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  • HIGH Incidence (more than 90% of students with disabilities receiving sped services are ID as having LD< ADHD, EBD, intellectual disability, communication disorders, or autism spectrum). • Learning disabilities, as opposed to other disabilities such as vision impairment or paralysis, are invisible – or considered a hidden handicap. For this reason they tend to be misunderstood and their impact underestimated. • Because learning disabilities cannot be seen, they often go undetected. Recognizing a learning disability is even more difficult because the severity and characteristics vary. • Learning disabilities vary from person to person. One person with LD may not have the same kind of learning problems as another person with LD. • Learning disabilities are real. A person can be of average or above-average intelligence, not have any major sensory problems (like blindness or hearing impairment), and yet struggle to keep up with peers in their ability to learn. • LD is a lifelong disorder that affects people's ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain. These limitations can show up in many ways--as in the ability to understand or use spoken and written language, mathematical calculations, coordination, self-control, or attention. These difficulties impact academic skills and can impede learning to read or write, or compute. • LD is a neurobiological disorder that affects the brain's ability to receive, process, store, express, and respond to information. • With LD a person's brain works or is structured differently. Differences interfere with a person's ability to think and remember. Learning disabilities can affect a person's ability to speak, listen, read, write, spell, reason, recall, organize information, and calculate. • LD affects many parts of a person's life: school or work, daily routines, family life, and friendships or in social contexts. Overlapping learning disabilities may be apparent in some while others may have a single, isolated mild learning problem that has little impact on other areas of life. • Learning disabilities affect each person differently with characteristics ranging from mild to severe. Sometimes people have more than one learning disability. • Although learning disabilities can occur in very young children, the disorders are not usually recognized until problems are recognized at school
  • Which are LD? Think to self (show) Any surprises? Share…
  • a. Learning disabilities constitute a relatively new area of exceptionality that has only recently been identified and defined. In the past students with LD might have been labeled as remedial readers, emotionally disturbed, or even having an intellectual disability/mentally retarded. b. Individuals with learning disabilities have above average, average, or near average intelligence but learning disabilities can occur at all intelligence levels. c. Learning-disabled is a generic label that represents a heterogeneous group of individuals with highly variable, complex characteristics and needs, ranging from mild to severe and manifest a highly variable and complex set of characteristics and needs. Even a group of students all with LD, the students will experience different characteristics or impacts of their disability.
  • Figure 7.2: The Prevalence of Learning Disabilities for Students 6–21 Years of Age.
  • Learning disabilities constitute a relatively new area of exceptionality that has only recently been identified and defined. In the past students with LD might have been labeled as remedial readers, emotionally disturbed, or even having an intellectual disability/mentally retarded. Perceptual disabilities: visual or auditory Aphasia: communication disorder in which the person has extreme difficulty finding and using words Inconsistency in definitions most likely due to strong interdisciplinary nature of the field of LD. Medicine, Psychology, speech-language, and education fields are all involved in researching LD
  • As with all areas of LD, research continues to examine the relationship between intelligence levels and LD, but it is generally assumed that people with LD have average or above average intelligence. Remember the “severe discrepancy” clause in the identificaiton criteria. It has long been used as the main way to identify a LD - the discrepancy between intelligence (IQ) and acheivement. Intraindividual differences between skill areas (one child could have marked strengths in one area but major weaknesses in another - even varying degrees of skill level within one academic area like reading comprehension and word recognition or in math like computation and problem solving).
  • The IDEA definition describes primarily what are not learning disabilities. The IDEA definition is also ambiguous in its description of how to measure the disability. They don’t specify a clear way to measure or diagnose a LD. However, a child cannot be diagnosed with a LD if their learning problems are primarily the result of visual/hearing/motor disabilities Intellectual disabilities/MR Emotional disturbance Environmental, cultural, economic disadvantage (cultural response to learning problems may be to keep the child out of school, economic disadvantage may lead to chronic absences from school). • Learning disabilities aren’t caused by lack of educational opportunities, such as frequent changes of schools, poor school attendance, or lack of instruction in basic skills. Does this mean that if a child has a motor/physical disability they cannot also have a LD, or that an impoverished child cannot also have a LD? No - but the team must be able to determine that the child’s learning problems are PRIMARILY the result of a LD and not the other factors. We’ll talk about one way to do that in a minute. What Learning Disabilities Are Not • Persons with learning disabilities are not “lazy” or “dumb.” In fact, they usually have average or above average intelligence. Sometimes they fall within the range of “gifted.” Their brains just process information differently. • Learning disabilities are not the same as mental retardation and do not signify low intelligence. • Learning disabilities are not the same as autism, hearing or visual impairment, physical disabilities, or emotional disorders. • Learning disabilities are not the same as the normal process of learning a second language.
