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the three fundamentals of islam

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English translation of the Arabic Book "Al-Usul Al-Thalathah wa Adillatuha"

English translation of the Arabic Book "Al-Usul Al-Thalathah wa Adillatuha"

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  • 1. THE THREE FUNDAMENTALS OF ISLAMAND THEIR EVIDENCESWritten by Shaykh Sulayman At-Tamimy(translated by Aboo Afeefah Erlan Agusrijaya) 2004
  • 2. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences THE THREE FUNDAMENTALS OF ISLAM AND THEIR EVIDENCES In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. It is obligatory for you -- may Allah have mercy on you -- toknow that we have got to comprehend the following four points : 1. THE KNOWLEDGE which contains the recognition of Allah, the recognition of the Prophet Muhammad, and the recognition of the religion of Islam, based on the evidences from the Qur’an and The Sunnah. 2. THE ACTION which applies the knowledge. 3. THE PROPAGATION of knowledge. 4. THE PATIENCE in the face of adversity in getting, acting, and propagating the knowledge.Here is the evidence from the Qur’an 1. By the time. 2. Verily! Man is in loss. 3. Except those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, and recommend one 2
  • 3. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences another to the truth1 and recommend one another to patience2. (Surat Al-Asr (103) ; 1-3).Imam Ash-Shafi’iy3 –- may Allah have mercy on him --comments on this surah : “If only no other than this surah hadbeen revealed by Allah to His Creatures, it would have beenenough for them.” Imam Al-Bukhary4 (part 1 page 45) has entitled a chapter: ‘ Chapter : The knowledge Proceeds the Utterance and theAction.” This evidence is that Allah said : “So know (O Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wassalam [Peace be Upon Him]). That La Ilaha ill Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah), and ask forgiveness for you sin.” (Surat Muhammad (47) : 19).Thus, the knowledge comes first before the words and the deeds. Know – may Allah have mercy on you – that Allah has obligedevery Muslim to get to know the following three principles and topractice them accordingly :1 ( i.e. order one another to perform all kinds of good deeds [Al-Ma’ruf] which Allahhas ordained, and abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds [Al-Munkar] which Allahhas forbidden)2 (for the sufferings, harms, and injuries which one way encounter in Allah’s Causeduring preaching His Religion of Islamic Monotheism or Jihad, etc)3 He is Abu ‘Abdillah Muhammad bin Idris bin Al-‘Abbas bin Utsman bin Syafi’ Al-Hasyimi Al-Qurosyi al-Muthalibi ( 150 – 204H = 767 – 820 M)4 He is Abu ‘Abdillah Muhammad bin Isma’il bin Ibrahim bin Al-Mughirah Al-Bukhari( 194 – 256 H = 810 – 870 M ) 3
  • 4. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences First, Allah Alone has created us, has given us sustenance and hehas not left us in doubt, but He has sent to us a Messenger.Consequently, whosoever obeys him (His Messenger) is destined forParadise, and whosoever disobeys him is consigned to Hellfire. Allahhas said : Verily, we have sent to you (O men) a messenger (Muhammad ) to be a witness over you, as We did send a Messenger (Moses) to Pharaoh. But Pharaoh disobeyed the messenger (Moses), so We seized him with a severe punishment. (Al-Muzzammil (73) : 15-16).Second, Allah never tolerates anything to be ascribed partners to him inworshipping Him, neither an angel which is closer to Him nor aMessenger who was sent by Him. Allah has said : “And the mosques are for Allah (Alone), so invoke not anyone along with Allah5” . ( Al-Jinn (72) : 18).Third, whosoever obeys the Messenger and worships no other besidesAllah should not make friendship with those who oppose Allah and HisMessenger even if they were his nearest kin. Allah has said : You (O Muhammad ) will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), even though they were their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their kindred (people).5 Narrated ‘Abdullah: The Prophet Muhammad said one statement and I said another.The Prophet said:”Whoever dies while still invoking anything other than Allah as a rivalto Allah, will enter Hellfire”. And I said:” Whoever dies without invoking anything as arival to Allah, will enter Paradise.”(Sahih Al-Bukhari, 6/4497) 4
