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  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a proprietary Cisco protocol that runs on Cisco routers and internal route processors found in the Cisco Distribution and Core layer switches. In this section, you’ll see the many features of EIGRP and describe how it works, with particular focus on the unique way it discovers, selects, and advertises routes. There are a number of powerful features that make EIGRP a real stand out from IGRP and other protocols. The main ones are listed here: Support for IP, IPX, and AppleTalk via protocol-dependent modules Efficient neighbor discovery Communication via Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) Best path selection via Diffusing update algorithm (DUAL)
  • Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) is a classless, enhanced distance-vector protocol that gives us a real edge over another Cisco proprietary protocol, Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). That’s basically why it’s called Enhanced IGRP. Like IGRP, EIGRP uses the concept of an autonomous system to describe the set of contiguous routers that run the same routing protocol and share routing information. But unlike IGRP, EIGRP includes the subnet mask in its route updates. And as you now know, the advertisement of subnet information allows us to use VLSM and summarization when designing our networks!
  • EIGRP doesn’t send link-state packets as OSPF does; instead, it sends traditional distance-vector updates containing information about networks plus the cost of reaching them from the perspective of the advertising router. And EIGRP has link-state characteristics as well—it synchronizes routing tables between neighbors at startup, and then sends specific updates only when topology changes occur.
  • The neighborship table (usually referred to as the neighbor table) records information about routers with whom neighborship relationships have been formed. The topology table stores the route advertisements about every route in the internetwork received from each neighbor. The route table stores the routes that are currently used to make routing decision. There would be separate copies of each of these tables for each protocol that is actively being supported by EIGRP, whether it’s IP, IPX, or AppleTalk.
  • The neighbor table and topology table are held in ram and are maintained through the use of hello and update packets.
  • Successor route is used by EIGRP to forward traffic to a destination A successor routes may be backed up by a feasible successor route Successor routes are stored in both the topology table and the routing table
  • Like IGRP, EIGRP uses only bandwidth and delay of the line to determine the best path to a remote network by default. Cisco sometimes likes to call these path bandwidth value and cumulative line delay—go figure.
  • To start an EIGRP session on a router, use the router eigrp command followed by the autonomous system number of your network. You then enter the network numbers connected to the router using the network command followed by the network number.
  • Redistribution is important, because if you want to use EIGRP and don’t have all Cisco router, you need to configure redistribution commands. If you are using IGRP and want to migrate to EIGRP (yes, you should do this), configure EIGRP with the same AS number and EIGRP automatically redistributed IGRP into EIGRP routes. These routes show up as external routes with an AS of 170.
  • RIPv1 and RIPv2 use the same metric (hop count) and would find the 56K link the best path to the remote network. EIGRP and IGRP use the same metric as well (bandwidth and delay of the line) and would use the path through the LAN interfaces, not the serial T1’s.
  • Show ip route: Shows the entire routing table show ip route eigrp: Shows only EIGRP entries in the routing table show ip eigrp neighbors: Shows all EIGRP neighbors. show ip eigrp topology: Shows entries in the EIGRP topology table. Which EIGRP show command will provide you with the IP addresses of the devices with which the router has established an adjacency, as well as the transmit and queue counts for the adjacent routers? Which command will display all the EIGRP feasible successor routes known to a router?
  • The show ip route command, or the show ip route eigrp command, will show you the routing table the routes found by DUAL. -D is for “Dual” -[90/2172] is the administrative distance and cost of the route. The cost of the route is a composite metric comprised from the bandwidth and delay of the line
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an open standards routing protocol that’s been implemented by a wide variety of network vendors, including Cisco. If you have multiple routers, and not all of them are Cisco (what!) then you can’t use EIGRP now can you? So your remaining options are basically RIP, RIPv2 or OSPF. If it’s a large network, then really, your only options are OSPF, or something called route redistribution—a translation service between routing protocols. OSPF converges quickly, although perhaps not as quickly as EIGRP, and it supports multiple, equal-cost routes to the same destination. But unlike EIGRP, it only supports IP routing.
  • OSPF is supposed to be designed in a hierarchical fashion, which basically means that you can separate the larger internetwork into smaller Internetworks called areas.
  • This slides represents some important Link State characteristics, compared to distance vector.
