:17. ISBN 978-0-252-06878-2. 5. ^ Anson, pg 13 6. ^ "Vincennes, Sieur de (Jean Baptiste Bissot)," The Encyclopedia Americana (Danbury, CT: Grolier, 1990), 28:130. 7. ^ Sisson, Richard; Zacher, Christian; and Cayton, Andrew (eds.) (2007). The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia, p. 1749. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-2533-4886-2 8. ^ Rafert, p. XXV 9. ^ Rafert, pg. 291. 10. ^ Rafert, pg. 292 11. ^ Rafert, pg. 293.References • Anson, Bert (2000). The Miami Indians. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3197-7. • Magnin, Frédéric (2005).Mottin de la Balme, cavalier des deux mondes et de la liberté, Paris: LHarmattan. ISBN 2-7475-9080-1. • Rafert, Stewart (1996). The Miami Indians of Indiana; A Persistent People 1654- 1994. Indiana Historical Society. • Tanner, Helen Horbeck (1987). Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Miami (tribe) • Miami Indian Collection (MSS 004) • Guide to Native American Resources 195
  • 196. • "Miami Indians". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. • "Miami (tribe)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.Retrieved from ""Categories: Algonquian peoples | Miami tribe | Native American tribes in Indiana | NativeAmerican tribes in Ohio | Algonquian ethnonymsKickapooJump to: navigation, searchThis article is about the Native American people. For other uses, see Kickapoo(disambiguation).KickapooTotal population5,000 (3,000 enrolled members)Regions with significant populations USA (Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Mexico (Coahuila)LanguagesEnglish, Spanish, KickapooReligionNative American Church, Christianity (many Catholic, some Protestant) and Tribal religious practices;Related ethnic groupsSauk, Fox, other Algonquian peoplesThe Kickapoo (Kickapoo: Kiikaapoa or Kiikaapoi) are an Algonquian-speaking NativeAmerican tribe. According to the Anishinaabeg, the name "Kickapoo" (Giiwigaabaw inthe Anishinaabe language and its Kickapoo cognate Kiwikapawa) means "Stands hereand there". It referred to the tribes migratory patterns. The name can also mean 196
  • 197. "wanderer". This interpretation is contested and generally believed to be a folketymology.Today there are three federally recognized Kickapoo tribes in the United States:Kickapoo Tribe of Indians of the Kickapoo Reservation in Kansas, the Kickapoo Tribe ofOklahoma, and the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas. The former two groups arepolitically associated with the Texas band. Others live in small groups throughout thewestern United States. Around 3,000 people claim to be tribal members. There is also asmall community in Douglas, Arizona.Another band resides in the Mexican state of Coahuila.Contents • 1 History • 2 Language • 3 Kickapoo tribes and communities o 3.1 Kickapoo Indian Reservation of Kansas o 3.2 Kickapoo Indian Reservation of Texas o 3.3 Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma • 4 References • 5 Further reading • 6 External links HistoryThe earliest European contact with the Kickapoo tribe occurred during the La SalleExpeditions into the Illinois Country in the late 17th century, as the French set up remotefur trading posts throughout the region, including on Wabash River. The Kickapoo at thattime inhabited a large territory along the Wabash in the area of modern Terre Haute,Indiana. They were confederated with the larger Wabash Confederacy, that included thePiankeshaw to their south, the Wea to their north, and the powerful Miami Tribe, to theireast.As white settlers moved into the region beginning in the early 19th century, the Kickapooparticipated in several treaties, including the Treaty of Vincennes, the Treaty ofGrouseland, and the Treaty of Fort Wayne. They sold most of their lands to the UnitedStates and moved north to settle among the Wea. Rising tensions between the regionaltribes and the United States led to Tecumsehs War in 1811. The Kickapoo were one ofTecumsehs closest allies. Many Kickapoo warriors participated in the Battle ofTippecanoe and the subsequent War of 1812.The close of the war led to a change of Indian policy in the Indiana Territory, and laterthe state of Indiana. American leaders began to advocate the removal of the tribes to land 197
  • 198. west of the Mississippi River. The Kickapoo were among the first tribes to leave Indiana.They accepted land in Kansas and an annual subsidy in exchange for leaving the state. LanguageKickapoo people building a Winter House in the town of Nacimiento Coahuila, México,2008Kickapoo speak an Algonquian language closely related to that of the Sauk and Fox.They were classified with the Central Algonquians, and were also related to the Illiniwek.Kickapoo tribes and communitiesThere are three federally recognized Kickapoo communities in the United States: one inKansas, one in Texas, and the third in Oklahoma.[edit] Kickapoo Indian Reservation of KansasThe Kickapoo Indian Reservation is located at 39°40′51″N 95°36′41″W / 39.68083°N95.61139°W in the northeastern part of the state in parts of three counties, Brown,Jackson, and Atchison. It has a land area of 612.203 square kilometres (236.373 sq mi)and a resident population of 4,419 as of the 2000 census. The largest community on thereservation is the city of Horton. The other communities are: • Muscotah • Netawaka (most of the city, with all of the population) • Powhattan • Whiting • WillisKickapoo Indian Reservation of Texas 198
  • 199. The Kickapoo Indian Reservation of Texas is located at 28°36′37″N 100°26′19″W /28.61028°N 100.43861°W on the Rio Grande River on the U.S.-Mexico border inwestern Maverick County, just south of the city of Eagle Pass, as part of the communityof Rosita South. It has a land area of 0.4799 square kilometres (118.6 acres) and a 2000census population of 420 persons. The Texas Indian Commission officially recognizedthe tribe in 1977.[1]There are undetermined numbers of other Kickapoo in Maverick County, Texas, whoconstitute the "South Texas Subgroup of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma". That bandowns 917.79 acres (3.7142 km2) of non-reservation land in Maverick County, primarilyto the north of Eagle Pass. It has an office in that city.[2] Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma A Kickapoo wickiup, Sac and Fox Agency, Oklahoma, ca. 1880.After being expelled from the Republic of Texas, many Kickapoo moved south toMexico, but the population of two villages settled in Indian Territory. One village settledwithin the Chickasaw Nation and the other within the Muscogee Creek Nation. TheseKickapoo were granted their own reservation in 1883.The reservation was short-lived, because in 1893 their communal tribal lands werebroken up and assigned to separate households in allotments under the Dawes Act. Thetribes government was dismantled by the Curtis Act of 1898, which encouragedassimilation by Native Americans. Tribal members struggled under these conditions.In 1936, the tribe reorganized as the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, under the OklahomaIndian Welfare Act.[3]Today the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma is headquartered in McLoud, Oklahoma. Theirtribal jurisdictional area is in Oklahoma, Pottawatomie, and Lincoln Counties. They have2,719 enrolled tribal members.[4] 199