  • 5. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences For such He has written Faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with Ruh (proofs, light and true guidance) from Himself. And He will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow, to dwell therein (forever). Allah is pleased with them, and they with Him. They are the party of Allah. Verily, it is the party of Allah that will be the successful. (Al-Mujadilah (58) : 22). Know -- may Allah guide you to obedience to Him -- that Islamwhich is Al-Hanifiyah or the creed of Abraham is that you shouldworship Allah Alone with pure religious devotion. It is this that Allah hasordained on all human beings and indeed He has created them all for thispurpose. Allah has said : And I (Allah) created not the jinn and mankind except they should worship Me (Alone). (Az-Zariyat (51) : 56).The words worship Me in the verse mentioned above mean to testify MyOneness ( Tauhid = Monotheism). Thus, the Greatest Commandment ofAllah is Tauhid ( Monotheism) that is to purify worshipping Allah inorder that He Alone entitled to be worshipped. Otherwise, the GreatProhibition of Allah is Shirk (Polytheism), that is to worship othersbesides Allah. Said Allah in the Qur’an : Worship Allah and join none with Him (in worship). (An-Nisa’, (4) : 36)Then if you are asked: “What are the three fundamentals which must becomprehended by human beings?”, you should answer. “A worshipper is 5
  • 6. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidencesto know his Robb (the Lord of jinn, mankind, and all that exists), HisReligion and His Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasallam (peacebe upon him)”. 6
  • 7. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences RECOGNIZING ALLAH If you are asked: “Who is your Lord?” then you should say: “MyLord is Who created, nourished and cherished me as well as othercreatures with His Bounty. He is my deity (whom I have to worship) andthere is no other deity beside Him”. Said Allah bin the Qur’an: All praises and thanks are Allah’s, the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists). (Al - Fatihah (1:2).Therefore, all that exists beside Allah is ‘Alam (creatures) and I am oneof the creatures. If you are asked: “How have you arrived at this knowledge ofyour Lord?” you should say: “through His Signs and His Creatures.Among His Signs are the night and the day, the sun and the moon, andamong His Creatures are the seven heavens and the seven earths andwhoever and whatever live in them all and beyond”. Said Allah in the Qur’an And from among His Signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate yourselves not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate yourselves to Allah Who created them, if you (really) worship Him”. (Fussilat (41) : 37)And He also said: Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He Istawa (rose over) the 7
  • 8. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the creation and commandment. Blessed is Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinn and that exists). (Al-A’raf (7): 54).This is the only Lord Who has the right to be worshipped.Allah has said: O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqun (the pious), (Allah) Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped). (Al-Baqarah (2): 21-22).Ibn Kathir6 - may allah have mercy on him - says: “It is only the Creatorof all that exits Who is worthy to be worshipped”.Some of the forms of the worship are AL-ISLAM, AL-IMAN, AL-IHSAN, AD-DU’A (INVOCATION), AL-KHOUF (FEAR), AR-ROGHBAH (AWE), AL-KHUSHU’ (HUMBLE), AL-KHOSHYAH(APPREHENSION), AL-INABAH (REMORSE), AL-ISTI’ANAH(SUPPLICATION), AL-ISTI’AZAH (APPEAL FOR REFUGE), AL-6 He is Abu Al-Fida’ Isma’il bin Umar bin Katsir Al-Qurosyi Ad-Dimasyqi ( 701 – 774H = 1302 – 1373 M) 8
  • 9. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their EvidencesISTIGHOTHAH (APPEAL FOR SUCCOUR), AZ-ZABH(SACRIFICES), AND AN-NAZR (VOW).All these as well as the other forms of the worship ordained by Allah areall to Allah. Allah has said: And the mosques are for Allah (Alone), so invoke not anyone along with Allah. (Al-Jinn 72: 18).Consequently, if anyone performs one (or more) of the kinds of theworship for besides Allah, then he becomes a Mushrik (Polytheist)and Kafir (Disbeliever).The evidence from the Qur’an: “And whoever invokes (or worships) besides Allah, any other ilah (god), of whom he has no proof, than his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely Al-Kafirun (the disbelievers in Allah and in the Oneness of Allah; polytheists, pagans, idolaters, etc) will not be successful.” (Al-Mu’minun (23): 117).1. Ad-Du’a (Invocation)The evidence from the sunnah:The invocation is the essence of worship. (Quoted by At-Tarmidzi fromAnas bin Malik)The evidence from the Qur’an: “And your Lord said ‘Invoke Me, (i.e. believe in My Oneness [Islamic Monotheism] and ask Me for anything), I will respond to your (invocation). Verily, those who scorn My worship (i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe in My Oneness [Islamic Monotheism] 9