  • Notice how each router connects to the backbone—called area 0, or the backbone area. OSPF must have an area 0, and all routers should connect to this area if at all possible, but routers that connect other areas within an AS together are called Area Boundary Routers (ABRs). Still, at least one interface must be in area 0. OSPF runs inside an autonomous system, but can also connect multiple autonomous systems together. The router that connects these AS’s together is called an Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR). Area 0 is called the backbone area Hierarchical OSPF networks do not require multiple areas You must have an area 0 Multiple OSPF areas must connect to area 0
  • Configuring basic OSPF isn’t as simple as RIP, IGRP and EIGRP, and it can get can really complex once the many options that are allowed within OSPF are factored in. These two elements are the basic elements of OSPF configuration: -Enabling OSPF -Configuring OSPF areas The easiest, and also least scalable way to configure OSPF is to just use a single area. Doing this requires a minimum of two commands as shown in the next slide. The command you use to activate the OSPF routing process is: Lab_A(config)# router ospf ? <1-65535> A value in the range 1– 65535 identifies the OSPF Process ID. Process ID’s can be assigned any number from 0 to 65535 Area’s can be any number up to 2.4 billion
  • There are various ways to configure OSPF. The configuration of R3 shows how the wildcard is used to place each interface individually into area 0 R2 show how two interface can be configured into area 0 with one wildcard network statement of R3 shows the wildcards of and It doesn’t matter how you configure the network statements, the results are the same. Remember, the process ID is irrelevant and can be the same on each router, or different on each router, as they are in this example.
  • There are several ways to verify proper OSPF configuration and operation, and this slides shows some basic verification commands that you will use in the next hands-on labs.
  • Neighbors Neighbors are two or more routers that have an interface on a common network, such as two routers connected on a point-to-point serial link. Adjacency An adjacency is a relationship between two OSPF routers that permits the direct exchange of route updates. OSPF is really picky about sharing routing information, unlike EIGRP that directly shares routes with all of its neighbors. Instead, OSPF directly shares routes only with neighbors that have also established adjacencies. Link State Advertisement A Link State Advertisement (LSA) is an OSPF data packet containing link-state and routing information that’s shared among OSPF routers.
  • Neighbor Two routers that have an interface on a common network Usually discovered by hello’s but can also be configured administratively Adjacency Relationship formed between selected neighbors in which routing information is exchanged. Not all neighbors are adjacent Only Broadcast and Non-Broadcast network types have Designated and Backup Designated Routers!!!
  • Each router that is participating in OSPF needs to be uniquely identified. The method of identification that OSPF uses is Router IDs (RID). 32 bits that uniquely identifies an OSPF router Highest IP address in router is RouterID Overridden by Loopback interface if present Even if Loopback address has lower value Recommended to use loopback interface Easier to manipulate this number Always up Interface loopback 0 Ip address You can also Statically assign the Router ID in the OSPF router configuration mode: (config)# router ospf 1 (config-router)# router-id Do NOT use same loopback address on different routers
  • The following outlines the process OSPF takes and rules that are followed when electing a Designated Router: Routers elect a DR and BDR per network All routers set by default to priority 1 (0-255) Priority of zero (0) means router can not be elected as a DR Router with highest priority wins BDR (1 – 255), if no other router has a higher priority the BDR will then become the DR RouterID breaks tie, Router ID is either the Highest Loopback or Highest Configured IP address on any given active interface If DR fails, BDR promoted to DR and a new BDR is elected Existing DR will not be overthrown if “better” router is turned on after initial election DRs and BDRs listen to multicast traffic on both multicast address and is exclusively listed to by DRs
  • Configuring loopback interfaces when using the OSPF routing protocol is important and Cisco suggests using them whenever you configure OSPF on a router. Loopback interfaces are logical interfaces, which means they are not real router interfaces. They can be used for diagnostic purposes as well as OSPF configuration. The reason you want to configure a loopback interface on a router is because if you don’t, the highest IP address on a router will become that routers Router ID (RID). The RID is used to advertise the routes as well as elect the designated router (DR) and backup designated router (BDR).
  • Sometimes it is desirable for a router to be configured so that it is not eligible to become the DR or BDR. You can do this by setting the OSPF priority to zero with the ip ospf priority priority# interface subcommand. Router(config-if)# ip ospf priority {0 – 255} Change the priority of a router on an interface 0 means to not participate in election 1 is default, 255 is highest priority
  • First, what is the RID of each router? Which router is the default DR for the LAN? There are three options that will ensure that R2 will be the DR for the LAN segment Configure the priority value of the Fa0/0 interface of the R2 router to a higher value than any other interface on the Ethernet network Configure a loopback interface on the R2 with an IP address higher than any IP address on the other routers Change the priority value of the Fa0/0 interface of R1 and R3 to zero
  • This slides introduces the wildcards used in OSPF. These wildcards will also be used in access-list configurations. A 0 octet in the wildcard mask indicates that the corresponding octet in the network must match exactly. On the other hand, a 255 indicates that you don’t care what the corresponding octet is in the network number. A network and wildcard mask combination of would match only, and nothing else. This is really useful if you want to activate OSPF on a specific interface in a very clear and simple way. If you insist on matching a range of networks, the network and wildcard mask combination of would match anything in the range– Because of this, it’s simpler and safer to stick to using wildcard masks of and identify each OSPF interface individually.