  • Go over each section In addition to these, here are other ways these academic areas can be affected by specific LD (next slide)
  • Students with learning disabilities tend to be below their age mates in achievement, but they also perform below what would be expected based on their measured potential (IQ). Consider that to read, you must simultaneously: Focus attention on the printed marks and control eye movements across the page Recognize the sounds associated with letters Understand words and grammar Build ideas and images Compare new ideas to what you already know Store ideas in memory
  • The way a person acquires, retains, and manipulates information Poor memory function - may understand and recall material on day but not the next. Attention problems Short attention spans - not being able to maintain focus on a task for more than a few seconds or minutes Selective attention - only attending to fringe information - not focusing on centrally important information or tasks.
  • Perceptual problems Visual Integration- instead of a letter the child sees unrelated lines Figure-ground discrimination - inability to distinguish an object from its background (words on a page) Visual discrimination -distinguishing one visual stimulus form the next, like letters b/d, v/w, or similar looking words such as bat/bet, car/can, dig/dog Auditory Auditory discrimination - between sounds Auditory blending - blending parts of a word into a whole when speaking Auditory memory - remembering verbally/orally presented material Auditory association - processing verbally/orally presented information Haptic (touch and body movement/position) Kinesthetic information is transmitted to the brain, like gripping a pencil when writing
  • . Neurological Factors – Learning disabilities can result from structural neurological damage or some type of neurological activation abnormality. In many cases, the damage must be largely inferred due to lack of direct evidence. Technologies are generating new research that shows some differences in neurological functioning. b. Maturational Delay – Maturational delay of the neurological system can cause the performance of students with learning disabilities to resemble that of much younger individuals due to their slow development of language skills and problems in the visual, motor, and several academic areas. c. Genetic Factors – Genetic abnormalities, which are inherited, are thought to cause or contribute to one or more of the problems related to learning disabilities. d. Environmental Factors – Numerous environmental factors, such as dietary inadequacies, food additives, radiation, stress, fluorescent lighting, unshielded television tubes, smoking, drinking, and drug consumption, are being investigated as possible links to learning disabilities.
  • How did you do on the quiz? Did you find the problems difficult? The addition and multiplication tables we supplied you with, if you haven't already figured it out, were not in the typical base-ten mathematical format. They were in what is called base-six, a perfectly valid but not very commonly used format. This exercise was intended to make you feel like you did when you first started studying math. Remember when you weren't sure what 2 x 6 equaled -- how slowly and methodically you had to work? What if you were a senior in high school and you still didn't know your basic math facts? How difficult would it be to correctly answer a complex word problem or to find the sum of three angles?
  • The confusion you may have felt trying to answer this problem is similar to what a child who has difficulties making visual and spatial inferences might encounter. Imagine if the entire lesson or, in the case of geometry, the entire course depended on your ability to understand figures of this kind. Problems like this are a mandatory part of the mathematics curriculum in many school districts and appear on high-stakes standardized tests. Even someone fluent in math might have found this problem tricky. What would it have been like if you could not begin to visualize a cube or a pyramid?
  • Assessment has multiple purposes, the ultimate goal of which is the provision of an appropriate intervention. a. Formal and Informal Assessment – An individual’s performance, skills, and abilities may be measured by formal or informal assessment, depending on the purpose and use of the evaluation. i. Formal assessment is conducted by administering standardized instruments, including intelligence and achievement tests. ii. Informal assessment is conducted through the use of teacher-made tests or techniques. iii. Students with learning disabilities are assessed using both norm and criterion referenced tests. iv. Assessment can be a combination of procedures, and should always be undertaken with careful attention to the purpose and future use of the evaluation. b. Screening i. Students who are suspected of having learning disabilities undergo screening prior to labeling or treatment to answer the following questions: 1) Is there reason to investigate more fully the abilities of this child? 2) Is there reason to suspect that this child has disabilities of any kind? 3) If the child appears to have disabilities, what are his or her characteristics and what interventions are appropriate? 4) What plans should be made for the future of this individual? ii. Assessment that focuses on intelligence, adaptive skills, and academic achievement is ongoing and the basis for a progression of decisions must be made throughout the time an individual receives services. c. Intelligence – Intelligence assessment is still an important matter for individuals with learning disabilities and is often carried out through the use of a standardized instrument. d. Adaptive Skills – People with learning disabilities are frequently described as exhibiting poor adaptive skills, despite the lack of inclusion of this characteristic in routine assessment. Some work has been undertaken to address adaptive and social skills assessment for individuals with learning disabilities. e. Academic Achievement – Assessment of academic achievement determines if there is an overall discrepancy between the student’s ability and his or her academic achievement. Such assessment also helps evaluate the student’s level of functioning in one or more specific academic areas. Authentic assessment strategies are gaining interest.