  • 200. References 1. ^ Miller, Tom. On the Border: Portraits of America’s Southwestern Frontier, pp. 67. 2. ^ Maverick County Appraisal District property tax appraisals, 2007 3. ^ Annette Kuhlman, "Kickapoo", Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture, Oklahoma Historical Society, 2009 (accessed 21 February 2009) 4. ^ Oklahoma Indian Affairs. Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory. 2008:21Further reading • Grant Foreman, The Last Trek of the Indians: An Account of the Removal of the Indians from orth of the Ohio River, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946 • Arrell M. Gibson, The Kickapoo: Lords of the Middle Border, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963 • M. Christopher Nunley, "Kickapoo Indians," in The ew Handbook of Texas, Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1996. • Muriel H. Wright, A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986External links • First nations - Kickapoo from Lee Sultzman • The Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas • Kickapoo Reservation, Kansas and Kickapoo Reservation, Texas United States Census Bureau • "Kickapoo Indians". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. • Kickapoo State Park • Matthew R. Garrett, Kickapoo Foreign Policy, 1650-1830. PhD dissertation, University of Nebraska, 2006 • Kickapoo, The Novel[hide]v•d•eBlack Hawk War (1832)British Band • Fox • Ho-Chunk • Illinois Militia • Kickapoo • SiouxFactionsMichigan Territory Militia • Potawatomi • Sauk • United States ArmyJohn Giles Adams • Milton Alexander • Henry Apple • Elizabeth ArmstrongPeopleAtkinson • David Bailey • Black Hawk • Hugh Brady • Ebenezer BrighamBrown • Thomas P. Burnett • Chakeepashipaho • Checokalako • George Davenport 200
  • 201. Jefferson Davis • John Dement • Augustus C. Dodge • Henry DodgeMike Girty • Henry Gratiot • Rachel Hall • Sylvia Hall • William S. HamiltonHenry • Ioway • George W. Jones • Keewassee • Keokuk • Antoine LeClaireLincoln • Stephen Mack, Jr. • Meommuse • Neapope • Oshkosh • PamahoAdam Payne • Elijah Phillips • Alexander Posey • John Hawkins RountreeSample • Lucy Sample • James Semple • Winfield Scott • ShabbonaSnyder • James W. Stephenson • Isaiah Stillman • Clack Stone • Joseph M. StreetJames M. Strode • Felix St. Vrain • Joseph Throckmorton • Zachary TaylorTowaunonne • Wabokieshiek • John Allen Wakefield • Wapasha IIWaubonsee • Weesheet • Samuel Whiteside •Illinois: Apple River Fort • Buffalo Grove • Dixons Ferry • Fort Armstrong• Galena • Indian Creek • Kelloggs Grove • Plum River • SaukenukStillmans Run Battle Site • Waddams Grove •PlacesMichigan Territory (Wisconsin): Bad Axe River • Blue Mounds FortFort Defiance • Fort Hamilton • Fort Jackson • Fort Koshkonong • Fort UnionGrove • Helena • Hamiltons Diggings • Pecatonica River • Roxbury •• Soldiers Grove • Victory • Wisconsin Heights Battlefield • Wisconsin RiverMinor engagements • Battle of Stillmans Run • Buffalo Grove ambush• Indian Creek massacre • St. Vrain massacre • Attacks at Fort Blue MoundsEngagementsFarm massacre • Battle of Horseshoe Bend • Battle of Waddams GroveKelloggs Grove • Attack at Aments Cabin • Battle of Apple River FortMound raid • Battle of Wisconsin Heights • Bad Axe Massacre Black Hawk Purchase • Black Hawk Tree • Keokuks Reserve •Other topics WarriorRetrieved from ""Categories: Algonquian languages | Algonquian peoples | Indigenous languages of theNorth American eastern woodlands | Languages of Mexico | Languages of the UnitedStates | Native American tribes in Oklahoma | Algonquian ethnonyms | Native Americantribes in Indiana KaskaskiaJump to: navigation, searchThis article is about the tribe. For the village in Illinois, see Kaskaskia, Illinois. This article includes a list of references or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (August 2008)The Kaskaskia were one of about a dozen cognate tribes that made up the IlliniwekConfederation or Illinois Confederation. Their first contact with Europeans reportedly 201
  • 202. occurred near present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin in 1667 at a Jesuit mission station. TheIllinois are reported to have asked the French to send a missionary to them in their homecountry.Contents 1 History • 2 In popular culture • 3 References • 4 External links HistoryIn 1673, Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette and French-Canadian explorer Louis Jollietbecame the first Europeans known to have descended the Mississipi River. The record oftheir trip is our earliest, best record of contact between Europeans and the Illinois Indians.Marquette and Jolliet, with five other men, left the mission of St. Ignace atMichilimackinac in two bark canoes on May 17. They travelled to the Mississippi Riveracross Lake Michigan into Green Bay, up the Fox River and down the Wisconsin River.Descending the Mississippi, in June, they met the Peoria and Moingwena bands ofIllinois at the Haas/Hagerman Site near the mouth of the Des Moines River in ClarkCounty, northeastern Missouri. They met another Illinois band, the Michigamea, whenthey reached present-day Arkansas. They began their return trip from this Michigameavillage about July 17, following the Illinois River eastward to Lake Michigan rather thantaking the more northern route along the Wisconsin River. Near modern Utica in LaSalleCounty, Illinois, across from Starved Rock, they met the Kaskaskia at the Grand Villageof the Illinois (now a State Historic Site, also known as the Zimmerman Site). The landcontrolled by the allied Illinois groups extended north from modern Arkansas, throughEastern Missouri and most of Illinois, and west into Iowa, where [[Des Moines, Iowa]DesMoines]] was named after the Moingwena[1]In 1703, the French followed up the Marquette/Joliet expedition with the establishment ofa permanent mission and settlement at Kaskaskia.[2] French settlers moved in to farm andto exploit the lead mines on the Missouri side of the river. Kaskaskia became the capitalof Upper Louisiana and Fort de Chartes was built in 1718. In the same year Black slaveswere brought in from Santo Domingo to work in the lead mines.[3] From its beginning,Kaskaskia was a French/Indian settlement, consisting of a few French men and a largenumber of Kaskaskia and other Illinois Indians. In 1707, the population of the communitywas estimated at 2,200, the majority of them Illinois Indians who lived somewhat apart.A visitor, writing of Kaskaskia about 1715, said that the village consisted of 400 Illinoismen, "very good people," two Jesuit missionaries, and "about twenty French voyageurswho have settled there and married Indian woman."[4] Of twenty-one children whose birth 202
  • 203. and baptism was recorded in Kaskaskia before 1714 eighteen mothers were Indian andtwenty fathers were French. The offspring of these mixed marriages could become eitherFrench or Indian. One devout Catholic full-blooded Indian woman disowned her half-breed son for living "among the savage nations."