Session 11   renewable energy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Session 11 renewable energy

on

  • 195 views

renewable energy

renewable energy

Statistics

Views

Total Views
195
Views on SlideShare
195
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Session 11   renewable energy Session 11 renewable energy Presentation Transcript

  • Session 11 - Renewables • • • • • • Biomass Geothermal Hydro Solar Ocean Based Wind
  • Renewable Sources • Solar • Gravitational • Radioactive All have a nuclear history
  • Attractiveness of Renewables Generally: • It’s abundant, available everywhere • Does not deplete Earth’s resources • Minimal environmental impact
  • Challenges • Technological Challenges – – – – Low capture efficiency Low energy density Lack of dispatchability Environmental issues • Integration Challenges – – – – – Small present contribution High capital costs Materials ramp up limitations Storage, location vs. load, transmission lines Output versus load requirements
  • Overview of Conversion Processes • Solar – Photons to electricity (photoelectric effect) – Electromagnetic wave to heat (absorption) – Thermal expansion to kinetic – Electromagnetic wave to chemical (photosyn.) – EM wave to phase change, storage (hydro)
  • Overview of Conversion Processes (continued) • Gravitational – Potential energy to Kinetic energy (hydro) – Differential kinetic energies (ocean) – Thermal energy from plates, magma • Nuclear – Nuclear to thermal (radioactive decay of K, U, Th in Earth’s interior)
  • Renewables - 2007
  • Saturation US Energy Consumption is ~ 100 Quads. By 2050 with 2% annual growth: 230 Q Scenario 1: No conservation, grow wind and solar from levels of 0.4 Q in 2006 by 15% annually: 187 Q in 2050 Scenario 2: Conservation (1% growth), grow wind and solar by 10% annually: 152 Q needed; 27 Q from renewables
  • Policy • Minnesota’s Next Generation Renewable Energy Objective of 2007: – 25% of electrical energy must derive from renewable fuel by 2025 (30% for Xcel Energy) • US Energy Policy Act of 2005 – Temporary tax breaks for biodiesel – Breaks for closed-loop biomass, solar, wind, geothermal (closed loop = grown exclusively for power production) – Lesser breaks for open-looped biomass, landfill gas, hydroelectric • Minnesota Sustainable Forest Resources Act of 1995 – Provides for multiple uses of forests – Directs Department of Natural Resources to monitor
  • Policy • Minnesota’s Next Generation Renewable Energy Objective of 2007: – 25% of electrical energy must derive from renewable fuel by 2025 (30% for Xcel Energy) • US Energy Policy Act of 2005 – Temporary tax breaks for biodiesel – Breaks for closed-loop biomass, solar, wind, geothermal (closed loop = grown exclusively for power production) – Lesser breaks for open-looped biomass, landfill gas, hydroelectric • Minnesota Sustainable Forest Resources Act of 1995 – Provides for multiple uses of forests – Directs Department of Natural Resources to monitor