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- 1. Session 14 - Hydropower Manitoba Hydro’s 1340 MW Limestone Generating Station T. Ferguson, University of
- 2. Hydro’s Role in Renewables T. Ferguson, University of
- 3. Countries with Most Dams • • • • • • China (~24,000 dams, about 45% of total) United States (6600) India (4300) Countries with Most Hydro Generation •China 145 GW Japan (2700) •Canada 89 •United States 80 Spain •Brazil 69 •Russia 45 •India 34 Canada • T. Ferguson, University of Japan •Norway •France Sources: Sustainable Energy, Wikipedia 27 27 25
- 4. Hydroelectric Production • • • • • • North America Europe Asia South America Africa Australia T. Ferguson, University of 1 743,000 GWh/yr1 647,000 555,000 471,000 59,000 39,000 Sustainable Energy, Tester, p. 522.
- 5. Largesse of Installations Three Gorges Dam Yangtze River, China 23,000 MW Grand Coulee Dam Columbia River, US 6,500 MW T. Ferguson, University of
- 6. Energy Conversion Principles Power available from 1 cubic meter of water falling through 1 meter every second: P = Energy per unit of Time = mgh = 1000 kg X 9.8 m/s2 X 1 m/ 1 s = 9800 Joules/s = 9800 W = 9.8 kW So, for every cubic meter of water per meter of Drop per second, 9.8 kW of power is available T. Ferguson, University of
- 7. Energy Conversion Principles Impoundment (e.g. Grand Coulee) 1. Cubic meter of Water (ρ= 1000 kg/m3 or 62.4 lb/ft3) Pond or Reservoir Z = head = 160 m 2. PE = mgh or PE/m3 = ρgZ 3. For Grand Coulee, PE/m3 = 1000 kg/m3 X 9.8 m/s2 X 160 m = 1.6 E 6 J T. Ferguson, University of Discharge or Tailrace 4. For a flowrate of 5000 m3/s, Power = Potential Energy X Volume/Time X Efficiency = (1.6 E 6 J) X (5000 m3) X (s-1) X (0.8) = 6.4 E 9 J/s = 6400 MW
- 8. Energy Conversion Principles Run of River (e.g. Limestone Station, MHEB) 1. Flow rate through station matches natural flow rate of river (5100 m 3/s) Forebay Z = 27.6 m 2. Minimal static head: PE = 1000 kg/m3 X 9.8 m/s2 X 27.6 m = 2.7 E 5 J PowerPE = PE X Flowrate X Eff = 1.1 E 9 J/s = 1100 MW T. Ferguson, University of 3. Nameplate capacity = 1340 MW
- 9. Construction Sequence http://www.hydro.mb.ca/corporate/facilities//build_gen_station/constr_sequence.htm T. Ferguson, University of
- 10. T. Ferguson, University of
- 11. Grand Coulee Powerhouse Cross-section 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Excavation Penstock Trashracks Vert. Axis Turbine Runner T. Ferguson, University of
- 12. Turbine-Generator 1. Typical clearance of runner to scroll case wall < 1 mm 2. Wicket gates 3. Stator/Rotor 4. Reaction turbine T. Ferguson, University of Source: Sustainable Energy, p 539.
- 13. Manitoba Hydro AC 1. Length = 900 km 2. 18,432 thyristors (BP2) 3. 4 cm diameter cable Bipole 1 + 450 kVDC ~ Rectifier Bipole 2 + 500 kVDC Inverter AC (Eastern Interconnection) T. Ferguson, University of Source: Manitoba Hydro Limestone
- 14. R&D T. Ferguson, University of
- 15. Future in US is Uncertain T. Ferguson, University of
- 16. Hydroelectric in Developing Countries • Western Uganda: 60 kW run of river system for US$15,000 ($250/kW) • Uganda planning more microhydros • Primary source today is 200 MW hydro; only 5% of population served; drought afflicted • Microhydros: <100 kW; $200-$500/kW; impulse turbines • China has ~ 42,200 microhydros (28 GW) T. Ferguson, University of Source: IEEE Spectrum, May 2007, pp 32-37.

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