Session 14 hydropower

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Session 14 hydropower

  1. 1. Session 14 - Hydropower Manitoba Hydro’s 1340 MW Limestone Generating Station T. Ferguson, University of
  2. 2. Hydro’s Role in Renewables T. Ferguson, University of
  3. 3. Countries with Most Dams • • • • • • China (~24,000 dams, about 45% of total) United States (6600) India (4300) Countries with Most Hydro Generation •China 145 GW Japan (2700) •Canada 89 •United States 80 Spain •Brazil 69 •Russia 45 •India 34 Canada • T. Ferguson, University of Japan •Norway •France Sources: Sustainable Energy, Wikipedia 27 27 25
  4. 4. Hydroelectric Production • • • • • • North America Europe Asia South America Africa Australia T. Ferguson, University of 1 743,000 GWh/yr1 647,000 555,000 471,000 59,000 39,000 Sustainable Energy, Tester, p. 522.
  5. 5. Largesse of Installations Three Gorges Dam Yangtze River, China 23,000 MW Grand Coulee Dam Columbia River, US 6,500 MW T. Ferguson, University of
  6. 6. Energy Conversion Principles Power available from 1 cubic meter of water falling through 1 meter every second: P = Energy per unit of Time = mgh = 1000 kg X 9.8 m/s2 X 1 m/ 1 s = 9800 Joules/s = 9800 W = 9.8 kW So, for every cubic meter of water per meter of Drop per second, 9.8 kW of power is available T. Ferguson, University of
  7. 7. Energy Conversion Principles Impoundment (e.g. Grand Coulee) 1. Cubic meter of Water (ρ= 1000 kg/m3 or 62.4 lb/ft3) Pond or Reservoir Z = head = 160 m 2. PE = mgh or PE/m3 = ρgZ 3. For Grand Coulee, PE/m3 = 1000 kg/m3 X 9.8 m/s2 X 160 m = 1.6 E 6 J T. Ferguson, University of Discharge or Tailrace 4. For a flowrate of 5000 m3/s, Power = Potential Energy X Volume/Time X Efficiency = (1.6 E 6 J) X (5000 m3) X (s-1) X (0.8) = 6.4 E 9 J/s = 6400 MW
  8. 8. Energy Conversion Principles Run of River (e.g. Limestone Station, MHEB) 1. Flow rate through station matches natural flow rate of river (5100 m 3/s) Forebay Z = 27.6 m 2. Minimal static head: PE = 1000 kg/m3 X 9.8 m/s2 X 27.6 m = 2.7 E 5 J PowerPE = PE X Flowrate X Eff = 1.1 E 9 J/s = 1100 MW T. Ferguson, University of 3. Nameplate capacity = 1340 MW
  9. 9. Construction Sequence http://www.hydro.mb.ca/corporate/facilities//build_gen_station/constr_sequence.htm T. Ferguson, University of
  10. 10. T. Ferguson, University of
  11. 11. Grand Coulee Powerhouse Cross-section 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Excavation Penstock Trashracks Vert. Axis Turbine Runner T. Ferguson, University of
  12. 12. Turbine-Generator 1. Typical clearance of runner to scroll case wall < 1 mm 2. Wicket gates 3. Stator/Rotor 4. Reaction turbine T. Ferguson, University of Source: Sustainable Energy, p 539.
  13. 13. Manitoba Hydro AC 1. Length = 900 km 2. 18,432 thyristors (BP2) 3. 4 cm diameter cable Bipole 1 + 450 kVDC ~ Rectifier Bipole 2 + 500 kVDC Inverter AC (Eastern Interconnection) T. Ferguson, University of Source: Manitoba Hydro Limestone
  14. 14. R&D T. Ferguson, University of
  15. 15. Future in US is Uncertain T. Ferguson, University of
  16. 16. Hydroelectric in Developing Countries • Western Uganda: 60 kW run of river system for US$15,000 ($250/kW) • Uganda planning more microhydros • Primary source today is 200 MW hydro; only 5% of population served; drought afflicted • Microhydros: <100 kW; $200-$500/kW; impulse turbines • China has ~ 42,200 microhydros (28 GW) T. Ferguson, University of Source: IEEE Spectrum, May 2007, pp 32-37.

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