Ch 3 inclusion_and_collaboration

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  • Prior to the meeting, what could Ricardo’s teachers do to help his parents feel valued as members of the IEP team and to better understand their role in developing the IEP? Prior to the meeting, Ricardo’s parents should have been involved in a number of parent-teacher conferences that helped to shape and implement prereferral interventions and to make environmental and instructional modifications. The teacher could employ the skills of effective collaborators and create a position for the parents on the team that allows them to address their concerns, as well as their desired outcomes, of the process. What additional information could Ricardo’s parents provide that would help the team better understand his needs and interests, particularly in the areas of reading and language development? Ricardo’s parents can give important information, such as the primary language spoken at home; the language spoken by extended family, caregivers, and community members. They can give information about activities and family interactions. They can give context to the development of reading skills through descriptions of his early experiences. They can provide the information needed to make intervention culturally relevant and appropriate. What do you see as important for Ricardo to learn in school? Ricardo should be exposed to the general education curriculum as much as appropriate and should receive the language services needed to succeed in the curriculum and general education setting.
  • Discussion: Teachers must attempt to meet the needs of all students who enter today’s classrooms. What conditions are necessary to support children who are disabled in the general classroom and to ensure that they get access to the general education curriculum? Ask students to describe how the curriculum and their teachers in elementary school responded to students’ individual needs. What enabled teachers to respond effectively?
  • An effective inclusive school promotes acceptance and belonging within a diverse culture. Within an effective inclusive school, students must have access to both formal supports (those provides by the school system) and natural supports (including family, friends, and classmates). i. Diversity, Acceptance, Belonging – An effective inclusive school promotes acceptance and belonging within a diverse culture. Formal and Natural Supports – Within an effective inclusive school, students must have access to both formal supports (those provided by the school system) and natural supports (including family, friends, and classmates). Students without disabilities can assist in the education of their peers with special needs by serving as models of appropriate behavior, by providing individualized instruction, and by facilitating the participation of students with disabilities in extracurricular activities. Non-disabled students benefit by learning how to teach, advocate for, and live with persons who have diverse abilities. Gather a panel of students who have participated in peer support programs, using either class members or students from area schools. Ask panel members to discuss their roles and responsibilities in peer support. Encourage panel members to discuss how they benefited and give specific examples of successful experiences.
  • Effective inclusive schools provide services and support to students with disabilities in age-appropriate classrooms within a neighborhood school.
  • Access to the general curriculum for students with disabilities is a critical provision of IDEA. Effective inclusive schools are characterized by schoolwide support systems that use both general and special education resources in combination to benefit all students in the school.
  • Early intervention services and supports in an environment that is free of traditional categorical labels should be provided as early as possible to students who are at risk. Early intervention can abate the overall impact of disabilities as well as counteract the negative effects of delayed intervention.
  • There is a developmental delay in one or more of the areas of cognitive development, physical development, communication, social or emotional development, and adaptive development. There is a diagnosis of a physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in a developmental delay.
  • IFSP like an IEP but to include all members of the family
  • A preschool-aged child is eligible if he or she meets both of the following requirements: 1 - There is a developmental delay in one or more of the areas of cognitive development, physical development, communication, social or emotional development, and adaptive development. 2 - As a result of the delays, the child needs special education and related services.
  • An individualized education plan (IEP) must be developed for each eligible child using specialists from a variety of disciplines. Depending on needs, programs may focus on developing skills in communication, social and emotional learning, physical well-being, self care, and coping. The skills chosen should be based on a functional assessment of the child and the setting where he or she spends time that determines the child’s skills, the characteristics of the setting, and the family’s needs, resources, expectations, and aspirations.
  • Evidence-Based Practices in Preschool Education: Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) - play, exploration, social interaction, and inquiry Age-Appropriate Placement - Teaching Functional Skills Inclusive Preschool Classrooms
  • Multilevel (Differentiated) Instruction: Teaching technique that addresses the variety of needs, learning styles, and interests in a diverse group of learners. Providing students with many different ways to access the instruction and demonstrate their learning. Like students themselves, differentiation can take on many forms. Differentiation can be accomplished in a number of ways: * Content -What the students learn * Process -Activities used to assist the learning * Products- Demonstration of learning The methods you use should be based on the student's needs: * Readiness -Student’s academic standing * Learning profile-How student learns * Student’s interest Universal Design for Learning: - “ Universal design means the design of instructional materials and activities that allows the learning goals to be achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage and remember. Universal design for learning is achieved by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that provide alternatives for students with disparities in abilities and backgrounds..” Concept borrowed from architecture Curb cuts Automatic doors Built on premise that there is no such thing as a “typical kid” Based on the belief that technology can provide a medium for more flexible differentiated instruction Focuses on curriculum and minimizes the need for Assistive Technology Challenges how we teach and to rethink the nature of curriculum and one size fits all materials In the long run, “ It is more efficient and cost effective to consider and address the diverse range of needs during the design process, rather than as an adaptation after the fact.” Direct Instruction: The explicit teaching of new skills that: - present skills in small steps with concrete examples immediate feedback - independent practice until the concept is mastered - constant, systematic review and reteaching Assistive Technology Curriculum-Based Assessment/Measurement
  • a. Parents as Valued Partners b. Sharing the Responsibility i. Multidisciplinary Schoolwide Assistance Teams – To meet the challenges of individual diversity, schools have developed support networks that facilitate collaboration across professions. ii. Working Together as a Professional and Parent Team – The diverse needs of students with severe disabilities require that students have access to many different education and related service specialists who work together in delivering instruction and providing adequate resources through transdisciplinary teaming.

