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Módulo 5: Estilo Linguagem 1: Especificidade, Complexidade e Ambiguidade

Módulo 5: Estilo Linguagem 1: Especificidade, Complexidade e Ambiguidade
Módulo 6: Linguagem 2: Redundâncias, Ação no Verbo, Fluidez de Texto, Ritmo de Escrita

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Workshops escrita modulos_5_6 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWorkshop de Capacitação emEscrita CientíficaMódulo 5Prof. Dr. Valtencir ZucolottoLaboratório de Nanomedicina e NanotoxicologiaInstituto de Física de São Carlos, USPUSP, 2012Organização: Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa - USP
  • 2. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWorkshop OutlineModulo 1: O Gênero LiterárioSeções de Um Artigo CientíficoMódulo 2: Estrutura 1: AbstractMódulo 3: Estrutura 2: IntroductionMódulo 4: Estrutura 3: Results and Discussion, ConclusionMódulo 5: EstiloLinguagem 1: Especificidade, Complexidade e AmbiguidadeMódulo 6: Linguagem 2: Redundâncias, Ação no Verbo, Fluidez deTexto, Ritmo de EscritaMódulo 7: Linguagem 3: Plain English, Escrever em Inglês, PreposiçõesMódulo 8: Linguagem 4: Topic Sentences, Cover Letters, Final Remarks
  • 3. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brMódulo 5- Estilo- Linguagem 1:Especificidade, Complexidade e Ambiguidade
  • 4. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brScientific Writing Style
  • 5. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brAbbreviationsDefine the abbreviation in parentheses thefirst time you use it:Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)
  • 6. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brUse Abbreviations / acronyms with discretionEx: Use of combined 5-PAS and BTR3 increased theOP toxicity for MD14+ cells??????Abbreviations
  • 7. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brExcept in the case of footnotes, tables and captions, spell outall months with or without a specific day :Ex: Data were collected in January, 2000.Words “day’, “week”, “month” and “year” are notabbreviated.Abbreviations
  • 8. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brU.S. citizens;U.K. football team(Adjectives)or“The citizens from United States….”“The football team of United Kingdom….”(nouns)Abbreviations
  • 9. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brUnits of measure are abbreviated : 2 mm.; 10 min.In a non-measurable context: "we measured length inmillimeters"OBS: Never add an "s" to the measure unit.Abbreviations
  • 10. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brLatin abbreviations:- i.e., id est (that is),- e.g., exempli gratia (for example),- etc. (so on),- vs (versus),- et al., et alli, and others,- via (road),- in situ (in a place)Abbreviations
  • 11. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brControversy: Some authors agree that a period is usedonly if the last letter of the abbreviation is not the lastletter of the word:Ex.: Prof. , Vol. 1, p. 23-25 , 2nd ed. , et al. , etc.Dr , Mr , Ms , vsAbbreviations
  • 12. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brNumeralsA good reference material may be found at:The ACS Style Guide, Dodd, J. S., Ed;American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2006
  • 13. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brUse a space between the number and the unit:6 min, 0.3 g, 80 mL, etc.Exception: %, $ and °50%, $400, 180° (Obs: 90 °C, 180 °F).Numerals
  • 14. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brUse past tense for sentences concerning your findings.Ex: This study was aimed at investigating.. (The study)What Tense to use?
  • 15. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brPresent forms preferable inConclusion SectionWhat Tense to use?Present and even Future Tenses may be used!!
  • 16. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brActive / Passive VoicesACTIVE: “the melting processing consumedpolymeric material at a higher rate..” (10 words)PASSIVE: “Polymeric material was consumed by themelting process at a higher rate..” (12 words)Mathews, JR and and Mathews RW, Successful Scientific Writing, Cambridge UniversityPress; 3 edition 2007)Passive voice almost always requires more words thanActive voice:Dodd, J. S., Ed. The ACS Style Guide; American Chemical Society: Washington,DC, 1986.).