  • VII. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL YEARS – Interventions for individuals diagnosed as having learning disabilities are aimed at specific problems, rather than general treatment and greater attention is being paid to social skills and using peers and instructional supports. Professionals are attempting to address a broad spectrum of issues. Early intervention is a crucial factor in the child’s overall academic success. a. Academic Instruction and Support – A wide variety of strategies has been used over the years, including strategies to develop cognition, attention, spoken language, and skills in reading, writing, and mathematics. Flexible and multiple services or supports can make inclusion possible. Early intervention with a focus on excellent instruction can avoid academic failure for many children. i. Mathematics – Children with learning disabilities may have problems with basic counting and understanding of place value. Counting may be most effectively taught using manipulatives. ii. Reading – Students with learning disabilities have great trouble reading. b. Behavioral Interventions – Strategies include structured presentation of stimuli, reinforcement for correct responses, and self monitoring of behavior and performance. i. Behavioral interventions generally use the most basic principles of learning and are aimed at teaching social skills or changing problem behaviors. ii. Strategies include the use of behavioral contracts and token reinforcement systems. VIII. THE ADOLESCENT YEARS – Interventions used for adolescents with learning disabilities differ from those used during early childhood. a. Academic Instruction and Support – Students with learning disabilities drop out of school at a higher rate and have a higher rate of unemployment than their peers without disabilities. i. The goal of secondary education is to prepare youth for post-school life. ii. Adolescents with learning disabilities are attending college in greater numbers than ever, but drop out at higher rates than their peers without disabilities. iii. Problems in motivation, self reliance, learning strategies, social competence, and skill generalization emerge in the literature on adolescents with learning disabilities. iv. Time constraints represent a significant challenge in teaching individuals with learning disabilities. v. The learning strategies approach promotes self instruction and teaches students how to learn and solve problems. vi. Intervention during adolescence may include skill building but will more likely involve assistance in compensatory skills that permit circumventing deficit areas. b. Transition from School to Adult Life – Many of the difficulties experienced by adolescents do not disappear as they age, and specialized services are often needed into adulthood. i. Transition services – Transition services remain sparse for adolescents with learning disabilities. More is known about how emotional, interpersonal, and social competence issues affect adults with learning disabilities. ii. College bound – Growing numbers of individuals with learning disabilities are planning on going to college. It is clear that with support and focused transition planning they can be competitive college students. IX. MULTIDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION: EDUCATION AND OTHER SERVICES – Multidisciplinary collaboration is particularly crucial for those with learning disabilities because of the wide range of characteristics that may emerge in these individuals. Providing effective inclusive education and the full range of other services requires a wide variety of professionals. a. Collaboration on Inclusive Education i. A variety of specific instructional strategies are employed to enhance students’ success in inclusive settings. Successful inclusive settings require a commitment to collaboration among general and special educators and other team members. ii. To be effective, instructional supports must be directly related to each student’s needs in the context of a general education classroom. iii. Several factors affect the success of inclusive education for students with learning disabilities, including teacher attitudes. General education teachers often have less-positive attitudes and perceptions of inclusive education, possibly due to feeling unprepared to teach students with disabilities. b. Collaboration on Health and Other Services i. Childhood – Early on, a physician may become involved with a child with learning disabilities due to the nature of the problem, such as a serious developmental delay or hyperactivity, more often a medical professional sees the young child first because he or she has not entered school. ii. Adolescence – There is increasing attention to issues of stress and serious emotional difficulty, including depression, during the adolescent years, as well as ADHD and the medications used to treat it.
  • ADHD is not a separate disability under IDEA but the substantial growth in need for services to students with this condition has resulted in eligibility under the IDEA category of Other Health Impairments.