Transcript

  • 1. Welcome! Please grab a marker and respond on the chart papers to this question: How would this be approached in a “traditional” classroom?
  • 2. Inclusion, Collaboration, and Differentiation Ch 3
  • 3. CASE STUDY: RICARDO
      • Third grade student struggling in reading and language
      • IEP Process
        • Pre-referral
        • Evaluation
        • Determination of Eligibility
      • Parents as partners in the multidisciplinary IEP team
    ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
      • What is inclusive education?
      • Inclusion can also be defined by the extent of the student’s access to, and participation in, the general education setting.
  • 5. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Full inclusion :
      • all support services are delivered to the student within the regular classroom setting.
    Partial inclusion :
      • when appropriate, the student may be “pulled out” of the regular classroom and placed in a special education setting.
  • 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF EVIDENCE-BASED INCLUSIVE SCHOOLS
      • Diversity, Acceptance, Belonging
      • Formal and Natural Supports
    ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF EVIDENCE-BASED INCLUSIVE SCHOOLS
      • Age Appropriate Classrooms in Neighborhood Schools
    ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF EVIDENCE-BASED INCLUSIVE SCHOOLS
      • Access to the General Curriculum
      • Multidisciplinary Schoolwide Instructional Support
    ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS What do you already know about special education for infants and toddlers? Talk in your group.
  • 10. EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS
      • Part C of IDEA
      • Evidence-based Early Intervention
      • Preschool Services
      • Evidence-based Practices in Preschool
    ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. EARLY INTERVENTION Under Part C of IDEA
  • 12. Eligibility
  • 13.  
  • 14. EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS
      • Evidence-Based Early Intervention
      • In order for support models to be effective, services should focus on individualization, intensive instruction, and comprehensive service delivery.
    ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS
      • Preschool Services:
        • Multidisciplinary Assessment
        • Eligibility:
          • Developmental delay
          • Needs special education/related services as a result
    ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. PRESCHOOL SERVICES
      • Preschool Services:
        • Developing an IEP for the Preschool-Aged Child
            • Variety of disciplines
            • Depends on individual needs
            • Functional assessment of the child
            • Child’s home elementary school
  • 17. EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS
      • Evidence-Based Practices in Preschool Education
      • Transition from Preschool to Elementary School
    ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL YEARS
      • The Roles of the Special Education Teacher
        • Collaborator
        • Consultant
        • Coordinator
      • The General Education Teacher - IDEA requires that general educators be members of IEP teams.
      • Continued and/or increased inclusive educational opportunities…
  • 19. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL YEARS
      • Evidence-Based Practices in Inclusive Elementary School Programs
        • Multilevel (Differentiated) Instruction
        • Universal Design for Learning
        • Direct Instruction
        • Assistive Technology
        • Curriculum-Based Assessment/Measurement
    ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. inclusion everyone collaborates Co-teaches sometimes
  • 21. MULTIDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION
      • Collaboration : professionals, parents, and students working together to achieve the mutual goal of delivering an effective educational program designed to meet individual needs .
        • Shared responsibility
        • Co-teaching
  • 22. MULTIDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION
      • In inclusive schools, effective collaboration has several key characteristics:
      • Parents as Valued Partners
      • Sharing the Responsibility
      • Peer Support and Cooperative Learning
  • 23. CO-TEACHING
      • Two or more adults with equivalent licensure share teaching responsibilities
      • Purposeful instruction (both actively teaching)
      • Heterogeneous grouping (all learners included in all instruction)
      • Occurs in 1 place
      • Joint accountability (share successes as well as challenges)
      • Participation, but varied
  • 24. CO-TEACHING MODELS
  • 25. What do you think are benefits to co-teaching? Drawbacks?
  • 26. Break
  • 27. Differentiated Instruction
  • 28. Why Differentiate? All kids are different. One size does not fit all. Differentiation provides all students with access to all curriculum.
  • 29. What Is Differentiation?
  • 30. Content Process Product According to Students’: Readiness Interest Learning Profile Teachers Can Differentiate: Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999).
  • 31. Comparing Traditional and Differentiated Classrooms
  • 32. Comparing Traditional and Differentiated Classrooms
  • 33. Differentiation Strategies
      • All strategies are aligned with instructional goals and objectives.
