Workshops escrita modulos_7_8

197 views

Published on

Módulo 7: Linguagem 3: Plain English, Escrever em Inglês, Preposições
Módulo 8: Linguagem 4: Topic Sentences, Cover Letters, Final Remarks

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
197
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
22
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Workshops escrita modulos_7_8

  1. 1. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWorkshop de Capacitação emEscrita CientíficaMódulo 7Prof. Dr. Valtencir ZucolottoLaboratório de Nanomedicina e NanotoxicologiaInstituto de Física de São Carlos, USPUSP, 2012Organização: Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa - USP
  2. 2. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWorkshop OutlineModulo 1: O Gênero LiterárioSeções de Um Artigo CientíficoMódulo 2: Estrutura 1: AbstractMódulo 3: Estrutura 2: IntroductionMódulo 4: Estrutura 3: Results and Discussion, ConclusionMódulo 5: EstiloLinguagem 1: Especificidade, Complexidade e AmbiguidadeMódulo 6: Linguagem 2: Redundâncias, Ação no Verbo, Fluidez deTexto, Ritmo de EscritaMódulo 7: Linguagem 3: Plain English, Escrever em Inglês, PreposiçõesMódulo 8: Linguagem 4: Topic Sentences, Cover Letters, Final Remarks
  3. 3. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brMódulo 7Linguagem 3:Plain English, Escrever em Inglês, Preposições
  4. 4. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brLanguage III
  5. 5. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe concept of Plain EnglishWriting NothingIt is significant to note the fact that…It is relevant to mention here that the results…The findings reported here demonstrated that…
  6. 6. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brAvoid UseUtilization UseFacilitate Cause*Finalize EndUtilize UseFirstly, Secondly First, SecondCommencement BeginningThe concept of Plain EnglishNeedlessly Complex words:
  7. 7. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe word “Fact”Replace “This fact” by:This effect,This hypothesis,This observation,This value,This phenomenon,This finding, etc.The same applies to “Case”Plain English
  8. 8. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br“In this paper, detailed characteristics of the hydrated (LPEI/PAA)OEGDA compositeare investigated and the reason for its relatively high ionic conductivity is discussed.Morphological effects due to the presence of OEGDA oligomer on the phase transitionwill also be described.”Lowman et al., Langmuir 2004, 20, 9791-9795“In the work reported here, a polyelectrolyte multilayer platform capped by apolyanionic surface was created through layer-by-layer assembly [21] and stampedwith a polycationic pattern using POPS, to form docking sites for the negativelycharged magnetic beads.”Lyles et al., Langmuir 2004, 20, 3028-3031M7P1 LangM7P2 LangOooops: The word “work”Complex Words
  9. 9. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brPreliminaryCarefulObtainedNovelSuccessfullyPlain English + Common SenseAre these words relevant in SW??
  10. 10. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe determination of the mechanical properties ofalloys containing manganese was carried out usingthe stress-strain testsWrite in EnglishBrazilian´s problems with articles
  11. 11. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWrite in EnglishMechanical properties of alloys containing manganesewere evaluated using the stress-strain testsBetter ??
