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Ch 11 autism
 

Ch 11 autism

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  • What is Autism? Autism is a general term used to describe a group of complex developmental brain disorders known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD). The other pervasive developmental disorders are PDD-NOS (Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified), Asperger's Syndrome, Rett Syndrome and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. Many parents and professionals refer to this group as Autism Spectrum Disorders.
  • impaired or delayed language. - about 50% do not develop speech/oral communication - strange language or echolalia (repeating words spoken by others - immediately before or up to years before) - uneven skill development - may have an extensive vocabulary but not know how and when to use it. Difficulty with semantics, sentence structure, grammar. stereotypic behavior. - selt-stimulation (flapping hands/arms, flicking fingers in front of their face, spinning, rocking, jumping, vocalizing, manipulating a toy or object) - usually a function of providing sensory input, self-soothing, organizing information. Can be brief, intermittent stints or can last for hours. - can be self-injurous resistance to change in daily routines. - also called rigidity - very attached to daily routines at home and school, and any change in these routines can cause anxiety and upset a child with autism - similar to OCD behaviors - can be difficulty for families to include their child into daily life, difficult for teachers to manage at school - transitions from one activity to the next can also be challenging varied intellectual abilities. - most children with autism demonstrate IQ’s that would diagnose them with an intellectual disability. IQ testing requirements verbal and reasoning skills conflict with how they process and manipulate information - so IQ scores may not always be a complete picture of intellectual ability - high functioning autism may demonstrate average intelligence and they may have very strong skills in particular areas (splinter skills), but still experience deficits in social interaction
  • Until January 2010, the rate was 1 in 150 (popular commercial). 57% increase in four year period since last CDC study. How common is Autism? Today, it is estimated that one in every 110 children is diagnosed with autism, making it more common than childhood cancer, juvenile diabetes and pediatric AIDS combined. An estimated 1.5 million individuals in the U.S. and tens of millions worldwide are affected by autism. Government statistics suggest the prevalence rate of autism is increasing 10-17 percent annually. There is not established explanation for this increase, although improved diagnosis and environmental influences are two reasons often considered. Studies suggest boys are more likely than girls to develop autism and receive the diagnosis three to four times more frequently. Current estimates are that in the United States alone, one out of 70 boys is diagnosed with autism.
  • Genetic: While no one gene has been identified as causing autism, researchers are searching for irregular segments of genetic code that children with autism may have inherited. It also appears that some children are born with a susceptibility to autism, but researchers have not yet identified a single "trigger" that causes autism to develop. Other researchers are investigating the possibility that under certain conditions, a cluster of unstable genes may interfere with brain development, resulting in autism. Still other researchers are investigating problems during pregnancy or delivery as well as environmental factors, such as viral infections, metabolic imbalances, and exposure to environmental chemicals. From www.researchautism.net
  • Educational Interventions Education for students with autism requires a full range of instructional options, ranging from specialized individual programs to inclusive placement with support services. Psychological and Medical Interventions Medical treatment often involves the use of medications, which shows promising but mixed results in reducing unusual speech patterns, social withdrawal, and self injurious behaviors.
  • Behavioral Interventions Interventions are carried out without concern for the underlying cause of the disability, but instead focus on enhancing appropriate behaviors and reducing inappropriate or maladaptive behaviors.

Ch 11 autism Ch 11 autism Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter Eleven AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS
  • DEFINITION
    • IDEA defined autism as a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, which adversely affects educational performance.
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders “ Classic” Autism Asperger’s Syndrome Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Rett’s Syndrome Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified Pervasive Developmental Delay
    •   PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER - NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (PDD-NOS)
    • The classification and diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders , most of which are also known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders, is typified by this disorder. Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified is usually shortened to PDD-NOS, and is a ‘sub threshold’ condition in which some — but not all — features of Autism or another explicitly identified Pervasive Developmental Disorder are identified.  
    • pdd-nos and diagnosis
    • PDD-NOS is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) to encompass cases where there is marked impairment of social interaction, communication, and/or stereotyped behavior patterns or interest, but when full features for Autism or another explicitly defined PDD are not met. Typically, the symptoms should be recognizable before a child is 3 years old. Although a toddler's behaviors might seem to fit the criteria, they also might just be part of a youngster's developing personality.
    • It should be emphasized that this ‘’sub threshold’’ category is thus defined implicitly, that is, no specific guidelines for diagnosis are provided. While deficits in peer relations and unusual sensitivities are typically noted, social skills are less impaired than in classical Autism. The lack of definition for this relatively heterogeneous group of children presents problems for research on this condition. The limited available evidence suggest that children with PDD-NOS probably come to professional attention rather later than is the case with autistic children, and that intellectual deficits are less common.
  • DEFINITION
      • A broad range of capacity in those with autism, from severe to mild impairments, has led to the concept of autistic spectrum disorders, which include a range of functioning in multiple areas of communication, intelligence, and social interaction.
      • Asperger syndrome is a condition that shares certain unusual social behaviors with autism but typically involves no language delay .
  • CHARACTERISTICS
    • Vary with each child
    • Appear early in life
    • More characteristics exist…
  • Group Activity…
    • Using your name cards, find your group
    • Read literature
    • As a GROUP, summarize all of the info on chart
    • Share with us
    Name of Characteristic Most Important Features (What it looks/sounds like) How it impairs functioning for the individual Treatments and/or Prognosis Your adaptation
  • Impaired or Delayed Language
    • Take notes on group presentation…
  • Intelligence
    • Take notes on group presentation…
  • Sterotypic Behavior
    • Take notes on group presentation…
  • Difficulty Relating to Others
    • Take notes on group presentation…
  • Learning Characteristics
    • Take notes on group presentation…
  • Asperger’s Syndrome
    • Take notes on group presentation…
  • Physical/Medical Issues
    • Take notes on group presentation…
    • http://www.autismspeaks.org/video/glossary.php
    Autismspeaks.org
  • PREVALENCE
    • Prevalence vs. Incidence
      • Incidence refers to NEW cases
      • Prevalence refers to how many cases in total existence at certain point in time
      • Increase in incidence results in increase in prevalence
    • Center for Disease Control, March, 2010
      • 1: 110 children
      • 1:70 boys
  •  
  • CAUSATION: Historical Perspectives
    • Currently…
        • Renewed interest in biomedical explanations and treatments (auto-immune diseases, GI sensitivity)
        • Research has established genetic causation (“susceptibility gene” found in 2008)
        • Environmental factors (chemicals, viral infections, delivery)
        • Abnormal development, damage to, or impairment of, the central nervous system —along with other investigations of neurological conditions, such as brain cell differences and neurological chemical imbalance—has received attention recently as a cause of autism.
  • AUTISM EVERY DAY Impact on Families
  • MULTIDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION: DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION
    • Educational Interventions
      • Education for students with autism requires a full range of instructional options, ranging from specialized individual programs to inclusive placement with support services.
    • Psychological and Medical Interventions
      • Medical treatment often involves the use of medications, which shows promising but mixed results in reducing unusual speech patterns, social withdrawal, and self injurious behaviors.
  • MULTIDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION: DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION
    • Behavioral Interventions
      • Interventions are carried out without concern for the underlying cause of the disability, but instead focus on enhancing appropriate behaviors and reducing inappropriate or maladaptive behaviors.
    • Educational, Behavioral, and Other Interventions
    • Instructional Strategies
    • Materials and Adaptations
    Next Week…
  • For more info…
    • www.autismspeaks.org
    • www.autism-society.org/
    • www.autism.com
    • www.nimh.nih.gov
    • www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism
    • www.exploringautism.org