  • 17. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brSometimes first person may be used toemphasize important informationOur research group has investigated….We have demonstrated that….Avoid: “we believe”, “we feel”, “we can see”First vs Third Person
  • 18. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brFormal LanguageAvoid Betternowadays presently, currentlyon the contrary in contrast(up) until now to date
  • 19. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brLanguage I
  • 20. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brhttp://www.gray-area.org/Research/Ambig/#HEADLets face it, English is a stupid language.There is no egg in the eggplant.No ham in the hamburger.And neither pine nor apple in the pineapple.English muffins were not invented in England.French fries were not invented in France.
  • 21. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe efficient writing is specific“Novel strategies have been proposed to overcome thelimitations regarding diseases diagnosis.”Too general!!SpecificityWhat were the strategies?What are the limitations?What are the diseases?
  • 22. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe use of carbon nanotubes-based biosensorshas been proposed to overcome the poor selectivityexhibited by conventional systems used for cancerdetection.Better !!Specificity
  • 23. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brCarbon nanotubes-based biosensors exhibit highselectivity for cancer detection.Efficient Scientific Writing!!Specificity
  • 24. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe right emphasis on detailsPossible ways of emphasizing details:Repetition, wording, illustration and placementSource: Michael Alley The Craft of Scientific Writing, 3rd edition(Springer-Verlag, 1996).
  • 25. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br1. RepetitionTitle, abstract, discussion and conclusions ??The right emphasis on Details
  • 26. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br2. WordingStress the most important details in a sentence!!Ex: High levels of the protein were found in the bloodsamples from patients with hemorrhagic infections.What is the most important detail?The protein, the levels or the infection?The right emphasis on Details
  • 27. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brUnexpected high levels of a protein were found in theblood samples from patients with hemorrhagic infections.High levels of a very specific S100 family protein werefound in the blood samples from patients withhemorrhagic infections.High levels of a specific protein were found in the bloodsamples from examined patients. This may be the causeof the hemorrhagic infection.The right emphasis on Details
  • 28. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe mechanical analyses had been carried out usingstress-strain measurements and indicated that thecopper-based alloys are more resistant than the silver-based ones, which may be due to the fabrication processused for each composite material, since the copperalloys had been produced via casting, whereas the silvercomposites had been fabricated via reactive extrusionunder high pressures, controlled atmosphere, and attemperatures ranging from 300 – 400 °C.????????Too long!, Too wordy!Too many ideas in a single sentence!!A huge problem: Long SentencesComplexity: Sentences
  • 29. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brStreamlining it:First half of the sentence:The mechanical analyses had been carried outusing…..Second half :.............................................................................Complexity: Sentences
  • 30. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe proposed memetic algorithm that combines search by an ES [44] onthe upper level and nonlinear local optimizations to handle complexnonlinear equality constraints and to realize a Lamarckian learningprinciple is a promising concept for general design optimization problemsin which a large number of nonlinear model equations and constraints aswell as discrete design decisions and possibly discontinuous valuefunctions are present, well beyond the domain of chemical engineering.While the selection of the representation as well as of the mutation andrecombination operators is of course problem specific and has to bemodified for different applications, and the use of other local solvers mayalso require small changes to the algorithm, the general principle can betransferred to any similar problem, and significant gains in computationalperformance and robustness (probability of finding the best as well as mostof the local optima) can be expected.Complexity: SentencesUrselmann, et al., IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 15, 2011, 659M5P2 IEEE T.E.C.
  • 31. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brStacking of Passive VoiceA new methodology for protein purificationis presented. Isolation techniques usingHPLC are discussed. The amount ofprotein purified in each cycle is revealed.
  • 32. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThis study describes a new methodology forprotein purification using novel techniques basedon HPLC experiments. Each purification cycleprovided a total amount of 1.2 mg of protein.Better!!Active voice is straightforwardStacking of Passive Voice
  • 33. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brAmbiguityWords/phrases with more than onemeaningChickens are ready to eat????