  • This slides shows how to find a wildcard that can be used to configure a subnet in an octet.
  • You need to understand wildcard configuration. Configure the Lab_B router using wildcards: Router ospf 1 Network area 0 Network area 0 Network area 0 NOTE: to remove a bad entry, use the following example: Router(config)#router ospf 1 Router(config-router)#no network area 0 Router(config-router)#network area 0
  • Chapter7ccna

    1. 1. Instructor & Todd Lammle Sybex CCNA 640-802 Chapter 7: EIGRP and OSPF
    2. 2. Chapter 7 Objectives <ul><li>Enhanced IGRP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EIGRP tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring EIGRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verifying EIGRP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Shortest Path First </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring OSPF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verifying OSPF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring OSPF with wildcards </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. What Is Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)? <ul><li>Enhanced IGRP supports: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid convergence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced bandwidth usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple network-layer support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Diffused Update Algorithm (DUAL) to select loop-free routes and enable fast convergence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to six unequal paths to a remote network (4 by default) </li></ul></ul>Enhanced IGRP IPX Routing Protocols AppleTalk Routing Protocol IP Routing Protocols IPX Routing Protocols AppleTalk Routing Protocol IP Routing Protocols
    4. 4. Comparing EIGRP and IGRP <ul><ul><li>Similar metric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same load balancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved convergence time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced network overhead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum hop count of 255 (100 default) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EIGRP can differentiate between internal and external routes </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. EIGRP for IP <ul><li>No updates. Route updates sent only when a change occurs – multicast on </li></ul><ul><li>Hello messages sent to neighbors every 5 seconds (60 seconds in most WANs) </li></ul>hello Enhanced IGRP EIGRP EIGRP
    6. 6. EIGRP Terminology Neighbor Table—IP Next Hop Interface Router Note: A feasible successor is a backup route and stored in the Topology table Topology Table—IP Destination 1 Successor Destination 1 Feasible Successor Routing Table—IP Destination 1 Successor
    7. 7. EIGRP Tables <ul><li>The neighbor table and topology table are held in ram and are maintained through the use of hello and update packets . </li></ul>hello To see all feasible successor routes known to a router, use the show ip eigrp topology command Enhanced IGRP EIGRP EIGRP
    8. 8. Successor routes <ul><li>Successor route is used by EIGRP to forward traffic to a destination </li></ul><ul><li>A successor routes may be backed up by a feasible successor route </li></ul><ul><li>Successor routes are stored in both the topology table and the routing table </li></ul>Routing Table—IP Destination 1 Successor Topology Table—IP Destination 1 Successor Destination 1 Feasible Successor
    9. 9. Choosing Routes <ul><li>EIGRP uses a composite metric to pick the best path: bandwidth and delay of the line </li></ul><ul><li>EIGRP can load balance across six unequal cost paths to a remote network (4 by default) </li></ul>IPX 19.2 T1 T1 T1 IPX AppleTalk IP AppleTalk IP A B D C
    10. 10. Configuring EIGRP for IP AS=10 Router(config)# router eigrp 10 Router(config-router)# network Router(config-router)# network A C B Enable EIGRP Assign networks If you use the same AS number for EIGRP as IGRP, EIGRP will automatically redistribute IGRP into EIGRP
    11. 11. Redistribution <ul><li>Redistribution is translating one type of routing protocol into another. </li></ul>Router D Router B Router A Router C EIGRP IGRP IGRP and EIGRP translate automatically, as long as they are both using the same AS number
    12. 12. Route Path <ul><li>Assuming all default parameters, which route will RIP (v1 and v2) take, and which route will EIGRP take? </li></ul>T1 T1 100BaseT 100BaseT 10BaseT 56K
    13. 13. Verifying Enhanced IGRP Operation <ul><li>Displays the neighbors discovered by IP Enhanced IGRP </li></ul><ul><li>Displays the IP Enhanced IGRP topology table </li></ul><ul><li>Displays current Enhanced IGRP entries in the routing table </li></ul><ul><li>Displays the parameters and current state of the active routing protocol process </li></ul><ul><li>Displays the number of IP Enhanced IGRP packets sent and received </li></ul>show ip protocols Router# show ip route eigrp Router# show ip eigrp traffic Router# show ip eigrp neighbors Router# show ip eigrp topology Router#
    14. 14. Show IP Route <ul><li>-D is for “Dual” </li></ul><ul><li>-[90/2172] is the administrative distance and cost of the route. The cost of the route is a composite metric comprised from the bandwidth and delay of the line </li></ul>P1R1# sh ip route [output cut] Gateway of last resort is not set D [90/2172] via,00:04:36, Serial0/0 C is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 D [90/2681] via,00:04:36, Serial0/0 C is directly connected, Serial0/0 D [90/2707] via,00:04:35, Serial0/0 P1R1#
    15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Open standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortest path first (SPF) algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link-state routing protocol (vs. distance vector) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to route between AS’s </li></ul></ul>Introducing OSPF