  12. 12. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brMechanical properties of Mn-containing alloyswere evaluated via stress-strain analysesIn Scientific Writing:Write in English
  13. 13. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brAcid rain is now a worldwide concern. Observedinitially in Europe as a form of an acidic rain, alsois now observed in the Americas.Lack of a subjectWrite in English
  14. 14. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brAcid rain is now a worldwide concern. Observedinitially in Europe as a form of acidic rain, it isnow also observed in the Americas.Remember:It rained a lot yesterday….One may observe that....Write in English
  15. 15. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThus,In this context,So,Write in English
  16. 16. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brGo to:http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/And check about the use of prepositions inthe following cases:Practice
  17. 17. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brVerbs + Prepositionsaccount decide estimateagree decrease exceedallow determine fitanswer develop hinderbalance differ identifychange disagree originatecompare discern prepareconnect discriminate qualifyconvert distinguish rangecorrelate dividecorrespond elaborateVERBS FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONS
  18. 18. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brabundance control enthusiasm necessaryabundant convenient equality necessityaffinity correct equivalent needakin decrease evidence opportunityapplicable deficient familiar parallelappropriate demand focus proficiencyavailable dependent fundamental proficientbasis difference identical searchcapability different improvement sufficientcapacity disagreement independent suitablecause discussion influence suitedclose disparity inherent superioritycommon distinct intended testconcern distinction level valuableconsistent enhanced method variationWORDS FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONSWords + Prepositions
  19. 19. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brCommonly Misused Words
  20. 20. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brTo Administer or to administrate?http://www.inter-biotec.com/biowc/style.htmlUlcers were induced by administrating 20% acetic acid.Ulcers were induced by administering 20% acetic acid.To administrate: to manage.A drug is administered.Misused Words
  21. 21. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brCommon: widespreadPopular: especially liked or preferred.Cancer is the most common cause of death in….Cancer is the most popular cause of death in….Soccer is a popular sport in BrazilSoccer is a common sport in BrazilCommon or popular?Misused Words
  22. 22. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWe describe/report a patient with malaria.We report/describe a case of malaria.Cases are reportedPatients are describedTo Describe or to report?Misused Words
  23. 23. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThermal analyses were carried out using DSC ….The infrared spectroscopic analysis was performed….Analysis or Analyses?Analysis = SingularAnalyses = PluralMisused Words
  24. 24. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brReproductive or reproducible?Reproductive: related to reproductionReproducible: can be repeated, reproduced.Results were reproducible or reproductive in all threeexperiments.Misused Words
  25. 25. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brEminent: FamousImmanent: Inherent or intrinsicImminent: Ready to take placeEminent, Immanent or Imminent ?An eminent peak….A combination of immanent properties….An Imminent event will happen soon….Misused Words
  26. 26. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThrough: by means of;Thorough: careful, completeThough: however; neverthelessThrough, Thorough or Though?-Calculations were made through computational simulations-The substrates were thoroughly washed with pure water- Results agreed with previous papers, though few discrepanciesappearedMisused Words
  27. 27. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brHard or Hardly?Hard: Performed with energy:A project that required years of hard work.Hardly: Barely; almost not:I could hardly hear the speaker.Work hard or work hardly??Misused Words
  28. 28. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brCompose or Comprise?Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygenTraining comprised theoretical and practical classesMisused Words
  29. 29. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brAbility and capacityAbility: SkillEx: Hemoglobin has the ability to combine with oxygen.Capacity: Total amount that something can hold, containor receiveEx: The beaker used in distillation had a capacity of 50mL.Misused Words
  30. 30. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brIncrease, Enhance and ImproveIncrease: To become grater or larger in size, number, degree…Enhance: To add value or worthy to something already attractiveImprove: To raise to a better quality or condition.The number of transgenic species increased in the last years.Computer software enhanced with the advent of Internet.The treatment improved patients condition.Misused Words
  31. 31. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brData: A plural, like phenomena and strata.William Strunk and E. B. White, The Elements of StyleData: In its current use, data occurs in two constructions: as aplural noun (like earnings) taking a plural verb…and asan abstract mass noun (like information) taking a singularverb…Merriam-Webster Dictionary of English UsageMisused Words
  32. 32. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brSourceshttp://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0200807.htmlEssentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers by Mimi Zeiger,Mcgraw-Hill Professional, 2nd Ed, 2000.
  33. 33. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brValtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brwww.lnn.ifsc.usp.brwww.twitter.com/NanomedicinaInstituto de Física de São Carlos - USPMuito Obrigadowww.twitter.com/escreverartigoswww.twitter.com/writingpapers
  34. 34. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWorkshop de Capacitação emEscrita CientíficaMódulo 8Prof. Dr. Valtencir ZucolottoLaboratório de Nanomedicina e NanotoxicologiaInstituto de Física de São Carlos, USPUSP, 2012Organização: Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa - USP
  35. 35. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWorkshop OutlineModulo 1: O Gênero LiterárioSeções de Um Artigo CientíficoMódulo 2: Estrutura 1: AbstractMódulo 3: Estrutura 2: IntroductionMódulo 4: Estrutura 3: Results and Discussion, ConclusionMódulo 5: EstiloLinguagem 1: Especificidade, Complexidade e AmbiguidadeMódulo 6: Linguagem 2: Redundâncias, Ação no Verbo, Fluidez deTexto, Ritmo de EscritaMódulo 7: Linguagem 3: Plain English, Escrever em Inglês, PreposiçõesMódulo 8: Linguagem 4: Topic Sentences, Cover Letters, Final Remarks
  36. 36. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brMódulo 8Linguagem 4:Topic Sentences, Cover Letters, Final Remarks
  37. 37. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brLanguage IV
  38. 38. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brT. Sentences are strongly correlated with:-Topic (keyword) and-Message of the paragraph (verb/subject structure).Topic SentencesA topic sentence is the most important sentence in theparagraph.