[5]From the French, the Indians, and the mixed bloods at Kaskaskia came the voyageurs andcoureur des bois who would explore and exploit the Missouri River country. The Frenchhad the goal of trading with all the prairie tribes and beyond with the Spanish colony inNew Mexico -- a prospect which horrified the Spanish. French goals stimulated theexpedition of Claude Charles Du Tisne to establish trade relations with the Plains Indiansin 1719. The fate of the Kaskaskia, and the rest of the Illiniwek/Illinois, was irrevocablytied up with that of France. Until their dissolution in France, French Jesuits built missionsand ministered to the Kaskaskia. When the Seven Years War (called the French andIndian War in North America) ended, the Kaskaskia and other Illinois tribes were greatlyin decline. The original population estimate reported by early French explorers variedfrom 6,000 to more than 20,000. By the conclusion of the French and Indian War, thenumber was a fraction of the original. Contemporary historians believe the greatestfatalities were due to infectious diseases to which the Native Americans had noimmunity.The causes of decline are many and varied (See the work of Emily Blasingham, M.A.Indiana University, published in Ethnohistory journal). The Illinois made war with theirFrench allies against the most formidable native nations: to the east, the Iroquois; to thenorthwest, the Sioux and the Fox; to the south, the Chickasaw and Cherokee; to the west,the Osage Nation. Add to combat losses the great losses to epidemics of Europeandiseases. In 1769, a Peoria warrior killed Pontiac, which brought down upon theKaskaskia and other Illinois tribes, the wrath of the Great Lakes tribes. (This legendaryretaliation may not have happened in fact; see the article on Pontiac.) The Ottawa, Sauk,Fox, Miami, Kickapoo and Potawatomi devastated the Illiniwek and occupied their oldtribal range along the Illinois River.The descendants of the Kaskaskia live in Oklahoma under the banner of the ConfederatedPeoria Tribe of Oklahoma.The British arrived in 1766 and build Fort Gage.On July 4, 1778 George Rogers Clark captured the town and Fort Gage[6]. In popular cultureThe term "Kaskaskia" lives on in Illinois. The Kaskaskia River, whose headwaters arenear Champaign in central Illinois, and whose mouth is near Ellis Grove, Illinois, stillcarries the name of this native nation who once settled throughout its estuarial plain.Kaskaskia College is located near Centralia, Illinois, in rural Clinton County. The city ofDuQuoin, Illinois, carries the name of Jean Baptiste DuQuoin (sometimes DuQuoigne), anotable Kaskaskia chieftain of their later history. Kaskaskia, Illinois was the first capital 203
  • 204. of Illinois. Also the Kaskaskia Baptist Association located in Patoka, Illinois carries thisname. The USS Kaskaskia (AO-27) also carries the name.References 1. ^ Stelle, Lenville J. "2005 Inoca Ethnohistory Project: Eye Witness Descriptions of the Contact Generation, 1673 -1700." Center For Social Research, Parkland College. ory_project/inoca_ethnohistory.htm, accessed Apr 14, 2010 2. ^ liam.htm, accessed, Apr 14, 2010 3. ^, accessed Apr 14, 2010 4. ^ Norall, Frank. Bourgmont, Explorer of the Missouri, 1698-1725. Lincoln: U of Neb Press, 1988, 107 5. ^ Ekberg, Carl J. French Roots in the Illinois Country: The Mississippi Frontier in Colonial Times. Chicage: U of Ill Press, 2000, 153-154 6. ^ Fort Kaskaskia State Historic SiteExternal links • Kaskaskia entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia • USS Kaskaskia • Inoca Ethnohistory Project: Eye Witness Descriptions of the Contact Generation, 1667 - 1700Retrieved from ""Categories: Native American tribes in Illinois | Native American tribes in Oklahoma |Algonquian ethnonyms | Algonquian peoplesClassification of indigenous peoples of the Americas From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search 204
  • 205. Cultural regions of North American people at the time of European contact. Early Indian languages in the US 205
  • 206. Early Indian languages in AlaskaThe following classification scheme groups the indigenous peoples of the Americas bytheir regions of origin, followed by the current regions occupied by these peoples. See theindividual article on each people, nation, First Nation, tribe, clan, clade, or phratry for ahistory of their movements. These regions of origin are:Contents • 1 Canada, Greenland, and United States o 1.1 Arctic o 1.2 Subarctic o 1.3 California o 1.4 Northeast Woodlands o 1.5 Great Basin o 1.6 Plateau o 1.7 Northwest Coast o 1.8 Plains o 1.9 Southeast o 1.10 Southwest • 2 Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean o 2.1 Caribbean o 2.2 Mesoamerica o 2.3 Aridoamerica • 3 South America o 3.1 Andean o 3.2 Sub-Andean o 3.3 Western Amazon o 3.4 Central Amazon o 3.5 Eastern and Southern Amazon o 3.6 Gran Chaco o 3.7 Southern Cone • 4 Languages 206
  • 207. • 5 Genetic classification • 6 Notes • 7 ReferencesCanada, Greenland, and United StatesIn the United States and Canada, ethnographers commonly classify indigenous peoplesinto ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits (called cultural areas).[1] Theseten geographical regions are:Arctic Inuktitut dialect map • Aleut • Inuit o Kalaallit o Inuvialuit o Inupiat • Yupik Subarctic Distribution of Cree peoples 207
  • 208. • Ahtna (Ahtena, Nabesna) • Kolchan (Upper Kuskokwim • Anishinaabe (see also Northeast Woodlands, Plains • Koyukon o Oji-Cree (Anishinini, Severn Ojibwa) Ontario, Mountain • o Ojibwa (Chippewa, Ojibwe) Ontario, Manitoba, Minnesota • Naskapi • Atikamekw • Sekani • Bearlake • Slavey (Dialects: Hay River • Chipewyan Providence, Liard, Fort Nelson • Cree • Tagish • Dakelh • Tahltan o Babine • Lower Tanana o Wetsuweten • Middle Tanana • Deg Hit’an (Deg Xinag, Degexit’an, Kaiyuhkhotana)• Upper Tanana • Dena’ina (Dialects: Outer Inlet, Upper Inlet • Tanacross Kachemak Bay, Kenai, Susitna River) • Tasttine (Beaver) • Dunneza (Beaver) • Tli Cho • Gwichin (Kutchin, Loucheaux) • Inland Tlingit • Hän • Tsetsaut (extinct) • Hare • Tsilhqotin (Chilcotin) • Holikachuk • Northern Tutchone • Innu • Southern Tutchone • Kaska (Nahane) • YellowknivesCalifornia • Achomawi (Pit River Indians) • Ahwahnechee • Antoniaño • Atsugewi • Bear River • Cahuilla • Campo • Chemehuevi • Chukchansi • Chumash (Dialects: Roseño, Purisimeño, Barbareño, Inezeño, Ventureño, Obispeño, Santa Paula, Cruzeño, Emigdiano Allilik) • Chilula • Chimariko • Costanoan - see Ohlone • Cupeño • Diegueño - see Kumeyaay • Esselen • Fernandeño - see Tataviam 208
  • 209. • Gabrieliño - see Tongva• Giamina• Huchnom• Hupa• Ipai - see Kumeyaay• Jamul• Juaneño• Kamia• Karok• Kato• Kiliwa• Kitanemuk• Klamath• Konkow - see Maidu• Konomihu• Kumeyaay (Diegueño)• Lassik• Luiseño• Maidu• Mattole• Mesa Grande• Migueleño• Mission Indians• Miwok (Me-wuk) o Coast Miwok o Lake Miwok o Valley and Sierra Miwok• Modoc, California, later Oregon and Oklahoma• Mojave (Mohave, California and Arizona• Monache• Nakipa• Niprise• Nisenan• Nomlaki• Nongatl• Ohlone (Divisions: Karkin, Ramaytush, Chochenyo, Tamyen, Awaswas, Chalon, Mutsun, Rumsen)• Okwanuchu• Paipai (Akwaala)• Paiute (Northern, Southern), California and Nevada• Patwin• Pit River - see Achomawi• Pomo• Quechan (Yuma), southeastern California• Rumsen - see Ohlone• Salinan 209
  • 210. • San Clemente • San Nicolas • Santa Catalina • Serrano • Shasta • Sinkyone • Suisunes • Tache • Tachi tribe • Tataviam (Fernandeño) • Tipai - see Kumeyaay • Tolowa • Tongva (Gabrieliño) • Tsnungwe • Tubatulabal • Wai-lakki • Wappo • Washoe • Whilkut • Wintu • Wintun • Wiyot • Yahi • Yelamu • Yana • Yocha Dehe • Yokuts • Yuki (Ukomnom) • Yurokortheast Woodlands • Abenaki [2] o Eastern Abenaki: Quebec, Maine, and New Hampshire Kennebec (Caniba) o Western Abenaki: Quebec, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont[2] • Accohannock see anticoke • Algonquian lower Saint Lawrence River • Anishinaabe (Anishinape, Anicinape, Neshnabé, Nishnaabe) (see also Subarctic, Plains) o Algonquin Quebec, Ontario [2] o Nipissing Ontario o Ojibwa, (Chippewa, Ojibwe) Ontario, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin[2] Mississaugas, Ontario 210