  • 10. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences they will surely enter Hell in humiliation !” (Ghafir (40): 60)2. Al-Khowf (Fear)The evidence from the Qur’an: “…, so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are (true) believers. “ (Ali Imron (3): 175).3. Ar-Roja’ (Hope)The evidence from the Qur’an: “…., so whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness, and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord”. (Al-Kahf (18): 110)4. At-Tawakal (Trust)The evidence from the Qur’an: “…., and put your trust in Allah if you are believers indeed. (Al-Maidah (5): 23) “…., and whosoever puts his trust in Allah, then He will suffice him…”. (At-Talaq (65): 3)5. Ar-Roghbah (Aspiration), Ar-Rohbah (Awe) and Al-Khushu’ (Humble)The evidence from the Qur’an: “… verily, they used to hasten on to do good deeds, and they used to call on Us with aspiration and awe, and used to humble themselves before Us. (Al-Anbiya (21): 90) 10
  • 11. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences6. Al-Khoshyah (Apprehension)The evidence from the Qur’an: “…. So fear them not, but fear Me. And so that I may complete My Blessings on you and that you may be guided”. (Al-Baqarah (2): 150)7. Al-Inabah (Remorse)The evidence from the Qur’an: “And turn in repentance and in obedience with true Faith (Islamic Monotheism) to your Lord and submit to Him (in Islam) before the torment comes upon you, (and) then you will not be helped. (Az-Zumar (39): 54)8. Al-Isti’anah (Supplication)The evidence from the Qur’an: “You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything). (Al-Fatihah (1): 5)The evidence from the Sunnah: “If you seek aid, ask Allah for aid. (Quoted by At-Tarmidzi)9. Al-Isti’azah (Appeal for Refuge)The evidence from the Qur’an: “Say:’ I seek for refuge with (Allah) the Lord of mankind.” (An-Nas (114): 1 )10. Al-Istighothah (Appeal for Succour)The evidence from the Qur’an: 11
  • 12. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences “(Remember) when you sought help of your Lord and He answered you (saying): ‘I will help you with a thousand of the angels each behind the other (following one another) in succession”. (Al-Anfal (8): 9)11. Az-Zabh (Sacrifice)The evidence from the Qur’an: “Say (O Muhammad ): ‘Verily, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists). He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims”. (Al- An’am (6): 162-163)The evidence from the Sunnah: Allah curses those who sacrifice to besides Allah. (Quoted by Muslim)12. An-Nazr (Vow)The evidence from the Qur’an: “They (are those who) fulfil (their) vows, and they fear a Day whose evil will wide-spreading.” (Al-Insan (76): 7) RECOGNIZING DEEN AL-ISLAMThis recognition consists in the submission to Allah within Tauhid (bybelieving in His Oneness [Islamic Monotheism]), yielding to Him by 12
  • 13. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidencesobeying His Commandments; and the denial of polytheism andpolytheists.This recognition is constituted by three ranks : (1) islam, (2) iman, and(3) ihsan.The first rank : IslamIt has five pillars, as follows:(1) Confessing (shahadah) (with your heart that you have to say) : “I testify that La Ilaha ill Allah, Muhammad–ur–Rasul–Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah)”.(2) Offering the (compulsory congregational) prayers (solat) dutifully and perfectly.(3) Paying the Zakah(4) Fasting (siyam) in the month of Ramadan(5) Performing hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah)The evidence for shahadah from the Qur’an: “Allah bears witness that La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), and the angels, and those having knowledge (also give this witness); (He always) maintains His creation in justice. La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the All- Mighty, the All-Wise, (Ali Imron (3): 18) 13
  • 14. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their EvidencesThat witness consists in negation and affirmation. La ilaha is to denyany others worshipped besides Allah Alone. Ill-Allah is to declare thatworship is entitled only to Allah; there is no partner associated withAllah in worship like there is no partner associated with Him in HisDominion. The interpretation of the witness is explained in such verses asfollows: And (remember) when Abraham said to his father and his people: “Verily, I am innocent of what you worship, except Him (i.e. I worship none but Allah Alone) Who did create me, and verily, He will guide me”. And He made it (i.e. La Ilaha ill Allah [none has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone] a Word lasting among his offspring (True Monotheism), that they may turn back (i.e. to repent to Allah or receive admonition). (Az-Zukhruf (43): 26-28) “Say (O Muhammad ): “O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a Word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah (Alone), and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah”. Then, if they turn away, say, “Bear witness that we are Muslims.” (Ali Imron (3): 64)The evidence for Shahadah Muhammad-ur-Rasul-Allah from the Qur’anis: “Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger (Muhammad ) from amongst yourselves (i.e. whom you know well). It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He (Muhammad ) is anxious over you 14
