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Graphic and electronic[1]

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  • 1. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Guide to College Reading, 8/e Kathleen T. McWhorter Chapter 7 Reading Graphic and Electronic Information PowerPoint by Gretchen Starks-Martin St. Cloud State University, MN
  • 2. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers THIS CHAPTER WILL SHOW YOU HOW TO: Approach graphic information Read and evaluate electronic sources
  • 3. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers A GENERAL APPROACH TO GRAPHICS 1. Read the title or caption. 2. Discover how the graphic is organized. 3. Identify the variables. What comparisons are being made? 4. Analyze the purpose.
  • 4. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers A GENERAL APPROACH TO GRAPHICS 5. Determine scale, values, or units of measurement. 6. Study the data to identify trends or patterns. 7. Read the graphic along with corresponding text. 8. Make a brief summary note. (see page 236 in your text)
  • 5. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers TYPES OF GRAPHICS Graphs Charts Diagrams Tables Maps Photographs
  • 6. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Tables A table is a listing of facts and figures in columns and rows for quick and easy reference. Baseball Scores Game 1 Game 2 Yankees 6 4 Mets 2 3
  • 7. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Tables 1. Determine how the information is divided and arranged. 2. Make comparisons and look for trends. 3. Draw conclusions about what the numbers mean. 4. Look for clues in corresponding text. 5. Complete Ex. 7-1 in your textbook.
  • 8. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Graphs Bar graphs Multiple bar graphs Stacked bar graphs Linear graphs Each plots a set of points on a set of axes.
  • 9. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Bar Graphs Bar Graph: – A bar graph is used to make comparisons between quantities or amounts and shows changes that occur over time. – A series of different items can be quickly compared by noting the different bar lengths.
  • 10. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Multiple Bar Graphs  A multiple bar graph makes at least two or three comparisons simultaneously.  As you read them, make sure to identify exactly what comparisons are being made.  See Figure 7-6 in your book (page 242).
  • 11. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Stacked Bar Graphs  A stacked bar graph is an arrangement of data in which bars are placed one on top of another rather than side by side.  It is often used to emphasize whole/part relationships.  See Figure 7-7 (page 243) in your book.
  • 12. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Linear Graphs Line Graphs: – Plots and connects points along a vertical and a horizontal axis. – It can compare two or several sets of variables. – See Figure 7-8 (page 244) in your book for an example.
  • 13. Exercise 7-9 (245-247) Look at figure 7-9 on page 245 to answer the first four questions. Examine Figure 7-10 on page 246 and answer the 3 questions. Finally, complete the three questions for Figure 7-11 on page 247.
  • 14. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Charts Pie charts Organizational charts Flowcharts
  • 15. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Pie Charts Pie charts, sometimes called circle graphs, are used to show whole/part relationships or to depict how given parts of a unit have been divided or classified. Examine the chart in Figure 7-12 of your book. What information is presented?
  • 16. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Organizational Charts Organizational charts divide an organization into its administrative parts, staff positions, or lines of authority.  Examine the organizational chart in Figure 7-13 of your book. – What process is being shown? – Follow the chart. – Summarize the process in your own words.
  • 17. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Flowcharts A flowchart shows how a process or procedure works. Lines or arrows are used to indicate the direction of the steps in the procedure. Various shapes are used. Examine the flowchart in Figure 7-14 of your book.
  • 18. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers How to Read a Flowchart 1. Decide what process the flowchart shows. 2. Next, follow the chart, using the arrows and reading each step. 3. When you have finished, summarize the process in your own words.
  • 19. Exercises Complete Exercise 7-3 on pages 250- 254
  • 20. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Diagrams  A diagram is an outline drawing or picture of an object or a process.  They are often used in technical and scientific textbooks.  Diagrams help you visualize relationships between parts and understand sequences.  Examine Figure 7-18 in your textbook.  Complete Exercise 7-4
  • 21. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers How to Read a Map 1. Read the caption. 2. Use the legend or key to identify the symbols or codes used. 3. Note distance scales. 4. Study the map, looking for trends or key points. 5. Try to visualize, or create a mental picture of, the map. 6. As a learning and study aid, write, in your own words, a statement of what the map shows. 7. There is a sample map on page 258 of your text.
  • 22. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Photographs  Read the caption.  Ask: “What is my first overall impression?”  Complete Exercise 7-5 on page 259 in your text. NASA, Cape Canaveral
  • 23. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers SELF-TEST SUMMARY  How do you read a graphic?  How many types of graphics are there, what are they, and how are they used?
  • 24. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing by Longman Publishers Visit the Companion Website For additional readings, exercises, and Internet activities, visit this book’s Companion Website at: www.ablongman.com/mcwhorter If you need a user name and password, please see your instructor.