  • 34. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWord Choice:Be careful with:as, onlyAmbiguity
  • 35. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWord Choice:“Tissue temperature increased as theparticles released the phytotherapics”????The word “as” may be interpreted as “because” or “while”Ambiguity
  • 36. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br“Tissue temperature increased because theparticles released the phytotherapics”AmbiguityBetter
  • 37. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brOnly I tested the device yesterdayI only tested the device yesterdayI tested only the device yesterdayAmbiguity
  • 38. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br“ In low water temperatures and high toxicity levels ofoil, we tested how well the microorganisms survived”Better: “We tested how well the microorganismssurvived in low water temperatures and high toxicitylevels of oil”AmbiguityExtracted from: Michael Alley The Craft of Scientific Writing,3rd edition (Springer-Verlag, 1996).
  • 39. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br“The train left the station crowded and dirty.”Better: “The train was crowded and dirty when it left the station”Ambiguitywww.1-language.com/eslquizzes/ambiguoussentences.htm
  • 40. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brUnclear PronounWhat was mounted inside the lab????Since the platform has a support systemconnected to the equipment, it was mountedinside the lab.It = The platform or the support system??Ambiguity
  • 41. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brExercises at:http://www.writing.engr.psu.edu/handbook/exercises/exercise4.htmlAmbiguity
  • 42. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br-Michael Alley. The Craft of Scientific Writing, 3rd edition (Springer-Verlag, 1996).SourcesMathews, JR and and Mathews RW, Successful Scientific Writing, CambridgeUniversity Press; 3 edition 2007)Dodd, J. S., Ed. The ACS Style Guide; American Chemical Society:Washington, DC, 1986.).Urselmann, et al., IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 15, 2011, 659Brawand et al., Nature, 2011, 478, 343
  • 43. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brValtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicinna.com.brwww.lnn.ifsc.usp.brwww.twitter.com/NanomedicinaInstituto de Física de São Carlos - USPMuito Obrigadowww.twitter.com/escreverartigoswww.twitter.com/writingpapers
  • 44. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWorkshop de Capacitação emEscrita CientíficaMódulo 6Prof. Dr. Valtencir ZucolottoLaboratório de Nanomedicina e NanotoxicologiaInstituto de Física de São Carlos, USPUSP, 2012Organização: Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa - USP
  • 45. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brWorkshop OutlineModulo 1: O Gênero LiterárioSeções de Um Artigo CientíficoMódulo 2: Estrutura 1: AbstractMódulo 3: Estrutura 2: IntroductionMódulo 4: Estrutura 3: Results and Discussion, ConclusionMódulo 5: EstiloLinguagem 1: Especificidade, Complexidade e AmbiguidadeMódulo 6: Linguagem 2: Redundâncias, Ação no Verbo, Fluidez deTexto, Ritmo de EscritaMódulo 7: Linguagem 3: Plain English, Escrever em Inglês, PreposiçõesMódulo 8: Linguagem 4: Topic Sentences, Cover Letters, Final Remarks
  • 46. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brMódulo 6Linguagem 2:Redundâncias, Ação no Verbo, Fluidez daEscrita, Ritmo de Escrita
  • 47. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brLanguage II
  • 48. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brDuring the data collection phase of the study, allexperimental measurements were performed in aperiod of time of 3 months. All the obtained resultswere further analyzed and possible errors werecompletely eliminated.RedundanciesAdapted from Michael Alley. The Craft of Scientific Writing, 3rd edition(Springer-Verlag, 1996).
  • 49. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brBetter:During the data collection, all measurements wereperformed in 3 months. The results were furtheranalyzed and possible errors were eliminated.Redundancies
  • 50. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brBest:All measurements were performed in 3 months.Redundancies
  • 51. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brEfficient Scientific Writing:Redundancies
  • 52. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brAlternative choicesBasic fundamentalsCompletely eliminateCurrently underwayEmpty spaceIntroduced a newMix togetherNever beforeCommon redundancies from Non-Native SpeakersPeriod of timeSeparate entitiesStill persistsQuite uniqueVery similarJoin togetherCompletely fullObtained ResultsDefinitely provedExactly trueFirst of allAdapted from Michael Alley. The Craft of Scientific Writing, 3rd edition(Springer-Verlag, 1996).Redundancies
  • 53. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brStrong NounsStrong nouns provide a “visual image” to the reader.A short list of abstract nouns:Ability, approach, capability, concept, environment,factor, nature, parameter,….Adapted from Michael Alley. The Craft of Scientific Writing, 3rd edition(Springer-Verlag, 1996).