  • Self-Regulation, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity i. One of the common threads for people with ADHD is the inability to think through one’s actions to see what the consequences will be. This difficulty in self-regulation and self-management is receiving considerable attention as a theoretical explanation for ADHD. ii. Hyperactivity is a primary characteristic that must be present for at least six months and must be of such severity as to cause maladaptive problems. iii. Being over-active seems to affect about half of the children diagnosed with ADHD. This can diminish as the child matures but can also manifest itself into adulthood. b. Social Relations i. Children with ADHD often have difficulties with peer relationships due to aggression, or even anti-social behavior. This leads to low social status among peers that can persist throughout school and can lead to increased criminal activity. ii. Some research suggests that low social status and poor self-regulation make children with ADHD more susceptible to substance abuse. iii. The lack of friends and good social role models can lead to frustration, which can cause unacceptable behaviors to escalate. c. Academic Characteristics - Children with ADHD frequently experience significant challenges in an academic setting. Such problems increase as the child progresses in the educational system and can lead to poor self esteem and avoidance behaviors. Adolescents with ADHD often do not graduate from high school due to low levels of academic achievement unless provided an environment that adapts instruction to his or her needs and abilities.
  • Although ADHD has been documented for the last 100 years, it is frequently treated as a separate disability condition which became the focus of attention during the 1990s. Recently ADHD has been characterized as a set of symptoms that can accompany other conditions. IDEA does not recognize it as a separate condition. Increasingly, the literature on ADHD reflects attention to impulse control and thinking about the consequences of one’s actions via executive functioning. Symptoms are often intense enough to interfere with performance and life activities in a number of ways. Professionals are now recognizing that for some people ADHD is a life-long condition and more attention is now directed to the adult population than before.
  • a. Learning disabilities – Professionals estimate as much as 70%overlap between ADHD and learning disabilities. b. Tourette’s Syndrome is a condition that manifests itself by motor or verbal tics that cause a person to make involuntary movements and vocalizations. Tourette’s does not appear with great frequency in those with ADHD, although half of the individuals diagnosed with Tourette’s display some ADHD symptoms. c. Behavioral, conduct, and emotional disorders – The literature suggests that as many as half of those with ADHD manifest aggressive behavior. Also of interest are the overlaps between ADHD and depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, anxiety, and some levels of neurotic behaviors.
  • page 184 for Dx criteria At least 6 of the inattention and/or hyperactivity symptoms must be present.
  • a. Three to seven percent of all school-aged children may have ADHD. b. In the school-aged population the number of ADHD males out number females. Males and females exhibit different symptoms and may need different interventions. Young males exhibit more disruptive and aggressive behaviors that may bring them to the attention of the teacher. This has raised questions concerning gender bias in identification and diagnosis, though research is mixed and showing an increase in young females. c. Some types of ADHD seem to have different prevalence levels and there appears to be some variation between subgroups by age, gender, and comorbidity. d. There has been substantial growth in services to ADHD students during the last decade due to a number of factors.
  • . Causation i. Considerable debate surrounds the causes of ADHD and both biological and environmental factors have been implicated. ii. Neurological causes have been suspected for years. These could be caused by brain injuries or chemical imbalances. Neuro-imaging suggests that people with ADHD exhibit brain abnormalities in the frontal lobes, basal ganglia and the cerebellum . iii. The chemical functioning of the brain may be a causal agent. Serotonin and Dopamine iv. Environmental factors such as lead exposure, poor maternal or fetal health, poor prenatal care, and fetal exposure to tobacco or alcohol have also been implicated. v. Heredity has long been associated with ADHD suggesting that there may be a genetic factor involved. Twin studies also support this notion. Many times parents will discover their own diagnosis while going through the dx process with their child.
  • Link to website: Visual activity. Attention video Answers to activity (C, D, A) Can you imagine the frustration a child might feel in the face of reading tasks when they experience that level of distractibility? What if they child also had a learning disability in reading?
