Water Erosion:
How do processes
involving water change
Earth’s surface?
What is the MAJOR agent
of erosion that has shaped
Earth’s land surface?
moving water
Water moving over land’s
surface is called runoff.
This may cause sheet
erosion.
The amount of
water runoff in an area
depends on
5 main factors:
1. The amount of rain an area receives.
2. Vegetation - grasses, shrubs & trees
reduce runoff
3. Type of soil - some absor...
Runoff overtime:
How does runoff over
time affect the land
and water?
Rills & Gullies
Rills are tiny grooves in the soil
that grow larger forming gullies.
A gully is a large groove or channel
...
Rills
Gullies
Streams & Rivers
Gullies join together to form a larger
channel called a stream.
Water continuously flows here and
rarely ...
Rill,

Rill erosion at a
construction site.
Image by M. Mamo, Labels
added by UNL

Gully,

Stream

Gully erosion in a past...
Tributaries

Streams grow together by getting
water from tributaries.
A tributary is a stream or river that
flows into a l...
Rivers & Tributaries

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://knol.google.com/k/-/-/3ajhc7zrwtav1/c1ssz4/figure-1%25...
Rivers cause erosion and create
valleys, waterfalls, and flood
plains.
Rivers form on steep mountain
slopes.
How do they flow?
Quickly & follow a narrow path
How do they erode? Rapidly
The result is that rivers form
deep, V-shaped ...
Valleys

http://www.google.com/imgres?
imgurl=http://cgz.e2bn.net/e2bn/leas/c99/schools/cgz/accounts/staff/rchambers/GeoBy...
Features of rivers:
What features are
formed by erosion along
a river?
Waterfalls
Occur where?
Where a river meets an area of hard &
slowly eroding rock
 Then flows over softer rock downstream....
Waterfalls

Waterfalls at the
Plitvicka Jezera National Park in Croatia

Minnehaha Falls,
Minneapolis Minnesota

http://im...
Flood Plain
What is a flood plain?
A wide valley in which a river flows
What happens to the land during a
flood?
The water...
Flood Plain
Deposits by rivers are made as
the water slows down and the
fine particles settle in the river
bed.
Larger stones quit rol...
Deposits by Rivers:
What features result
from deposition along
a river?
Deltas
Deltas form when sediments
are deposited where a river
flows into an ocean or a lake.
This landform is built up as
...
Deltas

http://www.dmcii.com/disasters/new_orleans/mississippi_delta.jpg
Soil may also be added to
Flood Plains during floods as
sediments are deposited.
This new soil added to the
area makes the...
Water erosion
Water erosion
Water erosion
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Water erosion