    16. 16. OSPF Hierarchical Routing <ul><ul><li>Consists of areas and autonomous systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes routing update traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports VLSM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlimited hop count </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Link State Vs. Distance Vector <ul><li>Link State: </li></ul><ul><li>Provides common view of entire topology </li></ul><ul><li>Calculates shortest path </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes event-triggered updates </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to route between AS’s </li></ul><ul><li>Distance Vector: </li></ul><ul><li>Exchanges routing tables with neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes frequent periodic updates </li></ul>
    18. 18. Types of OSPF Routers Internal Routers Area 1 Area 2 ASBR and Backbone Router Backbone/ Internal Routers ABR and Backbone Router Backbone Area 0 ABR and Backbone Router Internal Routers <ul><li>External AS </li></ul>
    19. 19. Configuring Single Area OSPF Router(config-router)# network address mask area area-id Assigns networks to a specific OSPF area Router(config)# router ospf process-id Defines OSPF as the IP routing protocol Note: The process ID is locally significant and is needed to identify a unique instance of an OSPF database
    20. 20. OSPF Example hostname R3 router ospf 10 network area 0 network area 0 hostname R2 router ospf 20 network area 0 hostname R1 router ospf 30 network area 0 network area 0 R3 R2 R1 Area 0
    21. 21. Verifying the OSPF Configuration Router# show ip ospf interface Displays area-ID and adjacency information Router# show ip protocols Verifies that OSPF is configured Router# show ip route Displays all the routes learned by the router Router# show ip ospf neighbor Displays OSPF-neighbor information on a per-interface basis
    22. 22. OSFP Neighbors <ul><li>OSPF uses hello packets to create adjacencies and maintain connectivity with neighbor routers </li></ul><ul><li>OSPF uses the multicast address </li></ul>Hello? <ul><li>Hello packets provides dynamic neighbor discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Hello Packets maintains neighbor relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Hello packets and LSA’s from other routers help build and maintain the topological database </li></ul>
    23. 23. OSPF Terminology <ul><li>Neighbor </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacency </li></ul>Neighbors Cost=6 ABR BDR DR Non-DR Adjacencies
    24. 24. Router ID (RID) <ul><li>Each router in OSPF needs to be uniquely identified to properly arrange them in the Neighbor tables. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Electing the DR and BDR <ul><li>OSPF sends Hellos which elect DRs and BDRs </li></ul><ul><li>Router form adjacencies with DRs and BDRs in a multi-access environment </li></ul>Multicast Hellos are sent and compared Router with Highest Priority is Elected as DR Router with 2 nd Highest Priority is Elected as BDR
    26. 26. Configuring Loopback Interfaces <ul><li>Router ID (RID): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number by which the router is known to OSPF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Default: The highest IP address on an active interface at the moment of OSPF process startup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be overridden by a loopback interface: Highest IP address of any active loopback interface – also called a logical interface </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Interface Priorities <ul><li>What is the default OSPF interface priority? </li></ul><ul><li>Router# show ip ospf interface ethernet0/0 </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet0 is up, line protocol is up </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Address, Area 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Process ID 19, Router ID, Network Type BROADCAST, </li></ul><ul><li>Cost: 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Designated Router (ID), Interface address </li></ul><ul><li>No backup designated router on this network </li></ul><ul><li>Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Hello due in 00:00:06 </li></ul><ul><li>Index 2/2, flood queue length 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) </li></ul><ul><li>Last flood scan length is 0, maximum is 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbor Count is 0, Adjacent neighbor count is 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Ensuring your DR <ul><li>What options can you configure that will ensure that R2 will be the DR of the LAN segment? </li></ul>
    29. 29. Configuring Wildcards <ul><li>If you want to advertise a partial octet (subnet), you need to use wildcards. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> means all octets match exactly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> means that the first three match exactly, but the last octet can be any value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After that, you must remember your block sizes…. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Wildcard <ul><li>The wildcard address is always one less than the block size…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> = </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> = </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> = </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> = </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Wildcard Configuration of the Lab_B Router <ul><li>Lab_A </li></ul><ul><li>E0: </li></ul><ul><li>S0: </li></ul><ul><li>Lab_B </li></ul><ul><li>E0: </li></ul><ul><li>S0: </li></ul><ul><li>S1: </li></ul><ul><li>Lab_C </li></ul><ul><li>E0: </li></ul><ul><li>S1: </li></ul>
    32. 32. Summary <ul><li>Go through all the written and review questions </li></ul><ul><li>Go over the answers with the class </li></ul>