  • P188-189 discuss medication issues
  • P188-189 discuss medication issues Mnemonics: PEMDAS
  • Presentation: Provide on audio tape Provide in large print Reduce number of items per page or line Provide a designated reader Present instructions orally Response: Allow for verbal responses Allow for answers to be dictated to a scribe Allow the use of a tape recorder to capture responses Permit responses to be given via computer Permit answers to be recorded directly into test booklet Timing: Allow frequent breaks Extend allotted time for a test Setting: Provide preferential seating Provide special lighting or acoustics Provide a space with minimal distractions Administer a test in small group setting Administer a test in private room or alternative test site Test Scheduling Administer a test in several timed sessions or over several days Allow subtests to be taken in a different order Administer a test at a specific time of day Other Provide special test preparation Provide on-task/focusing prompts Provide any reasonable accommodation that a student needs that does not fit under the existing categories
  • 5 minutes to talk 5 to share
  • HCPSS numbers: 4.6 percent of all SPED are ED, 37% of our ED kids are African American Only 21% of HCPSS school system kids are African American. Overrepresentation.
  • Statistically Derived externalizing symptoms (disruption, aggression, hyperactivity) internalizing symptoms (depression, withdrawal, phobias) Clinically Derived DSM-IV (treatment) – school psychologists don’t actually diagnose with psychiatric dx nine major groups of childhood disorders
  • Social and Adaptive Behavior - problems adapting to home, school, and community environments.difficulty in relating to all people in their lives. Often defiant, disruptive, aggressive Do not complete tasks Behave in ways that invite rejection from others Language deficits can contribute to social issues as well
  • Attention-deficit and disruptive behaviors - harmful to others Feeding and eating disorders - anorexia, bulemia, rumination, pica Tic disorders - involuntary movements and vocalizations Elimination disorders and childhood anxiety disorders - bed wetting and soiling not related to medical condition, unrealistic worries, refusal to go to school, excessive worry about getting hurt Reactive attachment disorder - results of inadequate care or frequent change of major caregivers. Inability to form appropriate attachments Childhood schizophrenia - hallucinations, delusions, strange and irrational behavior
  • Family and home environment - poverty, substance abuse by caregivers, neglect, malnutrition, extreme family discord Socioeconomic status - higher rates of E/BD as well as poor school performance and lower intellectual development Child abuse - naturally, it plays a major role in the development of problematic behaviors in children and adolescents. Behaviors vary depending on the type of abuse a child suffers.
  • Screening, prereferral interventions,and referral Response to Intervention Preceded by several parent-teacher meetings to rule out specific causes of behavior or emotional problems (divorce, poverty, molestation, etc) Assessment factors Functional behavior assessment - document the impact the EBD has on academic achievement. May lead to a BIP that assists the child in learning new, appropriate behaviors in a variety of settings/situations Assessment techniques - strength based assessment focuses on child’s strengths and uses them to develop IEP - rating scales for teachers and parents (looking for the statistically derived symptoms)
  • Wraparound services is collaborative planning process to bring teams of professionals to the child, the family, and the school (vocational, mental health, educational, social, recreational services) Multidisciplinary collaboration (wraparound) PBS - various strategies to reduce problematic behaviors and build positive ones Inclusive education - many students with EBD are taught in separate classrooms or even special schools. Higher chance of removal from home school or gen ed class room than students with LD, intellectual dis, or hearing impairments. Inclusion must be determined by the needs of the students and the safety or the other students.
  • Learning

    1. 1. Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Chapter 7
    2. 2. Which are learning disabilities?
    3. 3. LEARNING DISABILITIES <ul><li>A relatively new area of exceptionality that has only recently been identified and defined (1960’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning disabilities can occur at all intelligence levels , although most people with LD have average to above average IQ scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning disabled = heterogeneous group of individuals with highly variable, complex characteristics, and needs </li></ul>
    4. 4. Fig. 7-2, p. 162 Prevalence
    5. 5. What Is a Learning Disability? <ul><li>A disorder of one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three general “types”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading (dyslexia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written Language (dysgraphia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics (dyscalculia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other types affect memory, executive functions, and social skills </li></ul></ul></ul>This means it’s neurological.
    6. 6. Diagnostic Criteria <ul><li>Achievement commensurate with age and ability, given appropriate educational experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Severe discrepancy” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement vs. Potential (IQ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debate: what is “severe”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IDEA no longer requires to show a discrepancy to diagnose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to Intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student response to instructional, research-based interventions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows diagnosis for younger students who may not yet be failing “enough” for severe discrepancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video clip on wiki </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Above average or near average intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Variability between measured intelligence and performance (discrepancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Intraindividual differences between skill areas </li></ul>Refer to your bell curve
    8. 8. Learning Disabilities are NOT <ul><ul><li>Does not include learning problems which are primarily the results of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage </li></ul></ul>An IEP team cannot diagnose a child with SLD if any of these factors exist as the primary cause of learning difficulties.