  • 211. Saulteaux (Nakawē), Ontario [2] o Ottawa, (Odawa), Ontario, Michigan, later Oklahoma [2] o Potawatomi, Michigan, Ontario, Indiana, Wisconsin, later Oklahoma [3]• Assateague, Maryland• Beothuk, Newfoundland[2]• Choptank Indian Tribe, Maryland[3]• Conoy, Virginia[3]• Erie, Pennsylvania, New York[2]• Etchemin Quebec (Maliseet)• Fox, Michigan,[2] later Iowa, Oklahoma• Hatteras• Ho-Chunk, Wisconsin, later Nebraska [2] o Winnebago, Wisconsin near Green Bay, Illinois, later Nebraska• Honniasont, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia• Hopewell Ohio and Black River region• Huron/Wyandot Ontario south of Georgian Bay, now Oklahoma and Wendake, Quebec• Illinois, Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri[2] [2] o Miami, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan, later Oklahoma o Peoria Illinois, later Oklahoma o Wea• Iroquois, Ontario, Quebec, and New York[2] [2] o Cayuga, New York, later Oklahoma [2] o Mohawk – New York and Kahnawake, Quebec [2] o Oneida, New York [2] o Onondaga, New York [2] o Seneca, New York, later Oklahoma o Tuscarora, formerly North Carolina• Kickapoo, Michigan,[2] Illinois, Missouri, later Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Mexico• Laurentian/St. Lawrence Iroquoians• Lenni-Lenape Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, now Ontario and Oklahoma o Munsee linguistic group, (person from Minisink); originally resided in the greater Manhattan area, and drainage of Lower Hudson R. valley and upper Delaware R. Esopus west of the Hudson River in the Hudson River watershed Waoranecks Warranawankongs Minisink above the Delaware Water Gap Ramapough Mountain Indians, New Jersey o Unami linguistic group Acquackanonk Passaic River in northern New Jersey Hackensack south of Hudson Highlands west of Hudson River Navasink to the east along the north shore of New Jersey Raritan on Staten Island/Raritan Bay, originally on the lower Raritan River, subsequently moving inland 211
  • 212. Rumachenanck (aka Haverstraw), south of Hudson Highlands west of Hudson River Tappan radiating from Palisades in New York and New Jersey Unalachtigo Wiechquaeskecks from east of the Hudson migrated to the lower Raritan after 1649• Maliseet, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Maine[2]• Mascouten, Michigan[2]• Massachusett, Massachusetts o Ponkapoag• Mattaponi, Virginia[4]• Menominee, Michigan and Wisconsin[2]• Mingo, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia• Mahican Confederacy, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, and Vermont[2] [5] o Housatonic, Massachusetts, New York [2][5] o Mahican, Massachusetts, New York, and Vermont [5] o Wappani (Wappinger), New York east of upper Hudson R. in Dutchess County, ranging south to Manhattan & east into parts of Connecticut. Wappinger proper, sachemship on the east side of the Hudson River, in present-day Dutchess Co., New York Hammonasset, eastern sachemship at the mouth of the Connecticut R., in present-day Middlesex Co., Connecticut Kitchawank or Kichtawanks or Kichtawank, northern Westchester County, New York Mattabesset, present-day New Haven County, Connecticut Massaco, along the Farmington River in Connecticut Menunkatuck, along the coast in present-day New Haven County, Connecticut Nochpeem, in southern portions of present-day Dutchess County, New York Paugusset, along the Housatonic River, present-day eastern Fairfield Co. and western New Haven Co., Connecticut Podunk, east of the Connecticut River in eastern Hartford County, Connecticut Poquonock, western present-day Hartford County, Connecticut Quinnipiac, in central New Haven County, Connecticut Rechgawawanc or Recgawawanc Sicaog, in present-day Hartford County, Connecticut Sintsink, or Sinsinks east of the Hudson River in present-day Westchester County, New York Siwanoy, coastal Westchester County, New York, into southwestern Fairfield County, Connecticut Tankiteke, central coastal Fairfield County, Connecticut north into Putnam County and Dutchess County, New York Tunxis, southwestern Hartford County, Connecticut Wecquaesgeek, southwestern Westchester County, New York 212
  • 213. • o Wyachtonok, Connecticut, New York[5]• Massachusett, Massachusetts[6]• Mikmaq (Micmac), New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Quebec[2]• Mohegan, Connecticut• Montauk, New York• Nanticoke, Delaware and Maryland[2]• Narragansett, Rhode Island• Neutral, Ontario[2]• Niantic, coastal Connecticut[6]• Nipmuck, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island[6]• Ocaneechee, Virginia[7]• Pamlico• Pasquotank• Passamaquoddy, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Maine[2]• Patuxent, Maryland[3]• Penobscot, Maine• Pequot• Petun, Ontario[2]• Piscataway Indian Nation, Maryland[3]• Pocumtuc, western Massachusetts[6]• Pokanoket (Pokanoket Tribe of the Wampanoag Nation), Rhode Island and Massachusetts[6]• Poospatuck, New York• Potawatomi, Michigan• Powhatan, Virginia[3]• Quinnipiac Connecticut, eastern New York, northern New Jersey, Long Island o Hammonasset o Mattabesec o Mattatuck o Menunkatuck o Meriden (tribe) o Mioonkhtuck [6] o Naugatuck, New York o Nehantic [6] o Paugusset, New York [6] o Podunk, New York [6] o Potatuck, New York o Totoket [6] o Tunxis, New York [6] o Wangunk, New York [6] o Wepawaug, New York• Rappahannock, Virginia[4]• Sauk, Michigan,[2] later Iowa, Oklahoma• Schaghticoke, western Connecticut• Secotan 213
  • 214. • Shawnee Ohio,[2] West Virginia, Pennsylvania, later Oklahoma • Shinnecock, Long Island, New York[6] • Sissipahaw • Souriquoian • Susquehannock, Maryland and Pennsylvania[2] • Tarrantine (Tarranteen), see Abenaki, Micmac • Tauxenent, Virginia[4] • Unquachog, Long Island, New York[6] • Wampanoag, Massachusetts • Wawenoc • Wenro, New York[2] • Wenrohronon, Pennsylvania and New York • Wyandot, Huron, Ontario south of Georgian Bay, now Oklahoma and Wendake, QuebecGreat Basin • Bannock, Idaho[8] • Colorado River tribes o Chemehuevi, southeastern California o Southern Paiute, Arizona, Nevada, Utah Kaibab, northwestern Arizona[9] Kaiparowtis, southwestern Utah[9] Moapa, southern Nevada[9] Panaca[9] Panguitch, Utah[9] Paranigets, southern Nevada[9] Shivwits, southwestern Utah[9] • Fremont culture (400 CE–1300 CE), Utah[10] • Kawaiisu, southern inland California[8] • Mono, southeastern California o Eastern Mono, southeastern California o Western Mono, southeastern California • Northern Paiute, eastern California, Nevada, Oregon, southwestern Idaho[8] • Owens Valley Paiute, California, Nevada[8] • Shoshone (Shoshoni), Nevada, Idaho, California o Western Shoshone, eastern California, Nevada, north Utah, southeastern Idaho[8] Duckwater Shoshone Tribe or Tsaidüka, Railroad Valley, Nevada[11] Goshute, Nevada and Utah Te-Moak Tribe, made up of the Tonomudza band, Nevada Yomba Western Shoshone Tribe,Nevada [8] o Northern Shoshone, Idaho Agaideka (Salmon Eaters), Snake River and Lemhi, Idaho[12] 214
  • 215. Kammedeka (Jackrabbit Eaters), Snake River, Idaho to the Great Salt Lake, Utah[12] Lemhi Shoshone, Lemhi River Valley, Idaho[12] Pohogwe (People of the Sagebrush Butte) or Fort Hall Shoshone, Idaho[12] Tukudeka (Mountain Sheep Eaters), central Idaho, southern Montana, and Yellowstone, Wyoming Yahandeka (Groundhog Eaters), Boise, Payette, and Weiser Rivers, Idaho[12] [8] o Eastern Shoshone, Wyoming Kuccuntikka (Buffalo Eaters)[13] Tukkutikka or Tukudeka (Mountain Sheep Eaters), joined the Northern Shoshone[13] • Timbisha or Panamint or Koso, southeastern California • Ute, Colorado, Utah, northern New Mexico[8] [14] o Capote, southeastern Colorado and New Mexico [15] o Moanunts, Salina, Utah [14] o Muache, south and central Colorado [15] o Pahvant, western Utah [15] o Sanpits, central Utah [15] o Timpanogots, north cenral Utah [14] o Uintah, Utah [14] o Uncompahgre or Taviwach, central and northern Colorado o Weeminuche, western Colorado, eastern Utah, northwestern New Mexico[14] [14] o White River Utes (Parusanuch and Yampa), Colorado and eastern Utah • Washo, Nevada and CaliforniaPlateau • Cayuse, Oregon • Palus (Palouse) • Celilo (Wayampam) • PendOreilles • Upper Chinookan (Dialects: Clackamas, Washington River, Wasco-Wishram language, Kathlamet Rock Creek • Multnomah) • Sahaptin people • Columbian (Dialects: Wenatchee, Sinkayuse Sanpoil (tribe) • • Coeur dAlene, Idaho • Secwepemc (Shuswap), British • Colville, Washington Columbia • Upper Cowlitz • Sinixt (Lakes), British Columbia, • Flathead (Selisch or Salish), Idaho and Montana Washington, Idaho • Klamath, Oregon • Spokane, Washington • Klickitat Tribe, Washington • Statimc (Lillooet) • Kootenai/Ktunaxa, British Columbia, Montana, and o Lilwat Idaho o In-SHUCK • Lower Snake (Chamnapam, Wauyukma • Tygh • Modoc, California and Oregon • Tygh Valley 215