  • 15. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences (to be rightly guided, to repent to Allah, and beg Him to pardon and forgive your sins in order that you may enter Paradise and be saved from the punishment of the Hell- fire); for the believers, (he Muhammad is) full of pity, kind and merciful “. (At-Taubah (9): 128)The Shahada Muhammad-ur-Rasul-Allah signifies to obey his ordinance,to believe in what he tells, to avoid what he prohibits, and not to worshipAllah without following his precepts. The evidence for Solat and Zakat including the meaning ofTauhid (Islamic Monotheism) is : “And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allah, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him), and performs As-Solat and give Zakat and that is the right religion”. (Al-Baiyyinah (98) : 5) The evidence for Siyam is : “O you who believe ! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqun (the pious).” (Al-Baqarah (2) : 183) The evidence for Hajj is: “And Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) to the House (Ka’bah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, those who can afford the expenses (for one’s conveyance, provision and residence); and whoever disbelieves (i.e. denies Hajj, then he is a disbeliever of Allah), then Allah stands not in 15
  • 16. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences need of any of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”. (Ali Imron (3): 97).The second rank : IMAN Iman (pronounced “eemaan”) comprises more than seventybranches. The highest of them is to testify that none has the right to beworshipped but Allah, the lowest is to remove any obstacles from anypaths or streets; and modesty is one of the branches of Iman.Iman has six pillars as follows: (1) Believe in Allah, (2) Believe in His Angels (3) Believe in His Books (4) Believe in His Messengers (5) Believe in The Last Day (6) Believe in The Qodr (Divine Preordainments), both the good and the bad.The evidence from the Qur’an for the six pillars of Iman is: It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and every act of obedience to Allah, ) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers), but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Books, the Prophets and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to Al- Masakin (the poor), and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, and performs As-Salah, and gives the Zakat, and who fulfill their covenant when they 16
  • 17. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences make it, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are people of the truth and they are Al- Muttaqun (the pious)”. (Al-Baqarah (2): 177)The evidence for The Qodr (Divine Preordainments) is: “Verily, We have created all things with Qodr (Divine Preordainments of all thing before their creation, as written in the Book of Decrees- Al-Lauh- Al-Mahfuz)”. Al- Qomr (54): 49).The third rank: IHSANIhsan has one pillar only, which is you worship Allah as if you see Him,for though you do not see Him, verily He sees you. The evidence from the Qur’an for Ihsan is: “Truly, Allah is with those who fear Him (keep their duty unto Him) and those who are Muhsinun (doers of Ihsan)”. (An-Nahl (16): 128) And put your trust in the All Mighty, the most Merciful, who sees you (O Muhammad ) when you stand up (alone at night for Tahajjud prayers), and your movements among those who fall prostrate ( to Allah in the five compulsory congregational prayers). Verily, He, only He, is the All-Hearer, the All - Knower. (Ash-Shu’ara (26): 217-220)The evidence from the Sunnah is the well–known Hadeeth of Gabrielquoted by Omar Ibn Al-Khattab --may Allah have mercy on him: 17
  • 18. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences“Once, while we were sitting with the Prophet SAW, therecame up on us a man in very clean white clothes, withvery black hair, with no traces of any traveling on him, yethe was completely strange to all of us.Then, he sat before the Prophet Muhammad with his kneesparallel to the prophet’s and his hands on the prophet’sthighs.He said:“O Muhammad, tell me about Islam?”The prophet said:“It is you are to testify that none has the right to beworshipped but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messengerof Allah, to offer Solat, to pay Zakah, to fast in the monthof Ramadan, and to perform the Hajj if you can afford it”.The stranger said:“ You have spoken the truth”.Then, he asked again:“ Tell me about Iman?”The prophet answered:“ It is are to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, HisMessengers, the Last Day and the Divine Preordainments, goodand bad”The stranger said again:“Tell me about Ihsan?”The prophet answered:“ It is you worship Allah as if you sees Him for though you do notsee Him, then verily He sees you”.The stranger asked again:“Tell me about the Hour (of Judgment)?”The prophet said:“ It is when a slave women gives birth her own mistress,and when you see bare-footed and tattered needyshepherds compete with each other for high buildings”.Omar said: 18