    9. 10. Identification Criteria (LD) <ul><li>Figure 7.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Page 159 </li></ul>
    10. 11. CHARACTERISTICS See handout
    11. 12. “ Misunderstood Minds” Characteristics
    13. 14. COGNITION AND INFORMATION PROCESSING <ul><li>Definition: The way a person acquires, retains, and manipulates information </li></ul><ul><li>Poor memory function </li></ul><ul><li>Attention problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short attention spans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective attention </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. CAUSATION
    16. 17. LD Simulations <ul><li>Designed to mirror a few specific learning disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>SLD are intrinsic to the individual! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everyone with a SLD experiences it the same way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider classroom effects </li></ul>
    17. 18. Reading Memory Activity <ul><li>We've all had difficulty concentrating when trying to read. But imagine what it would be like if that problem never went away. For some children, struggling to remember things they've just read becomes a way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The next exercise is designed to simulate the effect that memory and attention problems can have on reading comprehension. You will first read a passage, then answer questions based on that passage. </li></ul>
    18. 19. How did you do? <ul><li>Question 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Mathematics Activities <ul><li>Learning basic math facts is a critical step that allows children to progress efficiently to higher levels of mathematical thinking. If a middle-school student cannot quickly recall basic facts this will likely slow him down when working on a more complex problem. </li></ul><ul><li>For many people, math facts come easily. Some people with math disabilities, however, who lack an intuitive understanding of numbers or symbols or place value, may struggle endlessly with these basic mathematical concepts. </li></ul>
    20. 21. Most people learn basics facts on a table like the one below. Do you remember how to use it?
    21. 22. Use the addition and multiplication tables below to solve the following problems on your paper. Addition table Multiplication table
    22. 23. Answers
    23. 24. Spatial Activity <ul><li>Visualizing three-dimensional objects presented on the flat surface of a piece of paper or computer screen is challenging for many of us. For people with math disabilities this sort of spatial interpretation can be particularly problematic. And depending on the manner in which geometric information is presented, interpreting objects in the exact way a teacher intended may be next to impossible. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the two figures shown below. </li></ul>
    24. 25. What shape will result when the plane intersects the three-dimensional object? Select shape A or B.
    25. 26. In this example, the figure has been made intentionally ambiguous. It could be interpreted as either a cube or a pyramid , and either of the figures you had to choose from might result when the plane intersects it. (And either result might be considered wrong, depending on how the teacher interpreted the figure.)
    26. 27. BREAK!
    27. 28. ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Formal and Informal Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Screening </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Achievement </li></ul>©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
    28. 29. INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Elementary School Years </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent Years </li></ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary Collaboration </li></ul>
    30. 31. Federal disability codes/conditions <ul><li>Intellectual disability </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Speech-language impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Visual impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Serious emotional disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopedic impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Other health impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Specific learning disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic brain injury </li></ul>
    31. 32. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER <ul><li>People with ADHD may exhibit a variety of characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms may interfere with life activities </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD is a life long condition </li></ul><ul><li>Can exist with other disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlaps with LD up to 70% </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. CHARACTERISTICS of ADHD <ul><li>Impulsivity (affecting social as well as academic decisions) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Executive functioning: ability to monitor and regulate one’s own behavior, to exercise impulse control, and to anticipate the consequences of actions. Impacts decision-making skills! </li></ul>Misunderstood Minds
    33. 34. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER <ul><li>ADHD - a set of symptoms that can accompany other conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Disabilities comorbid with ADHD from 25% to 70% </li></ul>
    34. 35. ADHD AND OTHER DISABILITIES <ul><li>Learning Disabilities - up to 70% overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Tourette’s Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral, conduct, and emotional disorders </li></ul>
    36. 37. DSM IV Criteria, p183 <ul><li>Persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequent/severe than typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms present before age 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms present in at least two settings (e.g., home and school) </li></ul><ul><li>Clear evidence of interference with social, academic, or occupational functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder and not better accounted for by another mental disorder (mood, anxiety, etc). </li></ul>
    37. 38. Too Much Attention?
    38. 39. PREVALENCE Male: Female 3% to 7% of all school-aged children Variation between subgroups of age, gender, and comorbidity.