  • 216. • Molala (Molale), Oregon • Umatilla, Oregon • Nez Perce, Idaho • Upper Nisqually • Nicola Athapaskans (extinct) • Walla Walla, Oregon • Nicola people (confederacy) • Wanapum • Nlakapamux, British Columbia, formerly •known as the Wasco-Wishram, Oregon Thompson people • Yakama, Washington • Okanagan (Syilx), British Columbia and Washington orthwest CoastMain article: Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast • Ahantchuyuk - see Kalapuya • Lower McKenzie • Alsea • Lummi Washington • Applegate • Makah Washington • Atfalati - see Kalapuya • Marys River - see • Bella Bella - see Heiltsuk • Muckleshoot Washington • Bella Coola - see uxalk • Musqueam BC Lower Mainland • Burrard - see Tsleil-waututh (Vancouver) • Calapooia - see Kalapuya • Nisgaa, British Columbia • Calapuya - see Kalapuya • Nisqually - Washington • Central Kalapuya - see Kalapuya • Nooksack Washington • Chasta Costa - see Rogue River • North Kalapuya - • Chehalis (Upper and Lower) Washington • Nisqually Washington • Chehalis (BC), Fraser Valley • Nuu-chah-nulth • Chemakum Washington (extinct) Vancouver Island • Chetco - see Tolowa • Nuxalk (Bella Coola) • Chinook Dialects: (Lower Chinook, Coast Clackamas, Wasco) • Oowekeno - see Wuikinuxv • Clallam - see Klallam • Pentlatch • Clatsop Island/Georgia Strait (extinct) • Comox Vancouver Island/BC Georgia Strait Puyallup Washington • • Coos Hanis} Oregon • Quileute Washington • Lower Coquille (Miluk) Oregon • Quinault Washington • Upper Coquille • Rivers Inlet - see • Cowichan Southern Vancouver Island/GeorgiaRogue River or Upper Illinois • Strait o Quwutsun Oregon, California o Somena • Saanich Southern Vancouver o Quamichan Island/Georgia Strait • Lower Cowlitz Washington • Samish Washington • Duwamish Washington • Santiam - see Kalapuya • Eyak Alaska • Sauk-Suiattle Washington • Galice • Sechelt BC Sunshine • Gitxsan, British Columbia Coast/Georgia Strait (Shishalh) • Haida (Dialects: Kaigani, Skidegate • Shoalwater Bay Tribe Alaska • Siletz Oregon 216
  • 217. • Haisla BC North/Central Coast • Siuslaw Oregon o Haihai • Skagit o Kimsquit • Skokomish Washington o Kitimaat • Skwxwu7mesh (Squamish), British• Heiltsuk BC Central Coast Columbia• Hoh Washington • Sliammon BC Sunshine• Kalapuya (Calapooia, Calapuya) Coast/Georgia Strait (Mainland o North Kalapuya Comox) Yamhill (Yamel) • Snohomish Tualatin • Snoqualmie Tfalati (Atfalati) • Snuneymuxw o Central Kalapuya Vancouver Island Santiam • Songhees (Songish Marys River Vancouver Island/Strait of Juan de Lakmiut Fuca Ahantchuyuk • Sooke Southern Vancouver Lower McKenzie ( Island/Strait of Juan de Fuca (Oregon)) • South Kalapuya - o South Kalapuya (Yonkalla, Yoncalla Squaxin Island Tribe •• Klallam (Clallam, Dialects: Klallam (Lower Elwha) • Spokane Washington SKlallam (Jamestown), SKlallam (Port Gamble) • Stillaguamish Washington• Klickitat • Sto:lo, BC Lower Mainland/Fraser• Kwalhioqua Valley• Kwakwakawakw (Kwakiutl) o Kwantlen o Koskimo o Katzie o Namgis • Squamish - see Skwxwu7mesh o Laich-kwil-tach (Euclataws or Yuculta) • Suquamish Washington• Kwalhioqua • Swinomish Washington• Kwatami • Tait• Lakmiut - see Kalapuya • Takelma Oregon • Talio • Tfalati - see Kalapuya • Tillamook (Nehalem • Tlatlasikoala • Tlingit Alaska • Tolowa-Tututni • Tsimshian • Tsleil-waututh (Burrar Columbia • Tualatin - see Kalapuya • Tulalip Washington • Twana Washington • Tzouk-e (Sooke) Vancouver Island • Lower Umpqua Oregon • Upper Umpqua Oregon • Upper Skagit Washington 217
  • 218. • Wuikinuxv (Owekeeno), BC Central Coast • Yamel - see Kalapuya • Yamhill - see Kalapuya • Yaquina • Yoncalla - see Kalapuya • Yonkalla - see KalapuyaPlainsMain article: Plains Indians • Anishinaabe (Anishinape, Anicinape, Iowa • Neshnabé, (Ioway) Kansas, Nebraska, Nishnaabe) (see also Subarctic Oklahoma Woodlands) • Kaw (Kansa, Kanza) Oklahoma o Ojibwa (Chippewa, Ojibwe) Minnesota, • Kiowa Oklahoma North Dakota, South Dakota, Kitsai (Kichai) Oklahoma • M Saskatchewan, Manitoba • Mandan North Dakota Saulteaux (Plains Ojibwe,Missouri (Missouria) Oklahoma • Nakawē) British Columbia,• Omaha Nebraska Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba Osage Oklahoma • Chippewa Cree Montana Otoe (Oto) Oklahoma • o Ottawa (Odawa) Oklahoma • Pawnee (dialects: South Band o Potawatomi Kansas, Oklahoma Oklahoma • Jicarilla Apache New Mexico • Ponca Nebraska, Oklahoma • Lipan Apache New Mexico, Texas • Quapaw Oklahoma • Mescalero Apache New Mexico • Sioux • Plains Apache (Kiowa-Apache) Oklahoma o Dakota Minnesota, Montana, • Arapaho (Arapahoe, Arrapahoe) Oklahoma, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Wyoming Dakota, Manitoba, Saskatchewan o Besawunena o Lakota (Teton) Montan o Nawathinehena Dakota, South Dakota, • Arikara (Arikaree, Arikari, Ree) North Dakota Saskatchewan • Atsina (Gros Ventre) Montana o Stoney Alberta • Blackfoot o Assiniboine o Kainah (Blood) Alberta Montana, Sas o Northern Peigan Alberta Peck Indian Reservation o Piegan (Blackfeet) Montana to Assiniboine and Sioux) o Siksika Alberta • Tonkawa Oklahoma • Cheyenne Montana, Oklahoma • Tsuu T’ina (Sarcee, Sarsi, Tsuut’ina) • Comanche Oklahoma Alberta • Plains Cree Montana • Wichita (Affiliated Tribes • Crow (Absaroka, Apsáalooke) Montana Waco, Tawakoni, Keechi) Oklahoma • Hasinai • Hidatsa North Dakota 218
  • 219. SoutheastSee also: List of Indian tribes in Florida • Abihka, Creek Confederacy, Alabama[16] • Acolapissa (Colapissa), Louisiana and Mississippi[17] • Ais, eastern coastal Florida[18] • Alabama, Creek Confederacy, Alabama[16], southwestern Tennessee, northwestern Mississippi[17][19] • Alafay (Alafia, Pojoy, Pohoy, Costas Alafeyes, Alafaya Costas), Florida[20] • Amacano, Florida west coast[21] • Apalachee, northwestern Florida[19] • Apalachicola, Creek Confederacy, Alabama, Florida, Georgia and South Carolina[16] • Atakapa (Attacapa), Louisiana west coast and Texas southwestern coast[19] [16] o Akokisa, Texas southeast coast [16] o Bidai, Texas southeast coast o Deadose, eastern Texas o Eastern Atakapa, western coastal Louisiana o Orcoquiza, southeast Texas o Patiri, eastern Texas o Tlacopsel, southeast Texas • Avoyel ("little Natchez"), Louisiana[17][22] • Backhooks Nation (possibly Chuaque, Holpaos, Huaq, Nuaq, Pahoc, Pahor, Paor, Uca),[23] South Carolina • Bayogoula, southeastern Louisiana[17][22] • Biloxi, Mississippi[17][19] • Boca Ratones, Florida • Caddo Confederacy, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas[19][24] o Adai (Adaizan, Adaizi, Adaise, Adahi, Adaes, Adees, Atayos), Louisiana and Texas[17] [24] o Cahinnio, southern Arkansas [24] o Doustioni, north central Lousiana [24] o Eyeish (Hais), eastern Texas [24] o Hainai, eastern Texas [24] o Hasinai, eastern Texas o Kadohadacho, northeastern Texas, southwestern Arkansas, northwestern Louisiana[24] [24] o Nabedache, eastern Texas [24] o Nabiti, eastern Texas [24] o Nacogdoche, eastern Texas [24] o Nacono, eastern Texas [24] o Nadaco, eastern Texas [24] o Nanatsoho, northeastern Texas [24] o Nasoni, eastern Texas [24] o Natchitoches, Lower: central Louisiana, Upper: northeastern Texas 219