  39. 39. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brTo assess the distribution, size, and shape of ganglion cell bodiesin the tracheal neural plexus, we examined individual cell bodies in theirentirety at 100-400 x with a compound microscope. For the assessment ofdistribution, first ganglion….There are three different theories put forward for the very slowrelaxation of catch muscles in molluscs. One theory holds that….Pulmonary nerve endings were relatively insensitive to diguanides,as seen in table 1). Of 25 pulmonary nerve ending tested, only 10 werestimulated….Topic SentencesEssentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers byMimi Zeiger, Mcgraw-Hill Professional, 2nd Ed, 2000.
  40. 40. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brhttp://www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/writing/science/paragraphs/1.2.xmlGarlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used for centuries for medicinalpurposes.[….]. Its use for healing purposes can be traced back as far as1550BC when documentations of its therapeutic use first appear inEgypt (Hassan, 2003; Rivlin, 2001). In modern times belief in thebeneficial effects of garlic on health has led to it being used for anumber of conditions. Garlic has been shown to reduce the risk ofcardiovascular disease (Aboul-Enein and Aboul-Enein, 2005), andpossess anti-microbial (Sivam, 2001) and antioxidant properties(Imai et al., 1994). This essay will explore research into garlicspotential roles in reducing cancer risk and in treating cancer.Topic Sentences
  41. 41. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br[….]. The most important factor is a students past experience ofstudy. If a student has already developed good study habits, studyat university should not be difficult. Good study habits need to becomplemented by interest and motivation, factors which areimportant when competition gets tough. We should however notunderestimate the distracting effects of financial and personaldifficulties. All students have to grapple with these at some stageof their university life. Beyond the personal factors it has to be saidthat there is also a certain element of luck involved in success:this includes finding excellent teachers and the subject matter thatinspires one to give ones best.Student success at university is the result of a number of inter-related factors.http://www.victoria.ac.nz/llc/academic-writing/index.htmlTopic Sentences
  42. 42. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br__________________________________ (topic sentence).Arriving in the land below the Rio Grande River, the Spanishconquistador Hernando Cortez was surprised to see the local inhabitantsraising crops that included avocados, corn, garlic and nuts. Onions,tomatoes, chilli peppers and pumpkins were also grown in the rich soil.Irrigation systems were employed in some of the drier regions. The Aztecfarmers also were skilful in creating terraced gardens to make the mostof the rainfall and to minimise soil erosion. Evidence shows that theyemployed crop rotation as well as natural fertilisers to enhance theproduction of their farm products.Options:1. The Aztecs of Mexico were a nation of accomplished farmers.2. Hernando Cortez discovered farming in Mexico.3. Mexico is blessed with rich farmland and an abundance of food products.Find the appropriate Topic sentence:http://www.victoria.ac.nz/llc/academic-writing/index.htmlTopic Sentences:)X
  43. 43. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWhen the materials from which the spheres were made charged at different rates,structures of different morphologies could form during the course of charging.Figure 3 illustrates the assembly of 40 Teflon and 80 PP spheres agitated at ω ~ 9Hz and A ~ 10 mm. The Teflon spheres charged more rapidly than the PP ones(Fig. 3a). When, after approximately 30 seconds from the start of agitation, theratio of charges QTef/QPP was close to –2, the spheres organized into ahexagonal structure (Fig. 3b, left). PTMC simulations predicted this structure to bea global energy minimum of the system. As the agitation continued, themagnitudes of charges on the Teflon and PP spheres equalized. The hexagonalarrangement became energetically unstable. After ∼15 minutes, approximatelyhalf of the PP spheres were expelled towards the walls of the container, and themorphology of the aggregate changed to square (Fig. 3b,right)……Topic SentencesM8P1 Nature MatGrzybowski et al., Nature Materials 2, 241–245 (2003)
  44. 44. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brOther articles in this issue also discuss statistical models for locationmeasurements. Compared to Gustafsson and Gunnarsson [87], whopresent models for RSS, TOA, and AOA measurements useful for cellularmobile system (MS) location and tracking, our focus is on the shorter-range, low-antenna, sensor network environment. Gezici et al. investigateUWB measurement models for both RSS and TOA in much greater detailthan in this article, in which UWB is just one of multiple measurementmodalities [89].Topic SentencesPatwari N. et al, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2005, p 54M8P2 IEEE Sig Proc
