Learning Disabilities, ADHD, and Emotional/Behavioral DisordersPresentation Transcript
Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Chapter 7
Which are learning disabilities?
A relatively new area of exceptionality that has only recently been identified and defined (1960’s)
Learning disabilities can occur at all intelligence levels , although most people with LD have average to above average IQ scores.
Learning disabled = heterogeneous group of individuals with highly variable, complex characteristics, and needs
Fig. 7-2, p. 162 Prevalence
What Is a Learning Disability?
A disorder of one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
Three general “types”:
Written Language (dysgraphia)
Other types affect memory, executive functions, and social skills
This means it’s neurological.
Achievement commensurate with age and ability, given appropriate educational experiences.
“ Severe discrepancy”
Achievement vs. Potential (IQ)
Debate: what is “severe”?
IDEA no longer requires to show a discrepancy to diagnose
Response to Intervention
Student response to instructional, research-based interventions
Allows diagnosis for younger students who may not yet be failing “enough” for severe discrepancy
Video clip on wiki
Above average or near average intelligence
Variability between measured intelligence and performance (discrepancy)
Intraindividual differences between skill areas
Refer to your bell curve
Learning Disabilities are NOT
Does not include learning problems which are primarily the results of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
An IEP team cannot diagnose a child with SLD if any of these factors exist as the primary cause of learning difficulties.
Identification Criteria (LD)
CHARACTERISTICS See handout
“ Misunderstood Minds” Characteristics
COGNITION AND INFORMATION PROCESSING
Definition: The way a person acquires, retains, and manipulates information
Poor memory function
Short attention spans
Designed to mirror a few specific learning disabilities
SLD are intrinsic to the individual!
Not everyone with a SLD experiences it the same way
Consider classroom effects
Reading Memory Activity
We've all had difficulty concentrating when trying to read. But imagine what it would be like if that problem never went away. For some children, struggling to remember things they've just read becomes a way of life.
The next exercise is designed to simulate the effect that memory and attention problems can have on reading comprehension. You will first read a passage, then answer questions based on that passage.
How did you do?
Learning basic math facts is a critical step that allows children to progress efficiently to higher levels of mathematical thinking. If a middle-school student cannot quickly recall basic facts this will likely slow him down when working on a more complex problem.
For many people, math facts come easily. Some people with math disabilities, however, who lack an intuitive understanding of numbers or symbols or place value, may struggle endlessly with these basic mathematical concepts.
Most people learn basics facts on a table like the one below. Do you remember how to use it?
Use the addition and multiplication tables below to solve the following problems on your paper. Addition table Multiplication table
Visualizing three-dimensional objects presented on the flat surface of a piece of paper or computer screen is challenging for many of us. For people with math disabilities this sort of spatial interpretation can be particularly problematic. And depending on the manner in which geometric information is presented, interpreting objects in the exact way a teacher intended may be next to impossible.
Consider the two figures shown below.
What shape will result when the plane intersects the three-dimensional object? Select shape A or B.
In this example, the figure has been made intentionally ambiguous. It could be interpreted as either a cube or a pyramid , and either of the figures you had to choose from might result when the plane intersects it. (And either result might be considered wrong, depending on how the teacher interpreted the figure.)
People with ADHD may exhibit a variety of characteristics
Symptoms may interfere with life activities
ADHD is a life long condition
Can exist with other disabilities
Overlaps with LD up to 70%
CHARACTERISTICS of ADHD
Impulsivity (affecting social as well as academic decisions)
Executive functioning: ability to monitor and regulate one’s own behavior, to exercise impulse control, and to anticipate the consequences of actions. Impacts decision-making skills!
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
ADHD - a set of symptoms that can accompany other conditions
Learning Disabilities comorbid with ADHD from 25% to 70%
ADHD AND OTHER DISABILITIES
Learning Disabilities - up to 70% overlap
Behavioral, conduct, and emotional disorders
DSM IV Criteria, p183
Persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequent/severe than typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development
Symptoms present before age 7
Symptoms present in at least two settings (e.g., home and school)
Clear evidence of interference with social, academic, or occupational functioning
Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder and not better accounted for by another mental disorder (mood, anxiety, etc).
Too Much Attention?
PREVALENCE Male: Female 3% to 7% of all school-aged children Variation between subgroups of age, gender, and comorbidity.
Reading independently is an activity all children must learn to do well in order to succeed in school.
The ability to focus on a reading assignment and understand its content is critical to successful independent reading. But busy classrooms are seldom optimal for a student's concentration.
The following activity simulates what a child with an attention problem might experience during a classroom reading assignment.
Academic interventions must target the area where the child is experiencing difficulty.
Strategies involving structure along with explicit instruction may be beneficial.
A multimodal approach is more effective
Both drug and behavior therapies
Prescribed by doctor
Controversial topic in the community:
Type of drug
Length of use
Supporting Students with LD and/or ADHD Presentation Response Timing Setting Prompting
Groups of 3-4
Use co-teaching models
Which models would benefit a student with a LD or ADHD? Why?
Which models might produce challenges?
What related service providers might be valuable collaborators?
Chapter Eight EMOTIONAL/BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS
Think about the last time you were really upset.
What caused you to become upset?
How did you feel?
What did you do?
Would most people feel and act this way, in your position?
How did you calm down, and how long did that take?
How did the event impact you for the rest of the day?
Emotional disorders: behavioral problems exhibited by difficulties in expressing emotions evoked in normal, everyday experiences
Behavioral disorders: conditions in which the emotional or behavioral responses of individuals significantly differ from those of their peers and seriously impact their relationships
Individuals generally experience great difficulty in relating appropriately to other people
A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, which adversely affects academic performance:
Inability to learn not explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors
Inability to build/maintain relationships with peers/teachers
Inappropriate types of behavior of feeling under normal circumstances
General pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression
Tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with school problems
Does NOT include children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they are also seriously emotionally disturbed
Estimated 3-6% of all school children have E/BD
Significant numbers of children remain unidentified and receive no services.
Disproportionate number of African American males identified as having E/BD
Characteristics of E/BD
COMMON, but not definite for all students with E/BD
Social and Adaptive Behavior (These OFTEN occur)
Not completing tasks
Difficulty playing games
Inability to appropriately deal with strong feelings
Problem solving difficulties
Lack of self-control
Trouble accepting consequences
Difficulty expressing affection
Difficulty meeting classroom demands
75% also have language deficits
Poor school performance
Major Groups of Childhood Disorders
Attention-deficit and disruptive behaviors
Feeding and eating disorders
Tic disorders (Tourette’s)
Elimination disorders and childhood anxiety disorders
Reactive attachment disorder
Psychiatric diagnosis is made by a medical doctor Educational disability diagnosis (“ED”) is made by school psychologist
Functional Behavior Assessment
To determine the functions of the child’s behavior