  • 220. o Neche, eastern Texas[24] o Nechaui, eastern Texas[24] o Ouachita, northern Louisiana[24] o Tula, western Arkansas[24] o Yatasi, northwestern Louisiana[24]• Calusa, southwestern Florida[19][20]• Cape Fear Indians, North Carolina southern coast[17]• Catawba (Esaw, Usheree, Ushery, Yssa),[23] North Carolina, South Carolina[19]• Chacato, Florida panhandle and southern Alabama[17]• Chakchiuma, Alabama and Mississippi[19]• Chatot (tribe) (Chacato, Chactoo), west Florida• Chawasha (Washa), Louisiana[17]• Cheraw (Chara, Charàh), North Carolina• Cherokee, Georgia, North Carolina, western tip of South Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, later Arkansas, Texas, Mexico, and Oklahoma[25]• Chiaha, Creek Confederacy, Alabama[16]• Chickahominy, Virginia[26]• Chickamauga, band of Cherokees in Tennessee and Georgia• Chickanee (Chiquini), North Carolina• Chickasaw, Alabama and Mississippi,[19] later Oklahoma[25]• Chicora, coastal South Carolina[22]• Chine, Florida• Chisca (Cisca), southwestern Virginia, northern Florida[22]• Chitimacha, Louisiana[19]• Choctaw, Mississippi, Alabama,[19] and parts of Louisiana; later Oklahoma[25]• Chowanoc, North Carolina• Creek, Florida, Georgia, southern Tennessee, Mississippi,[19] later Alabama, Oklahoma[25]• Congaree (Canggaree), South Carolina[17][27]• Coree, North Carolina[22]• Coushatta, Louisiana and Texas• Coharie, North Carolina• Cusabo coastal South Carolina[19]• Eno (people), North Carolina[17]• Garza, Texas, northern Mexico• Grigra (Gris), Mississippi[28]• Guacata (Santalûces), eastern coastal Florida[20]• Guacozo, Florida• Guale (Cusabo, Iguaja, Ybaja), coastal Georgia[17][19]• Guazoco, southwestern Florida coast[20]• Hitchiti, Creek Confederacy, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida[17]• Hooks Nation (possibly Chuaque, Huaq, Nuaq),[23] see Backhooks Nation• Houma, Louisiana and Mississippi[19]• Jaega, eastern coastal Florida[18]• Jaupin (Weapemoc), North Carolina• Jobe (Hobe), part of Jaega, Florida[20] 220
  • 221. • Jororo, Florida interior[20]• Keyauwee, North Carolina[17]• Koasati, Tennessee[19]• Koroa, Mississippi[17]• Luca (tribe), southwestern Florida coast[20]• Lumbee, North Carolina• Machapunga, North Carolina• Manahoac, Virginia[29]• Mattaponi, Virginia• Matecumbe (Matacumbêses, Matacumbe, Matacombe), Florida Keys[20]• Mayaca (tribe), Florida[20]• Mayaimi (Mayami), interior Florida[18]• Mayajuaca, Florida• Meherrin, Virginia,[26] North Carolina• Mikasuki (Miccosukee), Florida• Mobila (Mobile, Movila), northwestern Florida and southern Alabama[19]• Mocoso, western Florida[18][20]• Monacan, Virginia[22]• Monyton (Monetons, Monekot, Moheton) (Siouan), West Virginia and Virginia• Mougoulacha, Mississippi[22]• Muscogee (Creek), Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, later Oklahoma• Nahyssan, Virginia• Naniaba, northwestern Florida and southern Alabama[19]• Nansemond, Virginia[26]• Natchez, Louisiana and Mississippi[19] later Oklahoma• Neusiok (Newasiwac, Neuse River Indians), North Carolina[17]• Nottaway, Virginia,[26] North Carolina• Occaneechi (Siouan), Virginia[26][30]• Oconee, Georgia, Florida• Ofo, Arkansas and Mississippi[19], eastern Tennessee[17]• Okchai (Ogchay), central Alabama[17]• Okelousa, Louisiana[17]• Opelousas, Louisiana[17]• Osochee (Oswichee, Usachi, Oosécha), Creek Confederacy, Alabama[16][17]• Pacara, Florida• Pakana (Pacâni, Pagna, Pasquenan, Pak-ká-na, Pacanas), central Alabama[17], later Texas[22]• Pamlico, North Carolina• Pamunkey, Virginia[26]• Pascagoula, Mississippi coast[22]• Patiri, southeastern Texas• Pee Dee (Pedee), South Carolina[17][31] and North Carolina• Pensacola, Florida panhandle and southern Alabama[19]• Potoskeet, North Carolina• Quinipissa, southeastern Louisiana and Mississippi[16] 221
  • 222. • Rappahannock Tribe, Virginia• Saluda (Saludee, Saruti), South Carolina[17]• Santee (Seretee, Sarati, Sati, Sattees), South Carolina (no relation to Santee Sioux), South Carolina[17]• Santa Luces, Florida• Saponi, North Carolina[32], Virginia[26]• Saura North Carolina• Sawokli (Sawakola, Sabacola, Sabacôla, Savacola), southern Alabama and Florida panhandle[17]• Saxapahaw (Sissipahua, Shacioes), North Carolina[17]• Seminole, Florida and Oklahoma[25]• Sewee (Suye, Joye, Xoye, Soya), South Carolina coast[17]• Shakori, North Carolina• Shoccoree, North Carolina,[17] possibly Virginia• Stegarake, Virginia[29]• Stuckanox (Stukanox), Virginia[26]• Sugeree (Sagarees, Sugaws, Sugar, Succa), North Carolina and South Carolina[17]• Surruque, east central Florida[33]• Suteree (Sitteree, Sutarees, Sataree), North Carolina• Taensa, Mississippi[28]• Talapoosa, Creek Confederacy, Alabama[16]• Tawasa, Alabama[34]• Tequesta, southeastern coastal Florida[17][20]• Terocodame, Texas and Mexico o Codam o Hieroquodame o Oodame o Perocodame o Teroodame• Timucua, Florida and Georgia[17][19][20] [35] o Acuera, central Florida [35] o Agua Fresca (or Aqua Dulce or Freshwater), interior northeast Florida [35] o Arapaha, north central Florida and south central Georgia? [35] o Cascangue, coastal southeast Georgia [35] o Icafui (or Icafi), coastal southeast Georgia o Mocama (or Tacatacuru), coastal northeast Florida and coastal southeast Georgia[35] [35] o Northern Utina north central Florida [35] o Ocale, central Florida [35] o Oconi, interior southeast Georgia [35] o Potano, north central Florida [35] o Saturiwa, northeast Florida [35] o Tucururu (or Tucuru), central? Florida [35] o Yufera, coastal southeast Georgia [35] o Yui (or Ibi), coastal southeast Georgia [35] o Yustaga, north central Florida 222
  • 223. • Tiou (Tioux), Mississippi[27] • Tocaste, Florida[20] • Tocobaga, Florida[17][20] • Tohomé, northwestern Florida and southern Alabama[19] • Tomahitan, eastern Tennessee • Topachula, Florida • Tukabatchee (Tuk-ke-bat-che), Creek Confederacy, Alabama[16] • Tuscarora, North Carolina, Virginia, later New York • Tuskegee, see Creek • Tutelo, Virginia[26][30] • Tunica, Arkansas and Mississippi[19] • Utiza, Florida[18] • Uzita, Tampa Bay, Florida[36] • Vicela, Florida[18] • Viscaynos, Florida • Waccamaw, South Carolina • Wateree (Guatari, Watterees), North Carolina[17] • Waxhaw (Waxsaws, Wisack, Wisacky, Weesock, Flathead), North Carolina and South Carolina[17][31] • Westo, Virginia and South Carolina[22] • Winyaw, South Carolina coast[17] • Woccon, North Carolina[17][31] • Yamasee, Florida, Georgia[22] • Yazoo, southeastern tip of Arkansas, eastern Louisiana, Mississippi[17][37] • Yuchi (Euchee), central Tennessee,[17][19] later OklahomaSouthwest • Ak Chin, Arizona • Southern Athabaskan o Chiricahua Apache, New Mexico and Oklahoma o Jicarilla Apache, New Mexico o Lipan Apache, Texas o Mescalero Apache, New Mexico o Navajo (Navaho, Diné), Arizona and New Mexico o San Carlos Apache, Arizona o Tonto Apache, Arizona o Western Apache (Coyotero Apache), Arizona o White Mountain Apache, Arizona • Aranama (aka Hanáma, Hanáme, Chaimamé, Charinames, Xaranames, Taranames) • Coahuiltecan, Texas, northern Mexico • Cochimi, Baja California • Cocopa, Arizona • Comecrudo Texas, northern Mexico • Cotoname (aka Carrizo de Camargo) 223