  • 54. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brAction in the verbNão-Nativos tendem a “Substantivar”os Verbos
  • 55. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brReplace verb phrases by the correspondent strong verbWeak verb phrase Strong VerbMade the arrangement for ArrangedMade the decision DecidedMade the measurement of MeasuredPerformed the development of DevelopedStrong Verbs
  • 56. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brAction in the verb“A continuous improvement in patient´s conditionwas observed”“Patient´s condition improved”Adapted from Michael Alley. The Craft of Scientific Writing, 3rd edition(Springer-Verlag, 1996).Better:
  • 57. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brAdministration of dopamine produced a decreasein the frequency of convulsionsAdministration of dopamine decreased convulsionsfrequencyAction in the verbBetter:
  • 58. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe new phytotherapics exert their action byblocking the cells communications.The new phytotherapics block cellscommunications.Better:Action in the verb
  • 59. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brFlowA Clear and Effective Writing is made of SmoothTransitions between Ideas, Sentences, ParagraphsProblem: Complementary ideas disconnected and/orplaced far way from each other.
  • 60. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe level of the proteins found in the blood samplesis similar to that observed by other researchers. Due to itsability to form complexes with DNA and RNA, such proteinshad been extensively investigated by a number of researchgroups, including the group from Harvard, which estimatedthat the normal level of the protein in blood should bearound 1 mg/dL.????FlowThe level of the proteins found in the blood samplesis similar to that observed by other researchers. Due to itsability to form complexes with DNA and RNA, such proteinshad been extensively investigated by a number of researchgroups, including the group from Harvard, which estimatedthat the normal level of the protein in blood should bearound 1 mg/dL.
  • 61. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe word which brings the ideas closer toeach other!Better:The level of the proteins found in the bloodsamples was 1 mg/dL, which is similar to thatobserved by Harvard´s group.Flow
  • 62. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brTransitional words within a sentence1) Reason:Because, since, due to,….Example: The size of the nanoparticles was ca. 5 nmbecause of the synthetic route employed.Flow
  • 63. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br2) Consequence:therefore, as a consequence,….Example: The enzymes showed a high specificity topesticides, therefore allowing its use in biosensors.Transitional words within a sentenceFlow
  • 64. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br3) Concession:Although, even though, ….Example: Although individual residues in the repeated-sequence blocks in the core have diverged, thepatterns of amino acids are identical.Transitional words within a sentenceFlow
  • 65. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brSmooth Transition between sentences1) Continuation: Movement of ideas in the samedirection:Examples:Also;Moreover;first, second…;In addition;……..Flow
  • 66. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br2) Pause:Examples:For example;In other words;…….Smooth Transition between sentencesFlow
  • 67. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br3) Reversal: Movement of ideas reverses direction.Examples:However;In contrast;On the other hand;Conversely;Contrarily;Smooth Transition between sentencesFlow
  • 68. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br4) Conclusion:Examples:In summaryConcluding…….Smooth Transition between sentencesFlow
  • 69. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brRhythm
  • 70. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brDNA sensing has been considered a powerful tool to diagnose cancer. Cancerdiagnosis is usually not straightforward due to a large number of pathologiesvariations as well as to the very low amount of DNA molecules expressed in thebeginning of disease. Sensors capable of detecting specific types of tumoralcells may represent a breakthrough in medicine. This paper describes thedevelopment of special sensors for cancer detection. The sensors compriseimmobilized antibodies that recognizes specific types of proteins produced bycancer cell. The sensor systems were produced using different immobilizationstrategies. The results show that different types of cancer cells can be detectedat very low limits of detection. The experiments were carried out in triplicate.The systems we developed will be evaluated in clinical trials in a few months.Many medicine areas will benefit from our new technologies.Sentence Openers: Rhythm????FlowDNA sensing has been considered a powerful tool to diagnose cancer. Cancerdiagnosis is usually not straightforward due to a large number of pathologiesvariations as well as to the very low amount of DNA molecules expressed in thebeginning of disease. Sensors capable of detecting specific types of tumoralcells may represent a breakthrough in medicine. This paper describes thedevelopment of special sensors for cancer detection. The sensors compriseimmobilized antibodies that recognizes specific types of proteins produced bycancer cell. The sensor systems were produced using different immobilizationstrategies. The results show that different types of cancer cells can be detectedat very low limits of detection. The experiments were carried out in triplicate.The systems we developed will be evaluated in clinical trials in a few months.Many medicine areas will benefit from our new technologies.