      • Specific strategy selection based on
        • Focus of instruction – what is the curriculum objective?
        • Focus of differentiation – by readiness? Interest? Learning style?
  • 34. Examples of Differentiation Strategies
      • Choice Boards
      • Tiered Activities
      • Compacting
      • Learning Contracts
  • 35.
      • Thoroughly pre-assess the learner’s knowledge and document findings
      • Explain the process and its benefits to the student
      • Create written plans and timelines for study
      • Allow student choice in enrichment or accelerated study
    • Compacting is the process of eliminating teaching or student practice due to previous mastery of learning objectives. Compacting involves a three step process:
      • assess the student to determine his/her level of knowledge on the material to be studied and determine what he/she still needs to master
      • create plans for what the student needs to know, and excuse the student from studying what he/she already knows
    Readiness Compacting
      • Focus task on a key concept
      • Use a variety of resource materials at different levels of complexity and associated with different learning modalities
      • Adjust task by complexity, abstractness, number of steps, concreteness, and independence to ensure challenge and not frustration
    Assignments and products are designed to instruct and assess students on essential skills that are provided at different levels of complexity, abstractness, and open-endedness. The curricular content and objective(s) are the same, but the process and/or product are varied according to the student’s level of readiness. For example, students with moderate understanding about a topic are asked to write an article. Students with a more advanced understanding are asked to prepare a debate. Readiness Tiered Assignments and Products Things to Consider Description of Strategy Primary Use Differentiation Strategy [1] [1] This chart was adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999).
  • 36.
    • Entrée (Select One)
      • Draw a picture that shows what happens during photosynthesis.
      • Write two paragraphs about what happens during photosynthesis.
      • Create a rap that explains what happens during photosynthesis.
    Diner Menu – Photosynthesis
    • Appetizer (Everyone Shares)
      • Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
    • Side Dishes (Select at Least Two)
      • Define respiration, in writing.
      • Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a Venn Diagram.
      • Write a journal entry from the point of view of a green plant.
      • With a partner, create and perform a skit that shows the differences between photosynthesis and respiration.
    • Dessert (Optional)
      • Create a test to assess the teacher’s knowledge of photosynthesis.
  • 37. Learning Contract #2 To demonstrate what I have learned about ____________________, I want to _ Write a report _ Put on a demonstration _ Set up an experiment _ Develop a computer presentation _ Build a model _ Design a mural _ Write a song _ Make a movie _ Create a graphic organizer or diagram _ Other This will be a good way to demonstrate understanding of this concept because ______________________________________________________________ To do this project, I will need help with ______________________________________________________________ My Action Plan is________________________________________________ The criteria/rubric which will be used to assess my final product is _________ ______________________________________________________________ My project will be completed by this date _____________________________ Student signature: ________________________________ Date __/__/__ Teacher signature: ________________________________ Date __/__/__
  • 38. THINK-TAC-TOE Book Report Draw a picture of the main character. Perform a play that shows the conclusion of a story. Write a song about one of the main events. Write a poem about two main events in the story. Make a poster that shows the order of events in the story. Dress up as your favorite character and perform a speech telling who you are. Create a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the introduction to the closing. Write two paragraphs about the main character. Write two paragraphs about the setting.
  • 39. Tiered Activity – Writing a Persuasive Essay 4th–6th Grade Classroom Beginning Intermediate Advanced Outcome/ Objective Students will determine a topic and will write a five-sentence paragraph with a main idea, three supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence. Students will determine a topic, state a point of view, and write two paragraphs defending that point of view. Students will determine a topic, state a point of view, and write an essay of at least five paragraphs that uses multiple sources to defend that point of view. Instruction/ Activity Students will receive a model of a five-sentence paragraph and explicit instruction in constructing the paragraph. As a prewriting activity, students will list their topic and develop a list of at least three things that support their topic. Students will receive a model of a persuasive essay and a graphic organizer that explains the construction of a persuasive essay. Students will also receive explicit instruction in writing a persuasive essay. As a prewriting activity, students will use the graphic organizer to plan their writing. Students will review the graphic organizer for a persuasive essay. Students will be given explicit instruction in locating sources and quotes for their essays. As a prewriting activity, students will use the graphic organizer to organize their essay. Students will also compile a list of five sources that defend their main point. Assessment Students will be able to write a five-sentence paragraph that successfully states and supports a main idea. The paragraph will meet the criteria on the state writing rubric. Students will be able to state a point of view and successfully defend the idea using two paragraphs that defend the point of view using main ideas and supporting details. The paragraphs will meet the criteria on the state writing rubric. Students will be able to write a five-paragraph essay that states a point of view, defends the point of view, and uses resources to support the point of view. The essay will meet the criteria on the state writing rubric.
  • 40. I will read: I will look at and listen to: I will write: I will draw: I will need: Here’s how I will share what I know: My question or topic is: I will finish by this date: To find out about my question or topic… Learning Contract #1 Name _______________________