  • 224. • Genízaro Arizona, New Mexico• Halchidhoma, Arizona and California• Hano, Arizona• Hualapai, Arizona• Havasupai, Arizona• Hohokam, Arizona• Jumano, Sonora, Mexico• Karankawa, Texas• Kavelchadhom• Los Luceros• Mamulique Texas, northern Mexico• Maricopa, Arizona• Mojave, Arizona, California, and Nevada• Pima, Arizona• Pima Bajo• Piro• Pueblo people, Arizona and New Mexico o Hopi, Arizona o Keres people, New Mexico Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico Cochiti Pueblo, New Mexico Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico San Felipe Pueblo, New Mexico Santa Ana Pueblo, New Mexico Santo Domingo Pueblo, New Mexico Zia Pueblo, New Mexico o Tewa, New Mexico Nambé Pueblo, New Mexico Ohkay Owingeh, New Mexico Pojoaque Pueblo, New Mexico San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico Tesuque Pueblo, New Mexico Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico o Tiwa people, New Mexico Isleta Pueblo, New Mexico Picuris Pueblo, New Mexico Sandia Pueblo, New Mexico ( afiat was the name for the Bernalillo pueblo) Taos Pueblo, New Mexico Ysleta del Sur Pueblo (Tigua Pueblo), Texas o Towa Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico o Zuni, New Mexico• Qahatika• Quechan (Yuma), Arizona and California• Quems 224
  • 225. • Solano • Suma • Tamique • Toboso • Tohono Oodham (Papago), Arizona and Mexico • Ubate • Walapai, Arizona • Yaqui, Arizona • Yavapai, (Mojave-Apache) see Yavapai-Apache Nation, Yavapai-Prescott Tribe Arizona (often confused with Tonto Apache and Mojave)(See the List of Native American Tribal Entities for the United States official list ofrecognized Native American tribes.) Mexico, Central America and the CaribbeanThe indigenous peoples of Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean are generallyclassified by language, environment, and cultural similarities.[edit] Caribbean • Arawak o Taino o Lucayan • Carib • Ciboney • KunaMesoamerica • Nahua • Cora people • Lenca • Maya o Itzá o Lacandon o Mopan o Yucatec (Maya proper) Chol Ixil Jacaltec Kiche (Quiché) Kaqchikel Kekchi Mam Poqomam 225
  • 226. Tojolabales Tzotzil Tzeltal Tzutujil • Mazatec • Mixtec • Olmec • Otomi • Pipil • Tarascan (Purhépecha) • Tlapanec • Xinca • ZapotecAridoamerica • Aripes • Acaxees • Callejees • Catujanes • Chichimeca o Caxcan o Guachichil o Guamares o Pame o Tecuexe o Zacatec • Cochimí • Cocapás • Guaycunes • Guaycuras • Huastec • Huichol • Irritila • Janambre • Monquis • Ópata • Pericúes (Pericu) • Seri • Tamaholipa • Tarahumara • Tepehuán • Uchitíes • Ximpece • Xiximes 226
  • 227. South AmericaAndean • Atacameño • Aymara • Cañaris • Chachapoyas • Conchucos • Diaguita • Inca • Kogi • Moche • Quechuas (Kichwas) o Chankas o Wankas (Huancas) • SaraguroSub-Andean • Panoan • Shuar (Jívaro, Jibaro)Western Amazon • Amahuaca • Bora people • Candoshi • Flecheiro • Huaorani • Kanamari • Korubu • Kugapakori-Nahua • Kulina • Machiguenga • Marubo • Mashco-Piro • Matis • Matses • Mayoruna • Sharpas • Shipibo • Tsohom Djapá • Ticuna • Tukanoan 227
  • 228. • Witoto • Yaminahua • Yagua • YoraCentral Amazon • Karajá (Iny), Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, and Tocantins provinces, Brazil • Kayapo, Mato Grosso and Pará, Brazil • Tapirape, Brazil • Tupian • Yanomami, Venezuela and BrazilEastern and Southern Amazon • Chuncho • Ge o Bororo • Tupian o Guarani ParaguayGran Chaco • Abipon (verdwenen) • Angaite (Angate) • Ayore (Morotoco, Moro, Zamuco) • Chamacoco (Ishiro) • Chané • Chiquitano (Chiquito, Tarapecosi) • Chorote o Manjuy (Iyowujwa Chorote) o Iyojwaja Chorote • Chulupí (Chulupe, Nivaclé, Ashluslay, Guentusé) • Guana (Kaskihá) • Guaraní o Bolivian Guarani Chiriguano Guarayo (East Bolivian Guarani) o Chiripá (Tsiripá, Ava) o Pai Tavytera (Pai, Montese, Ava) o Tapieté (Ñandeva) o Yuqui (Bia) • Mbayá (Kadiweu, Caduveo, Guaycurú) • Lengua (tribe) (Enxet) o North Lengua (Eenthlit) o South Lengua 228
  • 229. • Lulé (Pelé, Tonocoté) • Maca (Towolhi) • Mocoví (Mocobí) • Pilagá (Pilage Toba) • Sanapana (Quiativis) • Toba (Qom, Frentones) • Vilela • Wichí (Mataco)Southern Cone • Araucanian (Mapuche) o Huilliche (Huillice, Hlliche) o Lafquenche o Mapuche o Pehuenche o Picunche o Promaucae • Chaná (extinct) • Chandule (Chandri) • Charrúa • Chono (extinct) • Comechingon (Henia-Camiare) • Haush (Manekenk, Mánekenk, Aush) • Het (Querandí) (extinct) o Chechehet o Didiuhet o Taluhet • Huarpe (Warpes) (extinct) o Allentiac (Alyentiyak) o Millcayac (Milykayak) o Oico • Kaweshkar (Alacaluf, Halakwulup) • Mbeguá (extinct) • Minuane (extinct) • Puelche (Guenaken, Pampa) (extinct) • Tehuelche o Künün-a-Güna (Gennakenk, Gennaken, Noordelijke Tehuelche) o Küwach-a-Güna o Mecharnúekenk o Aónikenk (Zuidelijke Tehuelche) • Selknam (Ona) • Yamana or Yaghan • Yaro (Jaro) 229
  • 230. LanguagesMain article: Indigenous languages of the Americas See also: Category:Indigenous languages of the AmericasIndigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken byindigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland,encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. These indigenouslanguages consist of dozens of distinct language families as well as many languageisolates and unclassified languages. Many proposals to group these into higher-levelfamilies have been made. According to UNESCO, most of the indigenous Americanlanguages in North America are critically endangered and many of them are alreadyextinct.[38] (Spanish) Aridoamerican tribes by location (Spanish) Mesoamerican tribes by location Genetic classificationA genetic tree showing the main neighbour-joining relationships within Amerindianpopulations.Main article: Indigenous Amerindian geneticsThe haplogroup most commonly associated with Indigenous Amerindian genetics isHaplogroup Q1a3a (Y-DNA).[39] Y-DNA, like (mtDNA), differs from other nuclearchromosomes in that the majority of the Y chromosome is unique and does notrecombine during meiosis. This has the effect that the historical pattern of mutations caneasily be studied.[40] The pattern indicates Indigenous Amerindians experienced two verydistinctive genetic episodes; first with the initial-peopling of the Americas, and secondlywith European colonization of the Americas.[41][42] The former is the determinant factorfor the number of gene lineages and founding haplotypes present in todays IndigenousAmerindian populations.[41] 230
  • 231. Human settlement of the New World occurred in stages from the Bering sea coast line,with an initial 20,000-year layover on Beringia for the founding population.[43][44] Themicro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South Americaindicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initialcolonization of the region..[45] The Na-Dené, Inuit and Indigenous Alaskan populationsexhibit haplogroup Q (Y-DNA) mutations, however are distinct from other indigenousAmerindians with various mtDNA mutations.[46][47][48] This suggests that the earliestmigrants into the northern extremes of North America and Greenland derived from laterpopulations.[49] otes 1. ^ "Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization. 2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Sturtevant and Trigger, ix 3. ^ a b c d e f Sturtevant and Trigger, 241 4. ^ a b c Sturtevant and Trigger, 255 5. ^ a b c d Sturtevant and Trigger, 198 6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Sturtevant and Trigger, 161 7. ^ Sturtevant and Trigger, 96 8. ^ a b c d e f g h DAzevedo, ix 9. ^ a b c d e f g Pritzker, 230 10. ^ DAzevedo, 161-2 11. ^ DAzevedo, 282 12. ^ a b c d e DAzevedo, 306 13. ^ a b DAzevedo, 335 14. ^ a b c d e f DAzevedo, 339 15. ^ a b c d DAzevedo, 340 16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sturtevant and Fogelson, 374 17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Sturtevant and Fogelson, 69 18. ^ a b c d e f Sturtevant and Fogelson, 205 19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Sturtevant and Fogelson, ix 20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Sturtevant and Fogelson, 214 21. ^ Sturtevant and Fogelson, 673 22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sturtevant and Fogelson, 81-82 23. ^ a b c Sturtevant and Fogelson, 315 24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Sturtevant, 617 25. ^ a b c d e Frank, Andrew K. Indian Removal. Oklahoma Historical Societys Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. (retrieved 10 July 2009) 26. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sturtevant and Fogelson, 293 27. ^ a b Sturtevant and Fogelson, 188 28. ^ a b Sturtevant and Fogelson, 598-9 29. ^ a b Sturtevant and Fogelson, 290 30. ^ a b Sturtevant and Fogelson, 291 231