  45. 45. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brhttp://www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/writing/science/paragraphs/1.2.xmlCystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetic disorders.[….] CF is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and adefective gene causes the body to produce an abnormal amountof very thick, sticky mucus which clogs the lungs and pancreas,interfering with breathing and digestion. This mucus builds up inthe breathing passages in the lungs and the pancreas andrespiratory complications develop from the blockage of thebronchial passages. Eventually, the cilia which are responsiblefor clearing the mucus are destroyed. In addition, the mucustraps bacteria which cause infections and permanent damage tothe lungs, and may also block the ducts of the pancreas whichcontains enzymes necessary for the digestion of food.Topic Sentences
  46. 46. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brFinal Remarks
  47. 47. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brIn this work we describe the experimental development of special sensorsfor diagnosis of diseases. Experimentally, the sensors comprise antibodiesthat recognize specific kinds of human proteins produced by a personsimmunological system fighting against mammalian cancer cells in a veryshort period of time. In this context, a new methodology for protein detectionwas developed and the efficiency improvement is presented. Proteinisolation techniques are discussed. The amount of protein detected by thesensors was evaluated. The preliminary results were analyzed usingappropriate statistical methods. To optimize the systems, the sensor wereexperimentally produced using different immobilization strategies and all thecollected data obtained from preliminary results show that different types ofcancer cells lines can be detected at very low limits of detection. Theobtained results corroborated previous results found in published papers.The systems will be evaluated in clinical trials in a period of few months.Since highly sensitivity and specificity were achieved by the sensors, clinicalareas may benefit from our new technologies.Transform the text into a Scientific AbstractPractice
  48. 48. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe Paper is ready.What happens now??
  49. 49. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe cover letter is the document that introduce themanuscript to the editor.A good cover letter makes clear the importance ofthe paper and the reasons it deverves to bepublished.The cover Letter
  50. 50. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brEditors must reject 70 – 90% of submitted manuscriptsRemember:The cover Letter
  51. 51. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe cover LetterDear Editor:Please find attached the manuscript entitled: A new strategy to investigate thetoxicity of nanomaterials using Langmuir monolayers as membranemodels, which we submit for publication in Nanotoxicology. The reasons why webelieve it deserves to be published stem from the following features:i) To our knowledge, this manuscript is the first report of a novel strategy toinvestigate the types of interaction that may occur between a nanomaterial, viz.,carbon nanotubes and phospholipid membranes, in a way that experimentalparameters can be controlled at the molecular level.ii) The methodology is reported here for a specific carbon nanotube/dendrimercomplex, which had been applied as drug-delivery systems. However, this newmethodology may be of interest to a wider audience investigating the toxicity ofnanomaterials, either in vitro or in vivo, since the same strategy can be applied todifferent nanocomplexes, nanoparticles, etc.SincerelyProf. Dr. Valtencir ZucolottoExample 2:
  52. 52. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe ManuscriptJPCC Manuscript
  53. 53. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brResponding to the EditorJPCC manuscript corrected versionJPCC response letterBB response letter
  54. 54. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brAfter AcceptanceJPCC ProofsJPCC Editorial revision
  55. 55. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brHow to skim a paper?????
  56. 56. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br1. Read the Title2. Check the Authors and Date3. Read the Abstract4. Read the 1st Paragraph5. Read the First Sentence of each Paragraph6. Look quickly at each Figure/Table and Captions7. Read the ConclusionAdapted from: Science Research Writing for Non-Native Speakers ofEnglish, Hilary Glasman-Deal, Imperial College Press, 2009Skimming a paper
  57. 57. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brhttp://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/partopic.htmlScience Research Writing for Non-Native Speakers of English, HilaryGlasman-Deal, Imperial College Press, 2009Scientific Writing, Easy When ou Know How, Peat, J., Elliot, E., Baur,L., Keena, V., BMJ Books, 2009Essentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers by Mimi Zeiger,Mcgraw-Hill Professional, 2nd Ed, 2000.Sources
  58. 58. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brValtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brwww.lnn.ifsc.usp.brwww.twitter.com/NanomedicinaInstituto de Física de São Carlos - USPMuito Obrigadowww.twitter.com/escreverartigoswww.twitter.com/writingpapers

×