  1. 1. Water Erosion: How do processes involving water change Earth’s surface?
  2. 2. What is the MAJOR agent of erosion that has shaped Earth’s land surface? moving water
  3. 3. Water moving over land’s surface is called runoff. This may cause sheet erosion.
  4. 4. The amount of water runoff in an area depends on 5 main factors:
  5. 5. 1. The amount of rain an area receives. 2. Vegetation - grasses, shrubs & trees reduce runoff 3. Type of soil - some absorb more water than others 4. Shape of the land – steep slopes have more run-off, which causes more erosion 5. How people use the land – parking lots & crop removal increase run-off
  6. 6. Runoff overtime: How does runoff over time affect the land and water?
  7. 7. Rills & Gullies Rills are tiny grooves in the soil that grow larger forming gullies. A gully is a large groove or channel in the soil that carries runoff after a storm. It moves soil & rocks. Gullies only contain water after it rains.
  8. 8. Rills
  9. 9. Gullies
  10. 10. Streams & Rivers Gullies join together to form a larger channel called a stream. Water continuously flows here and rarely dries up. Small streams may be called creeks or brooks. Small streams flow together to form a large stream called a river.
  11. 11. Rill, Rill erosion at a construction site. Image by M. Mamo, Labels added by UNL Gully, Stream Gully erosion in a pasture. Image by NRCS Stream
  12. 12. Tributaries Streams grow together by getting water from tributaries. A tributary is a stream or river that flows into a larger river. An example: The Missouri & Ohio rivers are tributaries of the Mississippi river. Tributaries collect their water from the drainage basin or watershed.
  13. 13. Rivers & Tributaries http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://knol.google.com/k/-/-/3ajhc7zrwtav1/c1ssz4/figure-1%2520(2).bmp&imgrefurl=http://knol.google.com/k/neworleans-the-geologic-difficulties-with-the-big-easy-part-1&usg=___SPqqMAUDGF2VVgD-x0Wwvs5xk=&h=394&w=432&sz=31&hl=en&start=5&um=1&tbnid=ShJceJzlrtYlWM:&tbnh=115&tbnw=126&prev=/images%3Fq%3DMississippi%2Briver%2Band%2Bits %2Btributaries%26hl%3Den%26um%3D1
  14. 14. Rivers cause erosion and create valleys, waterfalls, and flood plains. Rivers form on steep mountain slopes.
  15. 15. How do they flow? Quickly & follow a narrow path How do they erode? Rapidly The result is that rivers form deep, V-shaped valleys.
  16. 16. Valleys http://www.google.com/imgres? imgurl=http://cgz.e2bn.net/e2bn/leas/c99/schools/cgz/accounts/staff/rchambers/GeoBytes%2520GCSE %2520Blog%2520Resources/Images/Rivers/Vshapedvalley.jpg&imgrefurl=http://geobytesgcse.blogspot.com/2006/11/upper-course-of-river-v-shapedvalleys.html&usg=__Hp8C8YOunbWzJy9E7kbQcOiURzA=&h=308&w=411&sz=47&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1 &tbnid=giwF1FppYFy8zM:&tbnh=116&tbnw=154&ei=-kk2TfKtEMH68AbI__2tBA&prev=/images%3Fq %3Dv-shaped%2Bvalley%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D531%26tbs %3Disch:10%2C35&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=247&vpy=77&dur=701&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=161& ty=116&oei=g0k2TbG1L4T58Aa8nOC7Aw&esq=12&page=1&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0&biw=1280&bih =531 http://images.travelpod.com/users/theboy_picot/3.1149265860.580x-nice-v-shapedvalley.jpg
  17. 17. Features of rivers: What features are formed by erosion along a river?
  18. 18. Waterfalls Occur where? Where a river meets an area of hard & slowly eroding rock  Then flows over softer rock downstream.  How does softer rock erode? What results from this erosion? The softer rock erodes away faster & a waterfall develops.
  19. 19. Waterfalls Waterfalls at the Plitvicka Jezera National Park in Croatia Minnehaha Falls, Minneapolis Minnesota http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://realestate-inminnesota.com/images/Minneapolis.jpg&imgrefurl=http://realestate-inminnesota.com/&usg=__kBYWaWcelJlC-sNAEDq6zr8eLY=&h=599&w=800&sz=162&hl=en&start=5&um=1&tbnid=WO5G4jC_rIKDMM:&tbnh=107&tbnw=143&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dminnehaha %2Bfalls,%2Bmn%26ndsp%3D18%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26um%3D1
  20. 20. Flood Plain What is a flood plain? A wide valley in which a river flows What happens to the land during a flood? The water in the river over flows its banks into this wide river valley area.
  21. 21. Flood Plain
  22. 22. Deposits by rivers are made as the water slows down and the fine particles settle in the river bed. Larger stones quit rolling and sliding.
  23. 23. Deposits by Rivers: What features result from deposition along a river?
  24. 24. Deltas Deltas form when sediments are deposited where a river flows into an ocean or a lake. This landform is built up as the sediments drop.
  25. 25. Deltas http://www.dmcii.com/disasters/new_orleans/mississippi_delta.jpg
  26. 26. Soil may also be added to Flood Plains during floods as sediments are deposited. This new soil added to the area makes the river valley fertile. Forests and crops may be grown here.
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