  • 232. 31. ^ a b c Sturtevant and Fogelson, 30232. ^ Haliwa-Saponi Tribe. (retrieved 10 July 2009)33. ^ Hahn 199334. ^ Sturtevant and Fogelson, 78, 66835. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Hahn 1996, 5-1336. ^ Hann 2003:1137. ^ Sturtevant and Fogelson, 19038. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: ^ "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas" (pdf). Department of Biology, University College, London; Departamento de Gene´tica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientı´ficas, Caracas, Venezuela; Departamento de Gene´tica, Universidade Federal do Parana´, Curitiba, Brazil; 5Department of Anthropology, University of ew Mexico, Albuquerque; 6Laboratorio de Gene´tica Humana, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota´; Victoria Hospital, Prince Albert, Canada; Subassembly of Medical Sciences, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; Laboratorio de Gene´tica Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellı´n, Colombia; Universite´ de Montreal. University College London 73:524–539. 2003. YAmer.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-22.40. ^ Orgel L (2004). "Prebiotic chemistry and the origin of the RNA world" (pdf). Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 39 (2): 99–123. doi:10.1080/10409230490460765. PMID 15217990. Retrieved 2010-01-19.41. ^ a b "Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup Q" (Verbal tutorial possible). Genebase Systems. 2008. Retrieved 2009-11-21. "Haplogroups are defined by unique mutation events such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs. These SNPs mark the branch of a haplogroup, and indicate that all descendents of that haplogroup at one time shared a common ancestor. The Y-DNA SNP mutations were passed from father to son over thousands of years. Over time, additional SNPs occur within a haplogroup, leading to new lineages. These new lineages are considered subclades of the haplogroup. Each time a new mutation occurs, there is a new branch in the haplogroup, and therefore a new subclade. Haplogroup Q, possibly the youngest of the 20 Y-chromosome haplogroups, originated with the SNP mutation M242 in a man from Haplogroup P that likely lived in Siberia approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years before present"42. ^ Wells, Spencer; Read, Mark (Digitised online by Google books). The Journey of Man - A Genetic Odyssey. Random House. ISBN 0812971469. _zu5sC&lpg=PP1&dq=The%20Journey%20of%20Man&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q =&f=false. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 232
  • 233. 43. ^ First Americans Endured 20,000-Year Layover - Jennifer Viegas, Discovery ews,, retrieved 2009-11-18, "Archaeological evidence, in fact, recognizes that people started to leave Beringia for the New World around 40,000 years ago, but rapid expansion into North America didnt occur until about 15,000 years ago, when the ice had literally broken" page 244. ^ Than, Ker (2008). "New World Settlers Took 20,000-Year Pit Stop". National Geographic Society. america-layover.html. Retrieved 2010-01-23. "Over time descendants developed a unique culture—one that was different from the original migrants way of life in Asia but which contained seeds of the new cultures that would eventually appear throughout the Americas"45. ^ "Summary of knowledge on the subclades of Haplogroup Q". Genebase Systems. 2009. . Retrieved 2009-11-22.46. ^ Ruhlen M (November 1998). "The origin of the Na-Dene". Proceedings of the ational Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 (23): 13994–6. PMID 9811914. PMC 25007. ^ Zegura SL, Karafet TM, Zhivotovsky LA, Hammer MF (January 2004). "High- resolution SNPs and microsatellite haplotypes point to a single, recent entry of Native American Y chromosomes into the Americas". Molecular Biology and Evolution 21 (1): 164–75. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh009. PMID 14595095.48. ^ "mtDNA Variation among Greenland Eskimos. The Edge of the Beringian Expansion". Laboratory of Biological Anthropology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research,University of Cambridge, Cambridge, University of Hamburg, Hamburg. 2000. 9297%2807%2963257-1. Retrieved 2009-11-22. "The relatively lower coalescence time of the entire haplogroup A2 including the shared sub-arctic branches A2b (Siberians and Inuit) and A2a (Eskimos and Na-Dené) is probably due to secondary expansions of haplogroup A2 from the Beringia area, which would have averaged the overall internal variation of haplogroup A2 in North America."49. ^ "Native American Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Indicates That the Amerind and the Nadene Populations Were Founded by Two Independent Migrations". Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine and Departments of Biochemistry and Anthropology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. Genetics Society of America. Vol 130, 153-162. Retrieved 2009-11-28. "The divergence time for the Nadene portion of the HaeIII np 663 lineage was about 6,000-10,000 years. Hence, the ancestral Nadene migrated from Asia independently and considerably more recently than the progenitors of the Amerinds" 233
  • 234. References • DAzevedo, Warren L., Volume Editor. Handbook of orth American Indians, Volume 11: Great Basin. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986. ISBN 978-0160045813. • Hann, John H. "The Mayaca and Jororo and Missions to Them", in McEwan, Bonnie G. ed. The Spanish Missions of "La Florida". Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. 1993. ISBN 0-8130-1232-5. • Hahn, John H. A History of the Timucua Indians and Missions. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 1996. ISBN 0-8130-1424-7. • Hann, John H. (2003). Indians of Central and South Florida: 1513-1763. University Press of Florida. ISBN0-8130-2645-8 • Pritzker, Barry M. A ative American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0195138771. • Sturtevant, William C., general editor and Bruce G. Trigger, volume editor. Handbook of orth American Indians: ortheast. Volume 15. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. ASIN B000NOYRRA. • Sturtevant, William C., general editor and Raymond D. Fogelson, volume editor. Handbook of orth American Indians: Southeast. Volume 14. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2004. ISBN 0-16-072300-0.[show]v•d•e Indigenous peoples of the Americas North America States · Mexico · Central America · West Indies Canada · United Argentina · Brazil · Chile · Colombia · Ecuador · Peru · Venezuela South America Salvador · South American Indigenous people[show]v•d•eIndigenous peoples of the Pacific orthwest Coast 234
  • 235. [show]v•d•e ative peoples of the Pacific orthwest[show]v•d•ePre-Columbian Civilizations and Cultures[show]v•d•e Pre-Columbian orth AmericaRetrieved from"" 235
  • 236. Categories: Indigenous peoples of the Americas | Native American tribes | Indigenouslanguages of the Americas 236