  • 19. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences“ The stranger went out, then we became silent for awhile”The prophet said:“ O Omar, do you recognize the questioner?”We all replied:“Allah and His Messenger know much better”.The prophet said:“It was Gabriel. He has come to you to teach you your religion”. 19
  • 20. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences RECOGNIZING THE PROPHET MUHAMMADHe is Muhammad. His father is Abdullah, his grandfather is AbdulMutolib, and his grand-grandfather is Hashim. Hashim belongs to theclan of Quraish, whereas the Quraish is a part of the Arabs. And theArabs are the descendants of Ishmael, the son of Abraham Al-Khaleel ---may Allah have mercy upon him (Abraham) and our Prophet(Muhammad). Muhammad lived for sixty-three years. Forty years was spentbefore the prophet hood and thirteen years being as a prophet and amessenger. He was initiated as a prophet with the revelation of “Iqra” (Al-Alaq (96): 1-5)And initiated as a messenger with “Al-Muddathir”. He was born in Mecca. He was sent by Allah in order to warnagainst SHIRK (Polytheism) and to preach TAUHID (IslamicMonotheism). The evidence is a follows: “O you (Muhammad ) enveloped in garments!” “ Arise and warn!” “ And magnify your Lord (Allah)!” “ And purify your garments!” “ And keep away from ar-Rujz (the idols)!”. “ And give not a thing in order to have more (or consider not your deeds of obedience to Allah as a favour to Him ?”. “ And be patient for the sake of your Lord (i.e. perform your duty to Allah)”. (Al-Muddaththir (74): 1-7). 20
  • 21. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences The meaning of “arise and warn” is to warn against SHIRK(polytheism) and to preach TAUHID (Islamic Monotheism). “Magnifyyour Lord (Allah)” means to glorify by submitting to and worship HimAlone. “Purify your garments ” means to purify your deeds of shirk(polytheism). And keeps away from ar-Rujz (the idols)” means to keepaway from the idols and the idolaters, to leave them away and to get freefrom them all. He (Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasallam) carried out thepreaching of tauhid for ten years. After that, he was ascended to heavenwhere the five time compulsory prayers (Salah) were ordained to him.He performed the compulsory Salah in Mecca for three years. And then, he was enjoined to do HIJRAH (Islamic Emigration)from Mecca to Medinah. What Hijrah means is to go away from thepolytheist country to the Islamic Monotheist one. And this kind ofemigration is obligatory for this UMMAH (Muslim Community) up tothe Last Day. The evidence for Hijrah is: “Verily! As for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves (as they stayed among the disbelievers even though emigration was obligatory for them), they (angels) say (to them). “In what (condition) were you ?”. They reply : We were weak and oppressed on the earth?. They (angels) say, “Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to emigrate 21
  • 22. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences therein?” Such men will find their abode in Hell--- what an evil destination!” “Except the weak ones among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way. These are they whom Allah is likely to forgive, and Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving. (An-Nisa’ (4): 97- 99)And Allah Also Say : “ O My slaves who believe! Certainly, spacious is My earth. Therefore worship Me (Alone)” (Al-Ankabut (29): 56).According to Al-Baghawi7 - may Allah have mercy on him - therevelation of this ayah refers to the Muslims in Mecca who had notemigrated to Medinah. Consequently, Allah called them “people whobelieve”.Whereas, the evidence for Hijrah from As-Sunnah is: “Hijrah will never cease until Taubah (repentance) cease, and Taubah will cease until the sunrise in the west.” (Quoted by Imam Ahmad in his “Al-Musnad”, Abu Daud in His “Sunan”, And Addarimi in his “Sunan”.)When Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasallam settled in Medinah, theother ordinances of Islam were prescribed, for example, paying zakah,fasting in Ramadhan, performing Hajj. Adhan (the call to prayer), Jihad(the fight for Allah’s Cause), Amr Ma’ruf (enjoining people to do Al-7 He is Abu Muhammad Al-Husain bin Mas’ud bin Muhammad Al-Farra’, also calledIbnul Farra’ ( 436 – 510 H = 1044 –1117 M) 22
