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Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
Session 3   energy carriers and fuels
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Session 3 energy carriers and fuels

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energy carriers and fuels

energy carriers and fuels

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  • 1. Session 3 – Energy Carriers and Fuels • • • • • • • • Text, Chapter 2 Some additional units and concepts Human energy Photosynthesis Primary energy and energy carriers Conversion efficiency Primary fuels compared Reserves and depletion T. Ferguson,
  • 2. Additional Units and Concepts • Accuracy: abbreviations, leading zero, signage • Bbls, Mcf, tonnes, tons, 1000 Btus/SCF of gas • 3413 Btu/kWh, 746 W/hp (useful for heating, pumps T. Ferguson,
  • 3. Human Energy 1 food Calorie = 1000 calories 1 calorie = 4.2 Joules Mean U.S. daily intake = 2146 Calories = 0.025 Calories per second = 25 calories/s = 105 Joules/s = 105 Watts McDonald’s Big Mac = 350 BTUs/hour (A 70,000 BTU furnace = 200 people) 540 Calories Source: McDonald’s Website and American Heart Association T. Ferguson,
  • 4. Potential Impact of Cutting Back Total US Caloric intake in 2003: 1.2 X 1015 BTUs Total US Energy Consumed to Produce: 1.8 X 1015 BTUs (plus transportation) If 25% of US population cut back by 200 Calories per day, Energy Savings = 5.4 X 1013 BTUs annually = 15.9 million MWh Or . . . One 2137 MW Coal-fired Power Plant! (Capacity factor = 85%) T. Ferguson,
  • 5. Photosynthesis 6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ΔH = +2800 kJ • • • • • • Each block of 2800 kJ yields 1 mol of Glucose (180g) Net primary production average over earth’s surface estimated at 320 g/m2 (dry grams of green plant/yr)1 Or, 1.6 E17 g/yr over the earth Energy required = (1.6 E17 g/yr) / (180 g/mol) X (2800 kJ/mol) = 2.49 E18 kJ/yr = 2349 Quads/yr Energy from sun = 3,301,887 Quads/yr2 Photosynthesis uses 7 E-4 of Sun’s incident energy, or 7/100 of 1% Sienko, M.J. and R.A.Plane, 1974. Chemical Principles and Properties, Second Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2 At earth, we receive 5.4 E24 J/Yr, but 35% is reflected, leaving 3.5 E24 J/yr at the surface. 1 Quad = 1.06 E18 J 1 T. Ferguson,
  • 6. Primary Energy and Energy Carriers • Carriers: Electricity and Hydrogen • Primary Forms: Solar, gravitational, radioactive • Transport/transmission may require carrier • Efficiency: Storage and Conversion – Storage: power density, energy density T. Ferguson,
  • 7. Conversion/Delivery Efficiency (based on Figure 2.1 in text) Fuel=coal 100% Power Plant 35% efficient High Voltage Transmission 96% efficient Distribution Feeders 98% efficient Load (incan. Light) 5% efficient T. Ferguson,
  • 8. Primary Fuels Compared Five primary fuels, in order of global merit: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Petroleum Natural gas Coal Uranium Renewables T. Ferguson,
  • 9. Petroleum • World’s most important – flexible, transportable • Easy to produce with minimal impact, large int’l market • Production has intermediate carbon intensity • Reserves to production rate = decades Petroleum Producing Groups OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) – 11 countries, 40% of world oil production, 2/3 of proven reserves • Algeria • Indonesia • Iran* • Iraq* • Kuwait* • Libya • Nigeria • Qatar • Saudi Arabia* • UAE • Venezuela* • Original member; founded in 1960 Non-OPEC, Non-US, Non-former USSR • Mexico • China • Canada • Norway • United Kingdom T. Ferguson,
  • 10. Natural Gas (methane) • Abundant, but difficult to transport from remote sites • Transport: gas in pipelines, liquid in ships, etc. • Preferred fossil fuel: lowest carbon intensity, least impact in production and consumption • Barriers: costs of pipelines and LNG terminals (hard on poorest) • US relies heavily on Canada, who is 2nd to Russia as exporter • Reserves/production = 1 decade • Combined cycle gas plants: preferred elect gen T. Ferguson,
  • 11. Coal • Most carbon intensive – 94 E6 cal/kg-mole of CO2 – Methane: 211 E6 cal/kg-mole of CO2 – Propane: 175 E6 cal/kg-mole of CO 2 • • • • Used primarily for electricity production Substantial air pollution w/o controls Reserves/production = 240 years Major producers: US, Russia, China, India, Australia • Deposits remote from loads (transport issues) T. Ferguson,
  • 12. Uranium • • • • • • • • Primary mineral used in nuclear fission Deposits in many countries; only a few produce Historically low, stable prices Most US needs are imported Reserves = century Easily transported – high energy density Increased use = reserves shrink to decades Breeder reactors T. Ferguson,
  • 13. Renewables • • • • • • • • Solar, geothermal, gravitational Regeneration of fuel over short time scales Free fuel, costly equipment Enormous reserves Biomass: solar to biofuel at 1-2% efficiency Biomass use can cause desertification Hydro is largest of sources, storage is natural Wind is solar; both are variable, nondispatchable • Geothermal: due to interior radioactive decay T. Ferguson,
  • 14. Fossil Fuel Reserves and Depletion • Two views: – Classic: fixed stock; presumes we will run out – Non-classic: new technology will leave reserves in the ground • • • • • • • • • Latter supported by: more, not less, reserves; stable prices Hubbert curves = classic theory Reserves vs. resources (hi/lo confidence) Which is greater concern: scarcity or global warming? Reduction of fossil fuels = higher costs Public supports war subsidy above energy self reliance Renewables must be cost competitive with fossils Some want externalities figured in Transportation tougher to de-carbonize than electricity T. Ferguson,

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