    39. 40. CAUSATION
    40. 41. Attention Activity <ul><li>Reading independently is an activity all children must learn to do well in order to succeed in school. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to focus on a reading assignment and understand its content is critical to successful independent reading. But busy classrooms are seldom optimal for a student's concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>The following activity simulates what a child with an attention problem might experience during a classroom reading assignment. </li></ul>
    41. 42. INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Academic interventions must target the area where the child is experiencing difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies involving structure along with explicit instruction may be beneficial. </li></ul><ul><li>A multimodal approach is more effective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both drug and behavior therapies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul>
    42. 43. INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Medical </li></ul><ul><li>Non-medical </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribed by doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Private information! </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial topic in the community: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects </li></ul></ul>Misunderstood Minds
    43. 44. Supporting Students with LD and/or ADHD Presentation Response Timing Setting Prompting
    44. 45. Graphic Organizers
    45. 46. Collaboration Activity <ul><li>Groups of 3-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Use co-teaching models </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which models would benefit a student with a LD or ADHD? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which models might produce challenges? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What related service providers might be valuable collaborators? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Share </li></ul>
    47. 48. Think about the last time you were really upset. <ul><li>What caused you to become upset? </li></ul><ul><li>How did you feel? </li></ul><ul><li>What did you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Would most people feel and act this way, in your position? </li></ul><ul><li>How did you calm down, and how long did that take? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the event impact you for the rest of the day? </li></ul>
    48. 49. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Emotional disorders: behavioral problems exhibited by difficulties in expressing emotions evoked in normal, everyday experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral disorders: conditions in which the emotional or behavioral responses of individuals significantly differ from those of their peers and seriously impact their relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals generally experience great difficulty in relating appropriately to other people </li></ul>
    49. 50. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>IDEA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, which adversely affects academic performance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to learn not explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to build/maintain relationships with peers/teachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate types of behavior of feeling under normal circumstances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with school problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 51. DEFINITION, CONT’D <ul><li>Does NOT include children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they are also seriously emotionally disturbed </li></ul>
    51. 52. PREVALENCE <ul><li>Estimated 3-6% of all school children have E/BD </li></ul><ul><li>Significant numbers of children remain unidentified and receive no services. </li></ul><ul><li>Disproportionate number of African American males identified as having E/BD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overrepresentation </li></ul></ul>
    52. 53. Characteristics of E/BD <ul><li>COMMON, but not definite for all students with E/BD </li></ul>
    53. 54. BEHAVIORS
    54. 55. Social and Adaptive Behavior (These OFTEN occur) <ul><li>Defiance </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Not completing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty playing games </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty apologizing </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to appropriately deal with strong feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of self-control </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble accepting consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty expressing affection </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty meeting classroom demands </li></ul><ul><li>75% also have language deficits </li></ul><ul><li>School avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Poor school performance </li></ul>
    55. 56. Major Groups of Childhood Disorders <ul><li>Attention-deficit and disruptive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding and eating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Tic disorders (Tourette’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination disorders and childhood anxiety disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive attachment disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood schizophrenia </li></ul>Psychiatric diagnosis is made by a medical doctor Educational disability diagnosis (“ED”) is made by school psychologist
    56. 57. BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Functional Behavior Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the functions of the child’s behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional expression? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ABC” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influences the BIP </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Intervention Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Specific plan to teach the child new behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Respects function of behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Targets “replacement” behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Unique to the child </li></ul>©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
    57. 58. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT <ul><li>Difficulty in all academic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely catch up </li></ul><ul><li>Students with EBD have the poorest academic outcomes of all high incidence disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor teacher preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor quality of instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>51-70% of students with EBD drop out of school </li></ul>
    58. 59. CAUSATION is MULTIDIMENSIONAL <ul><li>Family and home environment </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li>Child abuse </li></ul>
    59. 60. ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Screening, prereferral interventions,and referral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to Intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional behavior assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Intervention Plan (“BIP”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength-based assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating scales </li></ul></ul>©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
    60. 61. INTERVENTIONS <ul><li>Multidisciplinary collaboration (wraparound) </li></ul><ul><li>PBS (Positive Behavioral Support) - BIP </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate programming in more restrictive environment is common </li></ul></ul>
    61. 62. Misunderstood Minds <ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/index.html </li></ul>