  • 23. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their EvidencesMa’ruf) (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do) andNahyi Munkar ( forbidding people from Al-Munkar) ( i.e. polytheismand disbelief of all kinds and all that Islam has forbidden). He carriedout the preaching of all the ordinances for ten years. Then he passedaway. But, his religion is still alive. And this is his religion: THERE WERE NO GOOD DEEDSBUT HE SHOWED TO BE FOLLOWED, AND THERE WERE NOEVIL DEEDS BUT HE WARNED TO BE AVOIDED. The gooddeeds, which he showed, are Tauhid and all that Allah likes and ispleased with, while the evil deeds which he warned against are Shirk andall that Allah dislikes and prohibits. He was sent to all mankind. Therefore, it is obligatory formankind and jinn to obey him. The evidence for this is : “ Say (O Muhammad ): ‘O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah…” (Al-A’raf (7): 159)And by sending him, Allah perfected the religion. The evidence is: “ This day, I have perfected your religion for you, complete My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion”. (Al-Maidah (5): 3)Besides, the evidence for the death of Muhammad sallallahu alaihiwasallam is: “ Verily you (O Muhammad ), will die, and verily, they (too) will die.” 23
  • 24. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences “ Then on the Day of Resurrection, you will be disputing before your Lord”. (Az-Zumar (39): 30-31) After a mankind dies, they will be resurrected. The evidence is:“Thereof (the earth), We created you, and into it We shall return you,and from it We shall bring you out once again”.(Taha (20): 55)After they are resurrected, they will be informed of the Account of theirDeeds and they will be recompensed for the deeds. “And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done (i.e. punish them in Hell), and reward those who do good, with what is best (i.e. Paradise). (An-Najm (53): 31)If someone does not believe in the Day of Resurrection, then he becomesKafir (disbeliever). The evidence in: “The disbelievers pretend that they will never be resurrected (for the Account). Say (O Muhammad): “ Yes! By my Lord, you will certainly be resurrected, then you will be informed of (and recompensed for) what you did; and that is easy for Allah”. (At-Taghabun (64): 7)Allah has sent the Messengers as bearers of good news and warning. Theevidence is: “(We have sent) messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning of in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the (coming of) Messengers. And Allah is Ever All- Powerful, All-Wise.(An-Nisa (4): 165) 24
  • 25. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences The first messenger was Noah Alaihissolatu Wassalam (peace beupon him) whereas the last was Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasallam(peace be upon him) who also the last of prophet. The evidence that NoahAlaihissolatu Wassalam was the first messenger is: “Verily, we have sent the Revelation to you (O Muhammad ) as We sent the Revelation to Noah and the Prophets after him” (An-Nisa’ (4): 163)Amongst every ummah (community, nation), Allah sent a messengerenjoining people to worship Allah Alone and forbidding them to worshipTAGHUT. The evidence is: “And verily, We have sent among every ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah (Alone) and avoid (or keep away from) Taghut (all false deities etc, i.e. do not worship anything besides Allah).” (An-Nahl (16): 36) Allah has commanded all mankinds to disbelieve in Taghut and tobelieve in Him. According to Ibnul Qayyim8 – may Allah have mercy onhim – TAGHUT means any object for which the believers overstep thelimits (which are set by Allah), either in terms of worship, subordinationor obedience.There are many taghuts, but the heads of them are five: (1) Iblees (Satan the Evil one, the Devil) whom cursed by Allah; (2) Whosoever is worshipped and acquiesces in such a worship; (3) Whosoever calls upon people to worship himself;8 He is Abu ‘Abdillah Muhammad bin Abu Bakr bin Ayyub bin Sa’d Az-Zur’I Ad-Dimasyqi, also called Ibnul Qoyyim Al-Jauziyah (691 – 751 H = 1292 – 1350 M) 25
  • 26. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences (4) Whosoever claims to know the unseen; (5) Whosoever judges in accordance with the rules other than those sent down by Allah; Allah says: “There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All- Hearer, All- Knower.” (Al-Baqarah (2): 256)To disbelieve in Taghut and to believe in Allah, as expressed in the forementioned Ayah, is the meaning of La ilaha illallah.In one of the hadeeths, Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam said: “The head of the command is Al-Islam, its pillar is As-Salah (the prayers) and its highest pillar is jihad fi sabilillah (the fight for Allah’s Cause).”( Quoted by At-Tabrani and At-Tarmidzi) AND ALLAH KNOWS BEST Abu ‘Afeefah Erlan Agusrijaya/ Plg/October 7, 2004 /8:32:31 26
  • 27. The Three Fundamentals Of Islam And Their Evidences 27