  • 71. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brTopic of Sentence SubjectTime of action Prepositional PhraseLocation of action Prepositional PhraseManner of action AdverbSubordinate action Dependent ClauseReason for action Infinitive PhraseVary sentence openersSource: Michael Alley. The Craft of Scientific Writing, 3rd edition(Springer-Verlag, 1996).Flow
  • 72. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe results show that….subject-verbIn a few months, the systems willbe….prepositional phraseRecently, DNA sensors….adverbAlthough cancer diagnosis is notstraightforward ,….dependent clauseTo optimize the systems….infinitive phraseFlow
  • 73. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brRecently, DNA sensing has been considered a powerful tool to diagnose cancer.Although cancer diagnosis is not straightforward, due to a large number ofpathologies variations, this strategy may be very efficient for some cancertypes. Sensors capable of detecting specific types of tumoral cells mayrepresent a breakthrough in medicine. In this paper we describe thedevelopment of special sensors for cancer detection. The sensors compriseimmobilized antibodies that recognizes specific types of proteins produced bycancer cell. To optimize the systems, the sensor were produced using differentimmobilization strategies. The results show that different types of cancer cellscan be detected at very low limits of detection. The experiments were carriedout in triplicate. In a few months, the systems will be evaluated in clinicaltrials in a few months. Since highly sensitivity and specificity were achieved bythe sensors, clinical areas may benefit from our new technologies.Rhythm !!!!Flow
  • 74. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brThe development of new antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) has arisen as a novel,promising strategy to overcome the effects of antibiotic resistance developedby several pathogens. The efficient design and development of suchbiomolecules, however, requires an understanding of the mechanisms ofinteractions between the peptides and cell membrane. In this study weexamined the interactions of the cationic antimicrobial peptide dermaseptin 01with three membrane systems. The membrane systems had beeninvestigated in the form of Langmuir monolayers. The degree of interaction ofDS 01with the different biomembrane models was quantified from equilibriumand dynamic liquid-air interface parameters, such as: minimum moleculararea and dilatational elasticity modulus. The interaction between DS 01 andthe zwitterionic phospholipid, as well as with the LRE-La monolayers werevery weak at low peptide concentrations, whereas with negatively chargedphospholipids the interactions were stronger. The latter is in agreement withprevious literature for vesicles and planar lipid bilayers, and with the greateractivity of AMPs against bacterial membranes, as compared to mammaliancell membranes.Rewrite the following Abstract improving rhytmFlow
  • 75. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.br-Michael Alley. The Craft of Scientific Writing, 3rd edition(Springer-Verlag, 1996).SourcesMathews, JR and and Mathews RW, Successful Scientific Writing,Cambridge University Press; 3 edition 2007)Science Research Writing for Non-Native Speakers of English, HilaryGlasman-Deal, Imperial College Press, 2009
  • 76. Prof. Dr. Valtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brValtencir Zucolottozuco@ifsc.usp.brwww.nanomedicina.com.brwww.lnn.ifsc.usp.brwww.twitter.com/NanomedicinaInstituto de Física de São Carlos - USPMuito Obrigadowww.twitter.com/escreverartigoswww.twitter.com/writingpapers